Paul Gauguin

Paul Gauguin (* 7. June 1848 in Paris; † 8. May 1903 in Atuona on the Islas Marquesas) was a French painter, whose works belong to the most well-known and most important world.

Table of contents


lives up to the second Tahiti stay

Henri Eugène Paul Gauguin became to 7. June 1848 as a sonthe liberal journalist Clovis Gauguin in Paris born. Its nut/mother, Aline Marie Chazal, was the daughter of the authoress Flora Tristan, which mediated in their works ideas of a utopian society. When Gauguin was three years old, its father lost his occupation,so that itself parents decided to pull to Peru to wealthy and powerful relatives. Clovis suffered a violent heart accumulation during the sea voyage and died short time later to it. Aline with Paul and its sister Marie nevertheless set the journeyaway and in Lima, Peru was called finally, cordially by its uncle Don Pio de Tristan welcome. About four years long lived the Gauguins with it and enjoyed the advantages of its power and its wealth, in Peru in Civil war broke and it anyway Aline off due to Erbschaftsangelegenheiten back to France pulled. After Paul lived at first with its uncle Isodore in Orléans, his nut/mother sent him 1859 into the boarding school Petit Séminaire.

At the age of 17 years Paul workedas a sailor on a ship of the French merchant fleet, the Luzitano. With his return, later, Paul of the death of its nut/mother in Saint Cloud had to experience two years with Paris. Parents lot decided the now 20-year old Gauguin, itself for three yearson a cruiser of the war navy, the Jérome Napoléon to embark.

After its service Gauguin applied 1871 with Paris banking houses the Bertin and was adjusted. Was itself Gauguin of its quite substantial content of approximately 40,000 francs per year and thatoffering possibilities, which deterred it however, the thought of the eternal obligation was conscious thereby. Besides he became acquainted with the artist Emile Schuffenecker, which encouraged Gauguin to employ some first indication attempts in the same year. 1873 met Gauguin of the Dane Mette Sophie Gad,she married and got with it only one year after, in August 1874, its first son Emile.

In the following years Gauguin was so strongly coined/shaped Camille Pissarro , by meetings with Impressionisten, as for example that he itself in additiondecided to take instruction on the academy Colarossi in Paris. Gauguin began to paint and collected a multiplicity from nowadays priceless works of Pissarro, Cézanne, Degas, Jongkind, Guillaumin and Renoir. Not only luck in the art,but also Gauguin overtook luck in the private life, when December 1876 came by daughter Aline and 1879 by son Clovis further new generation into the family.

Gradually invested Gauguin ever more time into the painting, rented itself soon insmall studio in the Rue Carcel, and became 1880 popular, when it was allowed to participate by the relations with Pissarro in the exposition of the Indépendants, a famous Impressionisten exhibition. Here for the first time disputes between it and its artist colleague developed. Gauguin wished itselfto give up 1883 its occupation, in order to be able to dedicate itself to more the painting. Ironically it lost this anyway due to a stock exchange collapse and extracted themselves from so any justification before its family. After the birth of its son Pola in the same year Gauguin could those Paris dwelling any longer do not hold, why the family pulled to contain the life costs as a goal, temporarily after Rouen. But already in November 1884, after a relatively short stay, the meanwhile sechsköpfige family continued to pull to Copenhagen. Gestresst because of a family controversythe Gads and with his Mrs. Mette, finally decided Gauguin zerstritten in June to return however to Paris.

After his wealthy periods of life as a bank employee in Paris, or as a guest with Don Pio de Tristan in Peru learned Gauguin 1886 and inthe following years know ensure-fuller times. On the new gene FFS of that Parisian (artist) society struck it the painter to England, where it was held on the one hand to a large extent by the badly paid occupation as poster adhesive from its art, and itself on the other hand durablyfor the Clovis gotten sick to care had. It did not apply much time, until this life change struck Gauguin on the mind. In order again freely live and to paint to be able, brought he his still ill son into a pension, and finally sailed themselvesafter Pont Aven , where it made the acquaintance with the young Paris painter and poet Emile Berne pool of broadcasting corporations and the Impressionisten Charles Laval. It seemed, as if for Gauguin much to the good one, there he would have turned by a multiplicity of younger artistsfinancial support received.

The following years should turn out as particularly coining/shaping for with the time the ever socialmore critical artist. Back in Paris Gauguin became acquainted with the dutchman Vincent van Gogh providing for attention and its brother Theodorus van Gogh.The will to see still more from the world to let bereisen Gauguin, together with its friend Charles Laval, far of countries, the island Martinique and Panama. Both artists painted very much at this time and in creative way, that They forced sump fever however to the return to France.

To a stay in the bretonischen Pont Aven Gauguin pointed itself done from the idea to rent together with Vincent van Gogh a house in Arles in Southern France. This should the foundation-stone for thosecommon work in an artist community its, which failed to durable, excessive consumption of alcohol however due to some diversities of opinion, partly more violently, partly harmless controversy and. With both artists a bipolar disturbance was stated, not only the different work strength and extreme forming out of the other driveand the mind, but also increase of social conflicts causes. The conflicts kulminierten - so one of several interpretations of the reason - in an argument, which arranged van Gogh to cut itself a small piece off of its ear. Gauguin left Arles.

Paul Gauguin: Selbstportrait, 1893

in the years 1889 and 1890 was that increasingly verb CCIT ores artists in Pont Aven, Le Pouldu and in Brussels. In addition the message, his Mrs. Mette Sophie Gad reached it wanted finally in Copenhagen with theirFamily remain, and thus from it separating. Again once Gauguin came into financial emergencies, which forced him to it, a majority of its works to auctions. Instead of using the money however, around itself a favorable accommodation in Paris or thatBrittany to procure, embarked itself Gauguin 1891 from Marseille after Tahiti . Its expectations of an unaffected, completely uneuropäischen people became in June with its arrival in Papeete, which disappoints capital of the island, however, there the island by Kolonistenand mission acres hardly still from distant Europe to to differentiate was. Due to its Gauguin left itself about 40 km von Papeete far away in the proximity of tahitianischer natives down and built themselves a primitive accommodation. There he came with the Tahitianerin Tehuratogether, which taught much to him over the tahitianische culture and mythology.

Against will the artist applied later again to France, since he needed urgently a professional treatment of his physical complaints. Private luck experienced Gauguin in this year, there ita Javanerin named sew on Martin to know learned. With it together it pulled that meanwhile to 45-jährigen artist again once into Brittany, where a drastic event happened to it. Due to a controversy Gauguin came into a fight with bretonischen village inhabitants. AsIt had to live consequence from the fight now with a broken Knöchel, an injury, which never healed completely.

1894 are finally that year in that the French artist Paul Gauguin itself finally decided to return to Tahiti clearly suspecting thatit the last stage of its long voyage round the world and also its life began.

the last years

Paul Gauguin: Vairumati

after approximately sixty days sea voyage reached that physically and psychologically fastened Paul Gauguin meanwhile by the Kolonisten alsoElectricity supplied Papeete on Tahiti.

In order to dissociate itself from the clearly European life-style within the capital, the artist built himself on the new approx. an unstable, primitive hut removes 30 km. Its hope, to its earlier Partnerin Tehura return toocan, one disappointed, since this had married during its absence. After some sexual dissipations with several Tahitianerinnen its interest rose however at a young person named Teha' amana, which rejected it to its annoyance however due to its Knöchelverletzung which can be regarded obviously disgustingly.

Besidethis wound had Gauguin still with sump fever, temporary hunger phases, to fight and the consequences of the alcoholism as well as excessive smoking. Gauguins way of life caught up it now in painful way, so that he had to endure frequent hospitalizations in Papeete. It was to be foreseen,that these physical impairments would affect also its psyche sooner or later. Similarly as before in its entire life, tragedy and luck alternated again and again. New Kraft got the artist for example by his new loving, thosestraight only 14-jährige its partner inside as model served Pahura, which provided comfort for him, and it like so many. At the end of of 1896 brought its first child to the world, who died already briefly after the birth to Pau'ura. Only the son Emile, to19. April 1898 was relieved, survived.

In the year 1897 Gauguin met a set of moving strokes of fate on the new, as for instance the death of its daughter Aline caused by Tuberkulose. In this time it operated God resting run gene it in addition often probably served,to justify its own weaknesses and to displace its it tormenting debt feelings. The man fighting with its self hate directed further aggressions against its former artist colleagues in Paris.

Apart from these stress factors its still worsened to all abundance in the same yearphysical complaints dramatically. The Knöchelverletzung caused by the fight in Brittany caught fire in so extreme way that him independent running became almost impossible. Additionally the strongly fastened Gauguin went blind nearly at a heavy binding skin inflammation, which itin particular deprimierte, since it had to insert so a bi-annual artistic break.

After several heart accumulations the desperate artists a suicide project finally announced, dissociated themselves from the island people and painted in the course of a monthly on almost with the utmost care wayits probably most meaning work: The enormous painting from where we come? Who are we? Where do we go? represents a personal record, whose end works not harmoniously and balanced, but like the end of its own life hopelessly.

Briefly after the completionthe artist decided to make for his soul agonies an end by taking arsenic, this however again vomited. Instead of dedicating itself further to its art, it accepted a job in the office for public work in Papeete, and workedas a journalist for the local politics.

At the end of its life Gauguin looked again for a new beginning. A Swede bought his hut in Punaauia on Tahiti from it. Gauguin denied of it its removal on the Marquesas island Hiva OAU. To 16.September 1901 it arrived there. Again he built a hut - in Atuona - and lived themselves there with its fourteen-year old loved Vaeoho, which he had bought from a Kaziken. By its constant eye inflammation to probably attribute to Syphilis which it1887 with its America stay had gotten itself, could see it only few, continued to paint however nevertheless. Its preferential model in this time was Tohotama, the woman of a Schamanen of the island Tahuata. By its life-style it made itselfthe catholic bishop to the enemy and 1903 were therefore condemned to 500 francs punishment and three months detention. But it died to 8. May 1903. Paul Gauguin in the marquesischen village Atuona in an inconspicuous, but not forgotten Ruhestätte was buried.

mark style

Paul Gauguin: Frauen von Tahiti / Am Strand, 1891
Paul Gauguin: 1879 took part, spoke Mrs. von Tahiti

/at the beach , 1891 Gauguin in the exhibition of the Impressionismus however later of its Synthetismus, pulling the nature impression together in an internal feeling. Ita basis for the expressionism contributed also to the emergence of the symbolism and supplied by the intention of expressing itself with the color .

It compared the effect of colors with the effect of sounds and represented the view thatPainting “like the music on the detour over the senses on the soul works, their harmonious colours the harmonies of the sounds corresponds.” (Source of quotation is missing)

its last works have usually südländische women as motive and to draw itself by increased colors andsimplified forms out. The laminarness and the expression-strong outlining lines show that Gauguin could be inspired also from the Japanese woodcut.

Its pictures hang in all large art museums of the earth.

see also

Commons: Category: Paul Gauguin -Pictures, videos and/or audio files

Web on the left of


  > German to English > (Machine translated into English)