Peking

北京市
Běijīng Shì
abbreviation: 京 (pinyin: Jīng)
administrative type government-direct city
geographical location of 39° 55 ' n. Break.
116° 23 ' o. L.
Time belt China standard Time (CST)
UTC +8
height of 63 m and. NN
surface 16.807, 8 km ² (29.)
Population 15.224.754 (26.) (2006)
population density 906 Einwohner/km ²
postal zip codes 100000-102600
arrangement on area level of 16 urban districts, 2 circles
arrangement on district level of 125 road quarters, 119 greaters, 24 municipalities, 5 nationality municipalities
ISO 3166-2 CN-11
official Website beijing.gov .cn/
Politics
mayor: Wang Qishan
Bild:China-Beijing.png

Peking (chin. 北京, Běijīng, W. - G. Pei ching) the capital of the People's Republic is China and has one over three-thousand-year old history. The name means northern capital. Peking is today a government-direct city, thatis called she is directly subordinated to the centre government and thus provinces, autonomous ones areas and special administrative zones on an equal footing.

In the actual city - the geographical city - 7.602.069 humans with main domicile, in the dye 11.537.036 live. The entire administrative territory of Peking has 15.224.754Inhabitant (conditions in each case 1. January 2006). Of it 11.856 million are registered inhabitants with constant domicile and 3.4 million temporary inhabitants (liudong renkou) with limited residence permit (zanzhuzheng).

The 16,807, 8 square kilometers large administrative territory of Peking - corresponds approximatelythe surface of Thuringia or the Steiermark - no connected city represents. It would be comparable with its dominating rural settlement structure rather with a small province.

Peking is the political and cultural center of China. Due to long history those accommodatesCity a world-wide unique cultural heritage. The Tiananmen place (Chinese place of the gate of the himmlischen peace) is worth seeing, the forbidden city with that 1987 of the UNESCO former emperor palace explained as the world cultural heritage and different temples. Peking is venue of the olympic summer games2008.

Table of contents

the name of the city

The name Peking usual in German comes from the discussion of the name in several southChinese dialects. On high Chinese, whose is based to discussion on the Peking dialect, the city (in pinyin - way of writing) is called Běijīng. The usual German designation, also in the officialRange (Foreign Office), is Peking, however also Beijing is permissible. (Tondokument ? / License)

the Chinese name Běijīng means northern capital. In same kind the names of the cities are Nánjīng (Nanking southern capital) and Dongjing (Tōkyō, Japan) eastern capital) in an educated manner.

geography

geographical location

of land RK admission of Peking

Peking is with
coordinates: 39° 55 ′ 44 " N, 116° 23 ′ 18 " O
39° 55 ′ 44 " N,116° 23 ′ 18 " O 110 kilometers northwest the gulf from Bo shark in the midst of the province Hebei, is however an independently administered city province with a surface of 16.807, 8 square kilometers, corresponds in for instance the floor space of the Land of the Federal Republic Thuringia or that Steiermark. Of it however only 1,369, 9 square kilometers (eight per cent) belong to the actual city. 15.437, 9 square kilometers (92 per cent) consist of suburbs and areas with rural settlement structure.

The city province is at the northwest edge of the densely populated north Chinese lowlandses of on the average 63 metersover the sea level and is surrounded by mountains (Mongolian plateau). In north south direction the area extends over 180 kilometers, in east west direction over 170 kilometers. Further large cities in the province Peking are (conditions 1. January 2005): Mentougou of 197,772 inhabitants, Tongzhou 163,326 inhabitants, Shunyi of 117,623 inhabitants and Huangcun of 104,904 inhabitants.

geology

the north Chinese level (large level), in which Peking lies, is geologically a break-down field, which was filled out later by the delta formations of the north Chinese rivers. It consists of Schwemmlössand Sanden, which were advanced by the rivers from the western mountain countries. The level is thus a continuation of the release country.

Also climatically - hot-damp summers and drying-cold winters with Staubstürmen - and plant-geographically - park landscape with quiltful courses -it resembles the neighbouring release mountain countries. The north Chinese level represents an enormous washing cone, that the Huang He, the mud-richest river of the earth, in the course of many thousands of years up-poured and its to Ausläufer north and south the peninsula Shandong that Yellow sea reach.

The area is strong tectonic tensions suspended those again and again to earthquakes leads. A cause is the slow shift of the Indian continental plate northward into the eurasische continental plate. The speed of plate tectonics amounts to on the average about four centimetersper year.

To 28. July 1976 occurred in seaweed beautiful, 140 kilometers east of Peking, the most consequence-fraught earthquake 20. Century (see quake of seaweed-beautiful 1976). It had a strength of 8,2 on the judge scale. The officialIndication of the government of the People's Republic of China concerning the number of the dead ones amounts to 242,419, but some estimations indicate a number up to 800.000 dead ones, also the strength officially only as 7,8 are indicated. Quake led also in Peking andother cities of the region to damage.

city arrangement

Umrisskarte Peking
outline map Peking

the actual city Peking without suburb belts is formed from eight urban districts:

Chaoyang (朝阳区: Cháoyáng Qū), Chongwen (崇文区: Chóngwen Qū), Dongcheng (东城区: Dōngchéng Qū), Fengtai (丰台区: Fēngtái Qū), Haidian(海淀区: Hǎidián Qū), Shijingshan (石景山区: Shíjǐngshān Qū), Xicheng (西城区: Xīchéng Qū) and Xuanwu (宣武区: Xuānwǔ Qū).

In the close environment of the city Peking are further six districts. These were changed between 1986 to 2001 by districts into districts:

Mentougou(门头沟区: Méntóugōu Qū), catch-beautiful (房山区: Fángshān Qū) - district catch-beautiful until 1986, Tongzhou (通州区: Tōngzhōu Qū) - district Tongxian until 1997, Shunyi (顺义区: Shùnyì Qū) - district Shunyi until 1998, Changping (昌平区: Chāngpíng Qū) - district Changping until 1999 and Daxing (大兴区: Dàxīng Qū) - district Daxing until 2001.

From the city far away there are give still two districts, these 2001 by districts to districts was changed, and two further districts.

The districts are: Pinggu (平谷区: Pínggǔ Qū) - district Pingguto 2001 and Huairou (怀柔区: Huáiróu Qū) - district Huairou until 2001. The districts are: Miyun (密云县: Mìyún Xiàn) and Yanqing (延庆县: Yánqìng Xiàn).

See also: Peking - urban districts

climate

Klimadiagramm Peking
climatic diagram Peking

although Peking only about150 kilometers far away from the coast, has it lies due to the situation in the west wind belt a moderate, continental climate, D. h. warm, damp summers and cold, dry winters. The yearly precipitation amounts to 619 millimeters, of it falls about 70 per centin the months July and August.

In the winter temperatures up to -20 degrees Celsius and an icy, from the Mongolian levels prevail blowing wind. The summer (June until August) is stifling and hot with temperatures up to 30 degrees Celsius,short spring (April and May) drying, but windy. In the autumn (Septembers and Octobers) dry and mild weather prevails.

history

prehistory

in the area of the today's city Peking already lived before 500.000 to 230,000 yearsRepresentative of the Homo erectus (Sinanthropus pekinensis, Peking human being), whose remnants in the 1920er and 1930er were discovered years in Zhoukoudian, 50 kilometers southwest the today's city.

At the discovery site many a block factory witness and bone tools were found, in addition one very muchthickens ash layer. This is interpreted of some scientists as artifact of the fire use. Possibly the Peking human being used the fire. A block factory witness and animal bones were its implements.

In the year 1987 the discovery site was taken up of the UNESCO to the list of the world cultural heritage.

the time up to the seizure of power of the Yuan dynasty

palace in Peking. Historical design.

The history of the city Peking is back enough into the western Zhou dynasty (1121 to 770 v. Chr.) as it the name Ji (reed) carried. Under thisName the city 1000 v. became. Chr. mentions for the first time documentary.Ji was at this time a center for the trade with the Mongols and Koreans as well as different trunks from Shandong and central China.

In the time the arguing realmsPeking was the capital of the Yan, why the city carried the name Yanjing (capital of the Yan). 221 v. Chr. occupied the later first emperor Qin Shihuangdi (259-210 v. Chr.) with its realm agreement war the city. Under its governmentthe northern walls were fastened. The emperors of the Qin dynasty changed the names again in Ji. Under its rule Peking lost its status as capital at Xianyang as well as at meaning.

In the following centuries Ji of an insignificant developedProvincial town to a commercial junction and important military basis for the defense of the north borders of China and were occupied several times because of their strategic meaning by quilting and Nomadenvölker from the north.

In the time of the seaweed dynasty (618-907 n. Chr.) governed those in the city,now Youzhou was called, a military governor. It always stood in the shade of the Chinese capital at that time Xi'an (western peace). Only under the foreign rule of the Liao dynasty reached Peking a part of its earlier meaning back.

In the year 937 n. Chr. conquered those Kitan under width unit-kuang (926-947) a part of north China and established their rule seat in Peking. 960 an equal opponent developed for the Kitan in the Song dynasty. The Song dynasty tried to conquer 979 north China back, could however the kit on general Yelü Hsiu ko before Peking notdefeat. Also 986 Yelü remained Hsiu ko victoriously.

Wansong Pagode

after conquest by the Jurchen in the year 1153 was developed Peking to the capital of the Jin dynasty and under the name Zhongdu (“middle capital”) magnificently. Over 100.000 workers became for the extensioncommits to the city.

1215 took the army crowds of the Dschingis Khan (1162-1227) Peking. They plünderten the city and set them in fire. On the old rubble late Kublai Khan Dadu ( the large capital) let establish, also under the name Khanbaliq (city of the Khan, with Marco Polo Kambaluk) admits became. With the creation of the Mongol realm attained the city in the course 13. Century a prevailing position.

the rule of the Yuan dynasty

during the rule of Kublai Khan (1215-1294), the founder of the Yuan dynasty, was planned and developed Peking under the name Dadu as capital of the Yuan. The city was from 1264 to 1368 main residence of the Mongols. At this time was subordinate to the grandchild of the Dschingis Khan nearlycompletely Eastern Asia and the first Europeans - under them also Marco Polo (1254-1324) - came over the famous silk road to Peking.

Marco Polo, which was Kublais guest and a time worked long in the city, was in view of the large cultivationnessextremely impresses: „Houses and humans are so numerous that nobody could call their number… I do not believe it give a place in the world, which so many dealers, so many precious and peculiar goods and treasures sees, as from allDirections into these arrive…

The wealth was to be due to the situation of the city at the starting point of the silk road, and after Polos descriptions were it „nearly daily more than one thousand trucks “loaded with silk, which arrived in the city,in order to begin from there their far journey in Ländereien to the west of China.

In a development of style and splendour, unparalleled for the Grosskhane, which late emperor was called, Kublai at all sides by walls a protected established itself and over marble stairsaccessible palace of enormous extents.

display of power under the Ming dynasty

Karte der Kaiserstadt
map of the emperor city

1368 was replaced the Yuan from the Ming dynasty. Hongwu (1328-1398), the first emperor of the Ming dynasty, left its capital in Nanjing (southern capital) at the riverYangzi establish and changed the name Dadus in Beiping (northern peace).

Since 1408 emperor Yongle began to build the city under its new name Peking (northern capital) completely again. It created among other things the forbidden city and the sky temple, with which Yongle marked important elements of the town development. In the year 1421 Yongle Peking appointed the new capital of the Ming dynasty. During the following Qing dynasty (1644-1911) the city was extended by further temples and palaces. This period was characterized by the ascent and fall of the Mandschu and/or the Qing dynasty.

Their largest bloom time experienced the capital during the first half 18. Century among the emperors Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong. In that time the Qing established north to thatCity also the legendary summer palace, a garden plant for the aristocracy with 200 pavilions , temples and buildings of palaces before the window blind of an extensive landscape from lakes and hills, singular in the world, artificially put on. Together with the emperor palace it formed thatCenter and the symbol of Chinese glory and display of power.

Im Zweiten Opiumkriegdrangen jedoch britische und französische Truppen im Jahre 1860 bis an die Mauern der Hauptstadt vor, und der Sommerpalast wurde von den Briten zunächst geplündert und dann in Brandput, whereby it down-burned practically up to the foundation walls. While the emperor yard in a separate, ummauerten city on generous area lived, the civilian population under conditions beneath human dignity had to live.

With funds, which were meant actually for the modernization of the Chinese navy,the empress widow began to establish Cixi (1835-1908) starting from 1884 to new summer palace for itself. Their project marked the end of imperial building gloss and patronage as last large symbol - and became like its predecessor of foreign soldiers during the boxing up conditions inYears 1900 by fire devastates. To that time the realm and the imperial capital stood briefly due to gradual waves of foreign crew before the collapse.

Peking after the resignation of the Mandschu

of remnants of the Stadtmauer

after the resignation thatMandschu and the establishment of the Republic of China in the year 1912 Peking remained until 1928 the political center of China. Then Chiang furnished dock shek (1887-1975) the capital in Nanjing . Peking was under control of rivaling being lords and became therefore ofthe Kuomintang 1928 again in Beiping (northern peace) renamed, in order to make clear that it does not concern a capital.

During the turbulent 1920er years came it into Peking to mass demonstrations of the inhabitants, first 1925, over approximatelyto protest the massacre at Chinese demonstrators in Shanghai by British soldiers, and 1926, in order to tell-add their displeasure over the schmähliche surrender of the government before Japan in the Manchuria crisis. When the demonstrators on government authorities zumarschierten, soldiers opened the fire upit.

The city became during the incident at the Marco Polo bridge (Luqouqiao) at the beginning of the second Japanese-Chinese war to 19. July 1937 occupies. Only after end of the Pacific war the city became 1945 of Kuomintang and US - American marine releases.

the time since the seizure of power by the communists

Changan avenue

in January 1949 the communists Peking in took nine months before the escape Chiang dock sheks after Taiwan the final victory the certainty become let. Followingthe establishment of the People's Republic of China by Mao Zedong at the 1. October 1949 explained the communist government Peking again as the capital.

The change of the capital and the repayment of the symbols of earlier regimes possessed highest priority for the new ruling powers. In the eagerness,from the past to to release and a modern capital of the people build, destroyed themselves and was purpose-alienated a majority of the old built volumes. Thus for example the temple of the maintained wisdom was re-designed to a wire factory and in the temple of theFire God bulbs were manufactured. Into the 1940er years possessed the city still 8,000 temples and monuments, into the 1960er years this number on only more 150 had shrunk.

The scene of substantial rebelling by the people Peking became 1989, as upthe Tiananmen place in the center of the city between April and June of the yearly nearly one million demonstrator their displeasure over the sluggish speed of reforms, which lack at liberty and the wide-spread corruption tell-did. An enormous statue, the goddess thatLiberty, one let which carry in both hands a torch/flare, was made by art students and haven-guesses/advises Mao Zedongs at the Tiananmen place confronted.

Full anger over humiliating with the own people imposed the Chinese government to 20. May of theYearly the martial law. To 4. June 1989 was bloodily struck down the peacefully demonstrating democracy - movement by the army; thousands civilians died.

To 20. October 1998 was opened in Peking the first conference of human right of the country. At the conference tookmore from 27 states part and in July 2001 the international olympic committee Peking explained than 100 representatives as the venue of the olympic summer games 2008.

The largest problems, which the city is faced with because of the missed modern town planning politics today, are the increasing Zuwanderung, the air pollution, causes by unfashionable manufacturing plants and the ausufernde traffic, which contributes its part to the bad air quality and which city brings to the edge of a traffic collapse.

inhabitant development

Skyline of Peking

had Peking 1953 still2,8 million inhabitant in the actual city, then are it today (2005) with 7.490.601 two and a half times as many. These live on a surface of 1.369, 9 square kilometers. The population density amounts to 5,468 inhabitants per square kilometer. In Berlin there is to the comparison 3.800. Inthe Metropolregion Peking, to which also the actual city surrounding suburb belts belongs, live 11.238.749 humans on a surface of 8.859, 9 square kilometers. The population density amounts to 1,268 inhabitants per square kilometer.

The entire administrative territory of the government-direct city Peking, to expanded the alsorural areas belong, have a surface of 16.807, 8 square kilometers and a number of inhabitants of 14.933.274 (conditions 1. January 2005). Of it 11.629 million are registered inhabitants with constant domicile and 3.3 million temporary inhabitants (liudong renkou) with limited residence permit (zanzhuzheng). The population density888 inhabitants per square kilometer amount to.

Who would like itself to stop longer than three days in the city, must announce itself to the office for public security and one registers there. The applicant receives then a temporary residence permission for three months, afterExpiration of the term to be extended must. With the office a certificate must be submitted by the place of residence, those confirmed that the person is announced there. In the city the moreover one about one million immigrant worker and illegal immigrants are, from officialStatistics not to be seized and often in large poverty in the slum areas with high criminality rate live. Since the birth rate is low, the population growth is to be due particularly to Zuwanderung. The natural growth of the population with durable domicile in Peking amounts toat present 0.9 by 1.000 inhabitants, birth rate: 6,0 per 1000 inhabitant, mortality rate: 5,1 by 1000 inhabitants

about 95.7 per cent of the population are Han Chinese. Largest ethnical minority also over 1,8 per cent of the population are the Manju; with 1,74 per cent those standMuslim Hui Chinese in second place. Besides there are still considerable groups of Mongol (0.3 per cent of the Pekinger population) and Koreans (0.15 per cent). All ethnical groups of China are represented in small number also among the inhabitants of Beijing; quantitatively in last placestands the De'ang, a Mon Khmer people, with four inhabitants. The Chinese spoken in Peking corresponds to a large extent to that high-Chinese (Putonghua), the office language of the People's Republic of China, with some colloquial sanding.

The following overview shows the numbers of inhabitants of the actual city without suburb belts. Specifiedthe registered inhabitants with main domicile are in Peking.

Wangfujing road
Year Inhabitant
1450 600,000
1500 672,000
1750 900,000
1800 1.100.000
1890 805,100
1900 693,000
1918 805,000
1921 811,100
1930 1.556.000
Year Inhabitant
1936 1.574.000
1939 1.603.000
1953 2.768.119
1957 4.010.000
1970 5.000.000
1982 5.597.955
1990 5.641.634
2000 6.892.000
2005 7.490.601

development of the living situation

Hutongs

many elements of the modern town planning politics had devastating consequences for the population and created more problems, than they solved. A large part of the traditional houses with courtyard(Hutongs), which were considered as breeding place of individualists, since 1949 one tore off. Anonymous new buildings from concrete with often insufficient sanitary equipment took their place hardly flowing and water.

As end of the 1960er years extensive renovation work on the buildings urgently requiredseemed, instead an underground tunnel net put on, which should offer protection in case of a war. Millions of working hours were invested into the project, which could offer no protection against modern bombs and in the long run only to the sinking of the ground-water level led.

ThoseKilling of all dogs in Peking in the year 1950 and numerous Spatzen 1956 - the measure should originally protect the grain supplies - had alone as a consequence that the insects could increase more strongly. In order to work against, the city administration arranged the distanceall green areas in the capital on, which caused again Staubstürme during the windy winter months.

Large town redevelopment projects are present under way, in order to prepare Peking for the olympic summer games in the year 2008. Different efforts toward the containment of the air pollution were already undertaken, andFactories not further to modernize left themselves, had to close. Open spaces were aroused by complex Begrünung to new life. The dirty channels were ausgebaggert.

As guidance star on the way of China into the modern trend Peking takes a role of the pioneer with the transformationthe country. In fast speed buildings are torn off and established new, about which the white character chai (outline) on old houses and the many construction cranes impressively certification placing. In the city centre predominantly modern concrete and buildings of glasses are established, to which spreadMagistralen develop numerous Bürokomplexe. For the poorer social classes the there dwellings are not payable. They are displaced into the outlying districts of the city.

Most inhabitants of Peking live in multistoried buildings. Two populated areas are particularly important for it: the Wangjing - area in the northeastas well as the Huilongguan populated area in the northwest. In order to get to the problem of the population of over, a set of satellite cities for more in each case than 500,000 inhabitants in building and planning are in the context of large-scale construction measures.

politics

newspaper reader in Peking

mayor of Pekingin July 1948 in the municipality Shanxitian is in the proximity of the city Qingdao born Wang Qishan. He took over the office to 22. April 2003 of mix Xuenong, that because of failure during the outbreak of the lung illness SARS inby the communist party of China of his post one relieved of the capital.

Mix Xuenong the responsibility for a policy of the cover-up and concealing one charged, with which he wanted to conceal the outbreak of SARS for long time. At SARS were in Peking several thousand humans gotten sick, hundreds died. Mix Xuenong had the office as a mayor to 19. January 2003 of Liu Qi taken over.

The new mayor Wang Qishan is member of the central committee of the kp China. It was as a professorthe institute for restaurant economics and as senior political economists at the Pekinger Tsinghua university and in the Magisterabteilung the Chinese university for financings actively.

Further members of the local government in Peking are the secretary of the party committee Liu Qi, the chairman of the constant committeethe congress of people Yu Junbo and the chairman of the political Konsultativkonferenz of the Chinese people (PKKCV) Cheng Shi'e. The PKKCV consists of the national committee and the local committees of different levels.

The individual circles and districts (shiqu) of the city province become in each casefrom a committee administers, which gets its directives of the central party leadership. At the lower end the administrative pyramid of Peking are the so-called inhabitant committees (jumin weiyuanhui).

See also: List of the mayors of the city Peking

partnerships between cities

Peking maintainswith the following cities partnerships.

culture and objects of interest

theatre

it gives numerous theatres (for example the theatre of the people), as well as the Pekinger concert-resounds for music meetings. AfterPeking is designated the famous Peking opera, which represents a special mixture of different art forms, like singing, dance , Akrobatik and mimischem play. The action is usually based on historical or mythologischen materials.

The contemporary theatre is understood in contrast to this in rapid change and showsrecently Chinese translations of western pieces and experiment-joyful productions native drama door genes.

The speech theatre held only in 20. Century introduction on Chinese stages. Its homeland became the people art theatre in Peking, where before the culture revolution European pieces with a clear social messagewere shown. 1968 became this art form however by Jiang Qing, Mao Zedongs of third woman, up to few pieces - which were classified for the society as edifying - forbade. The theatre and most cinemas became for approximately ten yearsclosed.

Peking

has museums fire-hydrant in
the forbidden city museum

of the anti-Japanese war beside numerous art museums also a nature-historical museum. The result of the collecting passion of an Qing emperor shows an unusual clock museum in the emperor palace in that Forbidden city. Most exhibits are over-on-boardend examples of baroque ornamental art from Great Britain and France, most impressing are however perhaps the enormous Chinese Wasseruhr.

Good contemporary art is relatively difficult in Peking to find. A majority of the more fastidious exhibitionstakes place in alternative galleries, which are registered only rarely in the city magazines. The most well-known are the Courtyard Gallery in the Donghuamen Dajie and talk gate Gallery in China World hotel in the Jianguomenwai Dajie.

60 kilometers north thatCity is the interesting aviation museum. In an enormous hangar and an exhibition hall more than 300 aircraft are shown, begun of a reproduction of the airplane of the brothers WRIGHT, the Feng Ru (1883-1912), first Chinese airplane engineer and pilotin the year 1909 steered, up to combat helicopters, which were used in the first Gulf War. In addition to the collection combat aircraft from the Korea war , which threw bombers off of the 1964 of China first atom bomb , as well as Mao Zedongs personal machine and that airplane belong,from that ash was scattered by Zhou En-Lai.

In Peking a museum is over the anti-Japanese war that the official aspect of the communist party of China represents.

buildings

old part of town and emperor palace

Historische Karte Pekings um 1700 - Kangxi-Ära
historical one Map of Peking around 1700 - Kangxi era
audience resounding in the forbidden city

the old part of town originally surrounded by a large wall from Peking became as image of the cosmos - of Greek kósmos = the world [- order] - planned and consisted of three rectangularDistricts (emperor, inside and exterior city). On the centerline of the old part of town, in north south direction, were buildings of gates, palace and Zeremonialgebäude. The forbidden city - it was not originally accessible for the simple people - accommodates the surrounded with a wall and1987 of the UNESCO as the world cultural heritage explained former emperor palace. The place served 24 Chinese emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties and their families as residence. Today the forbidden city accommodates the palace museum.

The old part of town consisted of that exterior and the squarein the northern part of internal city lain, which builds from 1409 to 1420 and spread of, 15 meters high wall was surrounded with nine gates. The borders of the internal city corresponded to a large extent to those the capital Daidu in the Yuan dynasty (1271-1368).In the internal city the emperor city lay, in which government buildings, palaces, temples, garden and park plants as well as the forbidden city were. Outside of the emperor city lay quarter with markets and temples as well as residential areas. The wall was about 25 kilometers long.

Thosein the southern part exterior city lain was built during the Ming dynasty between 1521 and 1566. It was rectangular and possessed a wall of 23.5 kilometers of length. Both important temple districts and residential areas for the simple people were inthis area. After the seizure of power of the communists in China at the 1. Octobers 1949 were down-torn the old Stadtmauern and replaced by major roads; of the old town-gates however several remained.

The palace museum (Gugong) in the forbidden city is the earlierResidence of the imperial family and the yard. This complex - in 15. Century establishes - a set of enormous resounding and palaces covers. West this complex is the area Zhongnan shark, a large park with lakes, from oneWall is surrounded.

the Tian'anmen place

the Tiananmen place

direct south the forbidden city and the palace museum lies the Tian'anmen place (place of the Himmli peace), the center of the city. At the place can itself up to one millionHumans meet. With its surface of 40 hectares it is the largest public place of the world. It was put on in its present size following the seizure of power of the communists. Each year take place here large ceremonies and demonstrations.

Onfor the west side of the place stands the large one resounds the people (seat of the Chinese national assembly), at the eastern side is a museum for Chinese history and revolution. A monument for the heroes of the people and the grave of the former chairman Mao Zedong (1893-1976) control the place in its center.

In its newer history the place served numerous historically important mass demonstrations than frameworks: to 4. May 1919 the first demands for democracy and liberalism by student, those against the Versailler contract demonstrated; to 9. December 1935 the anti-Japanese protests, with which to a war of the national resistance one requested; 1966 the eight stage-ripely produced mass marching-up, those the beginning of the culture revolution marked and for those each time about a million Rotgardisten to Pekingwere carried, in order on the revolutionary ideals to be sworn in and then full work joy into the provinces be sent; and in April 1976 of the brutally suppressed, the memory of the former prime minister Zhou En-Lai (1898-1976) dedicated Qing Ming demonstration, those for the first timein the later case of the Viererbande pointed.

Today the place is however particularly because of the terrible events of 1989 well-known, as students and workers peacefully for democracy demonstrated and thousands to 4. June of the yearly killed by the Chinese militarybecame.

to temple plants

the harvest prayer, part of the sky temple of

the many temples resounds is the sky temple (Tiantan) in the southern part of the exteriors city particularly to emphasize (among other things with resounds the yearly prayers). There the emperor everyone prayedYear for a rich harvest.

The plant lies in the Xuanwu district in the south of the city in the midst of a large park. The most important building of the temple is resounds the harvest victims, a building with circular sketch on a three speed marble terrace. It became inDelighted, 1889 burned years down 1420 and 1890 were again established.

Further temples worth seeing are Konfuziani and the Lama temple (Yonghegong) as well as the temple of the white Pagode, those to the memory of the attendance of the Dalai Lama Ngawang praise-sang Gyatso (1617-1682) from Tibet in the year 1651 were established.

further buildings

Xishiku cathedral

in the northwest suburbs (Shisan ling) are the Ming graves of the emperors from the Ming dynasty (1368-1644). One reaches these by means of an avenue, those from marmornen lions,Elephants, camels and horses one gesäumt. Northwest the graves (with Badaling) a part of the Chinese wall stands.

Interesting as Relikt of past times is old person the observatory. The first observatory here developed on arrangement of Kublai Khan (1215-1294),in order to let the then incorrect calendar correct by astronomers. Later than the Islamic sciences their bloom, arrived it under Muslim control, over in 17 experienced. Century finally into the hands of Christian Jesuiten - to change over mission arene, into those1830er years the Hausherren remained.

In the complex are a idyllischer garden and eight astronomical instruments from the Ming time - Armillarsphären, theodolites and the like worked marvelously - on the roof. Is attached a small museum with an exhibition ofearly, by astronomy inspired pot RSR pickling and navigational instruments.

Further important objects of interest are the 400 meters high TV tower, cent ral Chinese Television Headquarters (completion 2008) and the numerous Christian churches. The largest and most well-known among them are the eastern church (Wangfujing), thoseWestern church (Xizhimen), the southern church (Xuanwumen) and the northern church (Xishiku). To call the moreover one the imperial is summer palace (Yihe Yuan) as well as the ruins of the old person of summer palace (Yuanming Yuan).

Chinese wall

Chinese wall in Badaling closePeking

over a length of 6,000 kilometers pulls itself the Chinese wall by China, a monumental building, its establishment in 5. Century v. Chr. one began and to in 16. Century was continued. The today still existing sections were joined togetherfrom New York until , and one hands a distance, which would be longer than the earth extent to Los Angeles from its stones only one wall of five meters height and a meter of depth would build, would arise.

The most well-known wall section extendsitself with Badaling, 70 kilometers northwest from Peking. It was the first section, which was restored 1957. The wall is there six meters wide and in regular intervals with awake towers from the Ming time (1368-1644) equipped. Their process follows thatBurr of a hill chain and could have been better put on defense-strategically hardly, why this section was also never attacked directly, taken probably however over the sides.

Is 90 kilometers northeast the Chinese wall admits less with Mutianyu, from Peking. The there,1368 build and for 1983 restored section with its numerous awake towers are two kilometers long and extend along a hill comb in greener, gently curved landscape. A further section of the Chinese wall is in Simatai, 110 kilometers northeast from Peking.The majority of this wall segment originating from the Ming dynasty is left in its original condition and possesses only some innovations from later time as for example cannon conditions for cannons and transverse to the outside wall drawn, internal wall shut-off positions, over enemies already penetrated toostop.

generally

belongs to park plants of the summer palace

of Peking that as summer palace designated Yiheyuan to the most delightful park plants in Peking. The enormous area, two thirds of it a lake, served the last emperors as place of the summer-resort, to thatthey including yard state during the hottest months of the yearly withdrew themselves.

And by the lake cooled and by a garden plant the protected situation surrounded by hills is ideal. There are there already imperial pavilions since that 11. Century, the today's plantoriginates however to a large extent from that 18. Century and developed under the Mandschu emperor Qianlong.

The North Sea park (北海公园 Běihǎi Gōngyuán) northwest the emperor palace is one of the typical Chinese gardens. The Jin emperor Shizong began 1179 with the establishment of a summer palace andthe plant of this park.

Emperor Kublai Khan made it 1260 his residence, by resounding “the widths cooling” referred. In its place became by the Qing - emperor starting from 1651 the Lamaistic “white Pagode” builds, those this very day thatPark dominates. Emperor Qianlong let 1735 and 1796 extensive extension work accomplish between. Almost all today's buildings in this park originate from this building period.

Further parks are the Jingshan and the Ditan park. Worth seeing is also the zoo of Peking.

culinary specialities

anywhere on the Chinese mainland are larger the culinary variety than in Peking. Beside all Chinese kitchens here also almost all asiatic and most world kitchens are represented. In view of this abundance it is often not noted thatPeking its own cook tradition possesses and with specialities such as Peking duck (北京烤鸭 Běijīng kǎoyā) and a tasty contribution to Mongolian fire pot (火锅 Huǒguō) makes.

Peking duck is served in Chinese restaurants in the whole world and consists of small Fleischstücken,in plum sauce to be getunkt and afterwards with chopped bulbs into a pancake be rolled.

Another well-known court is the Mongolian fire pot, with into a pot with more cooking, usually from downside Brühe held temperature in strip cut muttonas well as Kohl and Nudeln to be gestippt. The remainder is drunk at the end every now and then as soup.

economics and infrastructure

economics

bridge in Peking

the gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) of the city province Peking in the year 2004 428.3 billion amounted to Yuan (51.8 billion US Dollar), which corresponds to a rise of 13,2 per cent opposite 2003. It was the highest growth of the last decade. The GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT per head is to Hong Kong, Macao and Shanghai fourth-highest in the People's Republic China.

Peking is meanwhile the second largest industrial centre of the country. Important branches of industry were settled in the satellite cities: the production of petrochemical products in catch beautiful, machine production in Fentai, iron and steel production in Shijingshan as well as motor vehicle production in Tongxian.

Over two million worker of the provinceare busy in the industry. Clothing, canned goods, cotton and Synthetikstoffe, colors, paper, lubricants and electronic products are manufactured. Since the beginning of restaurant economics in the year 1978 the construction industry wins increasingly in meaning. In it approximately 700,000 building workers are busy.

In the agriculture of the province approximately 900,000 humans work. To the agricultural products belong poultry and Schweinefleisch, grain, vegetables (Kohl, Tomaten, Auberginen, Möhren and Zwiebeln), milk and eggs.

Numerous trade and services enterprises have themselves in the past years in Pekingsettled (over a million person employed). The city is a purchase and a mode center. There are several modern purchase districts (for example in the Wangfujing road). Have tradition among other things gold enamel work (Cloisonné), Jadeschnitzerei and the Teppichweberei.

Since the restaurant reforms of the 1980er and 1990er yearsthere are also enterprises, which are carried by foreign investors. Many private business developed. In Peking it gives approximately 100,000 privately employees to employee (Getihu) in industrial concerns. The service industries count over 30.000 enterprises with approximately 200,000 persons employed. Peking has serious problemswith air (coal combustion) and water pollution.

traffic

station in Peking
for the olympic plays 2008 planned underground system of Peking

as traffic junction has Peking airports and railway connections into all parts of the country, like also an intercontinental distanceover Ulaanbaatar and the Trans-Siberian railway to Europe. The main airport (airport Peking) lies in the area Shunyi, about 20 kilometers northeast far away from the city centre. Over the emperor channel Peking has connection with the Hwangho (yellow river) and the Jangtse.

Peking is connected with other cities of China by nine motorways. The motorway net Peking is constantly extended. For traffic in the city five struggle races are available and some durchgangsstrassen. One classifies the city centre as the part of Peking, within that 2. Struggle race lies and the region of the city Peking as the part, within the 5. Struggle race lies.

Similarly as Moscow Peking develops in the form of rings. That unfortunately brought problems for the traffic with itself. Back-up are frequently, and the new and development from struggle races do not seem to solve the traffic problem.

There are public means of transport in the city in form of nearly one thousand bus and trolley bus lines. The first Oberleitungsbus drove to 26. February 1957 in the city. To 24. June 1899 the first electrical streetcars drove into Peking, the enterprise however already became during the boxing up conditions to 13. June 1900 again adjusted. To 17. December 1924 was led the system. This time the streetcars to 6 operated. May 1966.

There is today no more Tramlinien, but however four subway lines (two underground and two on soil level). The first distance section of the underground Peking became at the 1. October 1969 opens. About five further underground lines are for the olympic plays 2008planned. Nevertheless it always comes to long back-up and coming to a hold column traffic. Beside the well removed bus system and the underground lines still another rapid-transit railway in form of an overhead railway exists. Due to the high costs it is however hardly used.

Education

bookshop and Ginkgo trees

of the many universities of the city are most well-known the Peking university (北京大学, based 1898) and the Qinghua university (清华大学, based 1911). Country-wide are also the people university (人民大学) and the educational university admit Peking (北京师范大学). To the BLCU(北京语言文化大学, before times Sprachinstitut; based 1962), are about three quarters of the students foreigners, who study Chinese.

Just as interesting the sport university Peking (北京体育大学 Beijing Tiyu Daxue) is, the most important sport university of China, with foreigners particularly for a study of the Wushu, oftenin combination with a language study, likes. Besides there is the Chinese academy of the sciences (Academia Sinica) and a row their being subordinate research institutes. The foreign language university Peking (北京外国语大学) is one of the best foreign language universities of the country.

Over 250.000 humans are in the scientific andtechnical range employed. Approximately 500,000 persons are active in the education and communication nature. The Peking library is most important in the People's Republic China (about ten million volumes; with consisting of the libraries of the Sung, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties).

Most universities finditself in the Haidian district (海淀区) in the northwest of the city. However there are more than twenty universities there.

personalities

Peking was place of birth of numerous prominent personalities. The most well-known are among other things the emperors of China, Qianlong and Pu Yi, the empress widow Cixi, the chess world champion Xie June, the actors Ivan Desny, jet left and Zhang Ziyi, the writers beautiful SA and Lao She and the singer and actress Faye Wong.

Until today became approximatelytwenty persons appointed honour citizens of the city Peking. It concerns humans predominantly with domicile in Hong Kong, among them numerous owners of large companies (Tycoone). Some honour citizens originate from the foreign country, under it also two Germans, the film producer ManfredDurniok (1934-2003) and the piano designer Lothar Schell.

See also: List of the personalities of the city Peking

literature

  • Xiaoli Cui: Present social supply in the VR China: By the example of the city Beijing, south wind book world of book trade GmbH 1997, ISBN 3900592292
  • Alexander Nadler: Peking and environment, Iwanowski publishing house Dormagen 2005, ISBN 3923975481
  • Diana Preston: Rebellion in Peking. The history of the boxing up conditions. German publishing house, Munich/Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 342105407X
  • Thomas's realm brook: The democracy movement in China 1989: The mobilization throughStudent organizations in Beijing, Institut for Asia customer 1994, ISBN 3889101283
  • Uwe judge: The culture revolution at the University of Beijing: Prehistory, expiration and accomplishment, Institut for Asia customer 1988, ISBN 3889100538
  • EH star field: Beijing: Town development and water management: Socio-economic and ecological aspects thatWater crisis and action perspectives, technical University of Berlin 1997, ISBN 3798317607
  • dock of argue-matte: Breathe adjust please! Pekinger of sky falls. Spades US publishing house 2001, ISBN 3-8545-2742-X

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