the Pentatonik (five-clay/tone music, of Greek pente = five) designates the use of a scale (scale ) in the music, which covers 7 , but only 5 tones contrary to the Heptatonik not. Such a scale is called five-scale. Historically andethnical there are different five-clay/tone scales, z. B. the javanische Slendro is a ladder with 5 approximately same intervals in the Oktave. In the following the abendländische or western Pentatonik is described, which probably represents a forerunner of the Heptatonik.

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to Ganztonpentatonik

a pentatonische scale develops, if one one above the other laminates five tones in the distance of a pure Quinte:

One writes these five tones into the same Oktavraum,the actual scale results:

The Ganztonpentatonik is missing the guidance clay/tone characteristic, D. h. it does not possess half-tone steps (anhemitonisch). One keeps scale practically seen from C Dur - by omitting the guidance tones f (half-tone e-f) and h (half-tone HC) a PentatonikC-D-e-g-A. (In such a way the Pentatonik did not result however, but evenly from Quintschritte.)

one knows this scale, just as a triad, to turn around. That is, one uses the same tones, makes however another from them to the basic clay/tone. Thus developfive different modes (similar as with kinds of church clay/tone):

Since only the first, third and fifth mode regarding the basic clay/tone possess a third, only these three in Dur and Moll can be classified. The first mode is therefore those Dur Pentatonik (large third), which third represent and fifth against it the Moll Pentatonik (small third). For this reason also the remaining modes are rather rarely used in the abendländischen music and to exist mainly as theoretical product.

If the ladder by pure Quintenone formed („purely “in the sense of „does not keep at a moderate temperature “), are however pythagoreisch the thirds, i.e., they are different both from pure and from thirds kept at a moderate temperature (and not evenly probably-sounding).

those place

figurative representation the following diagramsDur and Moll Pentatonik figurativy. The diagram of the Moll Pentatonik corresponds thereby to 5 represented above. Mode.Here the pattern of the diagrams is described.

Dur Pentatonik

Moll Pentatonik


Klaviatur von Tasteninstrumenten
keyboard of key instruments

a simple kind five-clay/tone music to play is, upa keyboard (z. B. to use a piano) only the black keys (cis this fis gis ais). From each clay/tone a five-scale can be played.

The Pentatonik is characteristically of East Asian music, it is common also in completely Asia, from India toto Japan. Probably decreases/goes back to a common origin, which could hardly still be proven however. It is however likewise in the Blues and in the modern skirt music strongly represented. Due to the simple play barness on a guitar is itusually the first scale, which a beginner learns. Besides the Mollpentatonik forms the basis of the Bluestonleiter.

Many simple child songs are based on the Pentatonik (for example „cheek, cheek, cake “or the mockery melody “Nee nee nee nee nee nee”), in addition,religious of songs like „Swing Low, Sweet Chariot “. Also the advertisement uses gladly the Pentatonik for short melodies, z. B. „Haribo makes children glad and adults likewise “.

In the classical music one meets the Pentatonik several times with Franz Liszt,z. B. in „outer one board d´une SOURCE “.Claude Debussy, which had heard at the age of 19 years Liszt, uses the Pentatonik still more, z. B. in the first Arabesque. In addition, it is in the people music of the Pyreneeses, thatBrittany and France, as well as the Balkans and Eastern Europe strongly spread. It probably represents a preliminary stage of the Heptatonik, which decrease/go back to before-medieval sources.

In the extended chords of the jazz one often prefers a Pentatonik, which emphasizes the extensions. One playse.g. in C maj 9 a G dur pentatone scale instead of a C dur pentatone scale. Thus maj7 D becomes. h. H and 9 D. h. D clearly emphasized.

In improvisation practice one often limits oneself in the clay/tone supply to thosePentatonik. One uses either the Pentatonik the straight used Dur and/or. Molltonleiter, or however the Pentatonik straight of the used chord. (On the basis of the basic clay/tone of a scale or a chord in Dur the Quarte and the seventh are omitted in each case, inMoll is avoided the second and the sixth. It is directly, whether the appropriate interval purely, largely, small, decreased or is excessive.) by the delimitation on the Pentatonik in a free improvisation direction and prop tones is avoided, which inwrong connection uses a dissonance devoted could.

Hemitoni Pentatonik

beside the described Ganztonpentatonik gives it also the hemitonische (also as ditonisch designated) Pentatonik, in which half-tone steps as substantial characteristic occur. A outstanding example of a hemitonische Pentatonik alsothe tones e, f, A, h, C are the Icelandic Zwiegesänge.

see also


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