the perfect is in spoken German the dominating verb form for the description of passing.
The Präteritum against it, which expresses the same period as the perfect, is the telling time particularly in written texts.
Also from the medium - spoken language or writing - leave refraineddifferences between the perfect and the Präteritum constitute themselves. The perfect has the aspect of the punctual, completed action, which was locked in the past and effects on the present has. Ex.: „He ate. “→ „it is full. “The Präteritum (or imperfect) against it presses frequentlyout that an action had a certain duration in the past. Bsp: „You went and went and went. “
Table of contents
of examples of the conjugation
- I has worked
- you has worked
- er/sie/es has worked
- we to have worked
- it worked
- it to have worked
- infinitive: worked
„to be seen “(the passive)
- I was seen
- you was seen
- er/sie/es was seen
- we was seen
- to her was seen
- it was seen
„to go “(asset)
- I am gone
- you am gone
- er/sie/es went
- weare gone
- you are gone
- it are gone
multipart verb form
the German perfect consists of the personnel form of the temp-oral auxiliary verbs „to have “and „be “and the stating verb; in the passive still the form is added „“. The personnel form becomes in the presentconjugated. The stating verb always stands in the participle II and is alike therefore in each person. The participle II finds also in other connections use, for example than attributives adjective, where it is DEK-lined (example: „Cut bread schimmelt easily “).
comparison with othersVery
similarly to languages as the German perfect the passive latin perfect the passive is formed: With participle perfect the passive and a present form of eats („its “). Only for the German „“, which is redundant in the reason in addition, there is no correspondence in latin.
Ex.: Laudatus est.- It was praised.
In the asset latin perfect other ways than the German goes. The verbs have a special perfect trunk and personnel endings, which are reserved the perfect.
perfect with „have “or „to be “?
The perfect of most verbs will have with „“formed, in the rest of also with all reflexiven and/or. reflexiv verbs used.
With „its “ the perfect is formed by verbs, the one local change („from A to B “: come, go, drive, jump…) express. Sometimes these verbs are called also movement verbs.
Verbs, the one change in status (transitionfrom a condition into another) express (wake up, die, wither), form the perfect likewise with „its “.
There are regional differences with the formation of the perfect of verbs of the position (, lies etc. sits) - in the northern part of Germany with „“formed, in Austria, for thatSwitzerland and widen parts of South Germany however with „its “ (I am confessed, he am sat). Both is considered as correct.
replacement of the Präteritums by the perfect
This developmentis already in the south of the German linguistic area in 16. /17. Century occurred and is attributed to the loss „of the e “at the end of the Präteritumformen of regular verbs. More clearly than „he says “ and „he said “ appeared the form „he said “.
In the north of the German linguistic area leavesa gradual decrease of the Präteritums observe themselves. This is connected probably with the fact that the Präteritum forms in the colloquial language are gekünstelt increasingly as and felt coldly.
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