Pergament

Pergament is an easily worked on animal skin, which was used since the antiquity as describing off. It is thereby a forerunner of the paper.

production

Pergamentherstellung around 1568

Pergament consists of an animal skin, generally from calf, Cattle, sheep or goat. To the Pergamentherstellung it is eingeweicht in Kalkwasser. In this caustic solution the hair roots from the skin and the hair separate can afterwards be scraped off.

If the skin were cleaned by meat and hair,it is scraped into a framework strained and with measurer and pumice stone smoothly and polished. Contrary to the leather Pergament is not gegerbt and remains translucent thereby. Pergament from the skins of unborn animals was called Jungfernpergament (see also Velin).

history

the oldest Pergamentfunde from Egypt becomes on 2700 v. Chr. dated. The name Pergament is derived from the city Pergamon , in which it was allegedly invented. In reality it was however improved only clearly there.

Howthe Roman historical writer Plinius the older one reported, gave it between the brightistic kings to Eumenes II. of Pergamon and Ptolemäus Epiphanes of Egypt in 2. Century v. Chr. a prestige duel around the largest library of the world at that time.

Thus Eumenes the Egyptian Library in Alexandria not to exceed not to be able should, issued to Ptolemaios an export prohibition for papyrus, the then common write material. Thereupon in Pergamon the Pergament was developed as useful and soon even better alternative to the papyrus.

Pergament loosened the papyrus as write materialoff, since it is more flexible and more durable.

In addition Pergament can several times again be described, as the highest layer with pumice stone is sanded off (Palimpsest).

Since Pergament is translucent, also lamps and windows with Pergament were disguised.

Toward end of the The Middle Ages the Pergament was displaced increasingly by the paper.

On the one hand paper in the production became clearly more cheaply, on the other hand needed itself the always far spreading printing paper, because it absorbs the color better.

Echtpergament so mentioned (English: vegetable parchment)against it by chemicals and nassfest made Zellstoffpapier, which was manufactured industrially for the first time 1861 in England , is durably greaseproof. It develops in several separate processing steps.

The today's tracing paper as carriers for by hand made technical designs becomeslikewise as Pergament designates.

 

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