|spoken in:||Iran, Afghanistan, Tadschikistan, Usbekistan, Bahrain, Pakistan, India, Iraq, Europe, the USA|
|speakers:||60-70 million native speaker; approx. 110 million altogether|
|office language in:||Iran, Afghanistan, Tadschikistan|
|ISO 639 -1:||company|
|ISO 639 -2:||by||chamfer|
the Persian language or briefly: Persian (locally: فارسی, Fārsi or also درى, Dari mentioned) is the most important indogermanische language in the southwest Asia. It belongs to the Iranian branch of the indogermanischen language family.
Persian becomes from approx. 70 million humans as native language and of further 60 million than secondary language spoken,particularly in Iran and in adjacent areas live. About 35-40 million native speaker live further 15 million in Afghanistan (locally Dari called) in Iran, 15 million in Tadschikistan (see Tadschiki language) and in parts of Usbekistans, Pakistan and India. Besides there are important Persian sprachige municipalities in Bahrain, Iraq and in the USA.
There are smaller language islands among other things in Georgien, in Azerbaijan and in the Pamir - mountains. Strong influence has Persian also on writing andLanguage in Usbekistan and Kirgisistan taken as well as on Urdu (Pakistan) and Turkish, in smaller measure also on Arab and on the languages of the today's India. The German wave sends also in Persian (Farsi - Dari).
Many Persian words were transferred to European languages. In German one knowsamong other things the words „bazaar “(„Bazaar “), „cheque “, „caravan “, „Pistazie “, „chess “, „Paradies “, „scarf “or „Magier “.
Table of contents
short history of the Persian language
the Persian is written since islamizing in Arab writing, but with some additional letters because of the very different language. It possesses numerous Arab leaning words as well as an extensive literature.
The development of the IranianLanguages one arranges into three periods:
- old-Iranian (to 100 v. Chr.)
- centralIranian (100 v. Chr. to approximately 900 n. Chr.)
- again-Iranian (starting from 900 n. Chr).
- major items: OldIranian languages
from the old-Iranian dialects are only oldPersian and Avestisch sufficiently documents, the other languages of this group only indirectly. The designation „Avestisch “of the northeast language in the antique Perserreich comes of the Avesta, the holy writings of the Zoroastrismus. Apart from its religious use it however already diedCenturies before arising Islam out; probably the language dissolved in related Baktrisch . The oldPersian is from the southwest of the Achämenidenreiches (around 560 to 330 v. Chr.) delivers in cuneiform script texts. It was spoken there longer, thanAdministrative language served however rather Aramäi. OldPersian and Avestisch are very close to the Sanskrit and thus Ur-Indogermani; they belong just like Greek and latin to the inflecting languages, and are the ancestors of the today's newPersian.
In the difference toothe recent language stages had the oldPersian still another more complex grammar with up to seven Kasus and three Genera. Also the dual is still received beside singular and Plural. The verbal system is however already simplified opposite more ancient Avesti: The oldPersianno differentiation of imperfect, Aorist and perfect has more, but knows only a Präteritum.
|Overview: Iranian languages|
| Avestisch (approx. 1200-400 v. Chr.)|
| oldPersian (approx. 500-300 v. Chr.)|
(see also: Persian cuneiform script)
| Parthisch(approx. 300 v. Chr. - 300 n. Chr.)|
| centralPersian (approx. 300 v. Chr. - 900 n. Chr.)|
| Sogdisch (approx. 300 v. Chr. - 800 n. Chr.)|
| choir-mix (approx. 200 v. Chr. - 1400 n. Chr.)|
| Baktrisch (approx. 100 n. Chr. - 900 n. Chr.)|
| Sakisch (approx. 200 v. Chr. - 1000 n.Chr.)|
|again-Iranian languages (approx. since 900)|
| Persian (Fārsi, Dari) |
(see also: Tadschiki language)
| Kurmandschi (northwestKurdish)|
| Sorani (centralKurdish)|
| Zaza Gorani|
| Ossetisch (northeastIranian)|
| Paschtunisch (southeastIranian)|
the cuneiform script used for the oldPersian was invented particularly for it and is a left-to-right mixed according toand Silbenschrift (like the Indian writings), which is supplemented by 8 word characters and special numerals. Delivered are above all monumental inscriptions on rock or buildings. Usually still another elamische and a Babylonian stand apart from the old-Persian version.
- major items: CentralIranian languages
centralIranian were not only centralPersian and it related Parthi, but also some other languages of central Asia, like e.g. Baktri language, choir-mixes language, Saki language or Sogdi language. Parthisch became in the Arsakidenreich (about 250 pre to 226 after Christ) spoken. It is good by inscriptions of the first Sassaniden - kings documents, although it became extinct at that time already slowly. It affected however the centralPersian (also as Pahlavi and manichäisch admits), the language of the Sassanidenreichs (226-641).
CentralPersianis grammatically more simply than oldPersian and usually in a Aramäi writing one noted - thus with letters, which represent partially several sounds. It lost after the conquest of Persia by the Arabs (7. Century) at meaning, but becameits literature often in the Arab translates. Unfortunately most writings were lost to islamizing.
Other centralIranian languages of the sassanidischen area and central Asia are Charismisch (Corismisch) in Choresm, Soghdisch in the country suction Diana (see Samarkand and book era), Baktrisch in Baktrien(today north Afghanistan) and Sakisch under some Skythen in Chinese Turkistan and for buddhistische writings. In language both Christian and buddhistische and lay literature developed. Baktrisch is received in some inscriptions, which were discovered recently in Afghanistan and central Asia, charismischeTexts also still developed after islamizing.
newPersian developed up to 9. Century as international Standardsprache of central and southwest Asia. In Hebrew writing the written is Persian Jewish asearliest certification of the again-Persian language of special importance. It possesses such apart from parthischen and centralPersian portions (see above) also from other Iranian languages. In its public the newPersian is a mixture of the most important languages antique Iran. Even if thoseLanguage today Persian is called, is its origins not exclusive the oldPersian or centralPersian originating from the province Fars to be assigned. Since the language developed in central Asia, it is probable that this language affects the eastIranian languages (Baktrisch, Parthisch, Sogdisch) substantiallyhave. The number of parthischen and sogdischen leaning words in the modern newPersian is considerable, but within the core range the original Persian (southwestIranian) basis is still recognizable.
NewPersian the culture is - and office language in Iran, Afghanistan and Tadschikistans and becomesin one by four letters extended Syrian aramäischen („Arab “) writing written. But the relationship between spoken is to be classified newPersian and Arab writing as problematic. Persian a more regular and therefore simpler grammar than centralPersian has, as well as a simple Lautsystem and many Arab Leaning words. Many old-Persian inflections were lost (z. B. the Kasusflexion), just as the grammatical sex. Such language simplifications (in particular with inflections) step into many modern languages up z. B. in English, French and newGreek.
Dari, the again-Persian writing language, is the literary abbreviation of the Persian words Parsi e Darbâri. Literally translated the Persian word means „gate “, „door “, „threshold “during the word Bâr „audience “, „hearing “meant. Darbâri meant thus literally translates „gateto the audience “and in the extended sense „royal yard “;Parsi e Darbâri means „Persian the royal yard “and developed as writing language in 9. Century n. Chr. from the centralPersian in the cultural centers of the Persian Samaniden in central Asia. From there outspread it in completely Persia. The first author of the literature of the Dari is Rudaki. The Nezāmī born in the azarbaijanischen city Gäncä made a large contribution with its Pandsch Gandsch („five treasures “) for the development of the Dari literature.
In contrastto the normal Persian, it concerns with Dari around the written language, not the spoken language. Dari is quasi the skeleton of the modern newPersian, which is in Afghanistan , Tadschikistan and Iran the official national language. Dari does not know dialectsand is also even no dialect. However one can attribute all dialects of the modern Farsi to its written prototype Dari.
Far they Darbâri („newPersian “) avails themselves, contrary to the Parsi e Pahlavi („centralPersian “), of the Syrian aramäischen (Arab) writing and contains many Arab wordsand technical terms - particularly from the science and theology.
Dari was long time the Lingua Franca of the Orients and serves also today as such in many parts of central and south Asia. Besides Dari is considered as the language of the Sufismus, of themystischen Islam. Some the largest works of the Sufismus, among other things the works of the poets Rumi, Hafiz, Saadi, Omar Chayyām, Onsori and Ansari, in Dari were written.
As sample work of the Parsi e Darbâri the Schāhnāme is considered („bookthe kings “) of the poet Abū l-Qāsem-e Ferdousī. 35 years worked the poet on this work, which one of the earliest works of the newPersian is and besides only very few foreign words (Arab words) contains. Until today Ferdousīs Schāhnāme is thoseBasis of the Persian Nationalbewustseins in Iran, in Afghanistan and - above all - in Tadschikistan.
For some time quite often the word Dari with „Afghan Persian “is translated. That is indeed a wrong translation. Into that1960er years was ever more tried in the course of the Paschtunisierung Afghanistan to alienate and to the paschtunischen culture subordinate the Persian culture and history of Afghanistan. Thus Persian readers into the late 1960er were called still „Persian text books “, became then in „Parsi e DariText books “renamed and finally only too „Dari text books “reduces.
origin of the word Persian
the word Perser and/or. Farsi has its origin in the word Persis, a region in the south today's Iran and former center of the Persian world realm. Pars was the old designation for Persia as well as the name of the today's province Fars.
The wordwas originally the name a only one Iranian trunk. But after the triumphant advance of the Makedonen, which called all Iranian stämmigen humans in the Perserreich Perser, this term became ever more the self designation of the persischsprachigen population of this region, which Iranian descent was.
The Arabs, in 7. Century n. Chr. Persia in the indication Islam conquered, could not the sound „p “not express. Thus the old Greek-Persian Parsi became Farsi. Today this term is both the name of the population, andcolloquially the name of the Persian language.
Up to the triumphant advance of the Arabs the word Parsi was not a self designation of the Perser. Like all Iranian trunks also they preferred the identity their arischen (of =iranischen) ancestors, and called themselves Iranier and their country Iran (with different discussions: Aryana, Eran, Eron, Iran Shahr etc.)
1936the State of at that time Persia asked the international community to only call the country from now on Iran - under substantial protests of the neighbour state Afghanistan, which, as today also Tadschikistan stresses, likewise the term culturally for itself.
Today one differentiatesbetween:
- Iranian = citizen of the Islamic Republic of Iran
- Iranier = humans of Iranian descent, i.e. Descendant of the former Iranian Baktrier, Perser, Meder, Sogdier, part ago, etc. In the closer sense it concerns thereby mainly the today'sPerser (Tadschiken), Kurd and Paschtunen. In the Persian mythology the word refers only to the Perser.
- Perser = persischsprachige population of Iranian origin. The Kurds and Paschtunen are therefore no Perser, because they do not speak Persian,separate their own Iranian languages have.
- Tadschiken = oldTurkish name for Perser, which live in central Asia. Today the word refers almost exclusively to the persischsprachige, Iranian population in Tadschikistan, Usbekistan and Afghanistan. Contrary to the word Perserthe word did not become generally accepted Tadschik until today as self designation of that population.
- Persian (Farsi) = the actual Persian language
- Dari = the Persian writing language and direct predecessor today's modern Persian dialects. Dari is likewise the official name thatPersian language in Afghanistan and the name of an ancient dialect of zoroastrischen Persern in the south today's Iran.
article, Pronomen, Plural
In place of Possessivpronomen either the Personalpronomen or a personnel ending is attached to the noun or the preposition. This happens by means of the Ezafe („adding “), alsoduring the genitive connection of two Nomen one uses (noun + noun or noun + adjective).
Present and Präteritum are formed, by adding a personnel ending to the appropriate verb trunk. In the presentstill the prefix mi is hung before the verb trunk, except with the verbs budan („its “) and dâschtan („to have “).
The Konjunktiv is used in similar way as in Roman languages and more frequently than in German. As important time form still the Durativ is to be called, which expresses a continuing or repeated activity.
There the verb trunkwithin a time form one does not change (in contrast z. B. to some verbs in the German present: „you g i bst “, „we g e ben “), are very regular the Persian verb conjugation.
except the cultural similaritiesthe indogermanischen peoples exist this very day similarities in the vocabulary of these languages. This can have different causes:
- Leaning words (selection of Persian leaning words in German)
- common indogermanischer vocabulary (with comparison of older language stages larger thing in common)
- coincidence, sound painting etc.
On the indogermanischeRelationship of numerous Persian terms is to be closed by the komparative method as well as the laws over the sound shift.
|old Persian||centralPersian||again Persian||old-Greek||Latin||German||English||Polish|
|pitar||pidar||pedar پدر||pater πατηρ||pater||father||more father||ojciec|
|mātar||mād (acre)||mādar مادر||meters μητηρ||mould||nut/mother||matka|
|brātar||brād (acre)||barādar برادر||adelphos αδελφος||frater||brother||roast|
|?||ducht (acre)||dochtar دختر||thygater θυγατηρ||filia||daughter||more daughter||curka|
|nāman||nām||nām نام||onoma ονομα||nomen||name||name||imię|
|martiya (mortal ones)||mard||mard مرد||more aner ανηρ||four||men (mortal one)||one (mortal ones)||męszczyzna|
|dadā tanaiy||dādan||dādan دادن||didomi διδωμι||dare||give||give||dać|
|hischta tanaiy||awischtadan||istādan ايستادن||histemi ίστημι||sistere||place themselves||stood||stać|
|mām (me)||one (I)||one (I) من||eme εμε||ME||me||ME (I, me)||mnie|
|pandsch||pandsch||pandsch پنج||πεντε quinque||five||five||pięć||hafta|
|detention||detention||pente هفت||hepta επτα||septem||sieved||seven||they that|
|utā||ud||wa/o و||dock και||et||and||and||i|
|rāsta||rāst||rāst راست||orthos ορθος||rectus||quite, correctly, on the right of||right||prawy|
|yaug||dschog||dschok||?||iokus||are missing||to joke||joke|
żart there indications for the representation of old and centralPersian, only newPersian and oldGreek in Orginalschrift one indicated.
|*indogermanisch||sanskrit||old Persian||again Persian||Greek||Latin||German||Polish|
|*esmi||asmi||amiy||astam استم||eimi ειμι||sum||I am||jestem|
|*essi||asi||(not testified)||asti استى||egg ει||it||you am||jesteś|
|*esti||asti||astiy||branch است||esti εστι||est||it am||jest|
|*smesi/*smosi||smas||amahiy||astim استيم||esmen εσμεν||sumus||we are||jesteśmy|
|*stes||stha||(not testified)||astid استيد||este εστε||estis||it are||jesteście|
|*senti||santi||hatiy||branch and استند||eisin εισιν||sunt||them are||są|
|*indogermanisch||sanskrit||old Persian||again Persian||Greek||Latin||altslawisch||ahd.||German|
|*bhero||bharami||baramiy||mi-baram مىبرم||phero φερω||fero||bera||biru||I bring|
|*bheresi||bharasi||(not testified)||mi-bari مىبرى||phereis φερεις||fers||beresi||biris||you bring|
|*bhereti||bharati||baratiy||mi-barad مىبرد||pherei φερει||fert||beretu||it||, it, it birit brings|
|*bheromes||bharamas||baramahiy||mi-barim مىبريم||pheromen φερομεν||ferimus||beremu||berames||we bring|
|*bherete (s)||bharata||(not testified)||mi-barid مىبريد||pherete φερετε||fertis||berete||beret||it brings|
|*bheronti||bharanti||barātiy||mi-barand مىبرند||pherusin φερουσιν||ferunt||beratu||berant||it bring|
this are only some examples. Who knows the numbers from 1 to 10 on Persian, she can understand also in the Polish one. The similarities between the older language stages (old Persian, avestisch) and Sanskritare not clearest only on the basis the vocabulary. OldGreek also particularly close relationship exhibits. German however is one of the languages, which departed furthest from the indogermanischen languages.
Other examples: murders - lat. mors, mortis „dead “, setāre „Star “, zamin - polarize. ziemia „earth “, tons „you “, DO - frz. deux „two “, pandsch - altgriech. penta „five “, schesch - polarize. szejść „six “, Pa - lat. pedes „foot “, tarik - English. dark „darkly “, bordan - burden „“, „carry “, sepās - soot. spassiba /lat. pesco „thanks “, gereftan „seize “, well „no “, yogh „yoke “, dschawan - lat. iuvencus, English. (out lat.) juvenile „young “, schakkar - griech. saccharon „sugars “, garm „warmly “, musch „mouse “, altp. nav - lat. navis „ship “, altp. upari - griech. hyper, lat. super „over “u.v.a.
A characteristic exists in the Persian one in it that original groups of consonants of the indoeuropäischen root in the Anlaut were broken open by a vowel, see. e.g. b [A] râdar „brother “, g [e] reftan „seize “, s [e] târe „star “. This development might under the influence of the Arab one happened its, since she is to be found only in the newPersian, which developed during and to the Arab tower.
Arab leaning words in the Persian one
a large part of the today's Persian vocabulary originates from the Arab one, whereby itself despite adapted discussionby the original Arab Orthographie one keeps accurate. For many of these words there are Persian correspondences, which are to be assigned however partially to another style level or are used simply more rarely. The influence of the Arab one becomes particularly clear with the compoundVerbs, those often from an Arab noun and a Persian verb with comparatively nonspecific meaning (e.g. „make “or „give “) exist.
Turned around also Arab numerous words out of the Persian one took. Many Iranian words are as leaning words by Iranian supremacy,in particular by the persischsprachige Mogulherrschaft, to India arrives. Also Turksprachen, above all the old Osmani language, have many Persian leaning words.
the today's Persian is written with Arab letters (to to latin the transcription see Persian Transkription). In order to be able to show different sounds, which there were not in the Arab one, the Arabic alphabet was extended by four letters. The Persian alphabet covers altogether 32 letters.
two letters are graphically somewhat differently implemented in the Persian one in the isolated position than in the Arab one:
|Discussion||original Arab letter||changed Persian letter||name|
|[j] and [i:], occasionally [A:]||ي orى||ی||ye/yā|
- major item: Persian literature
The today's was coined/shaped Persian above allby the Persian Dichtkunst. Two well-known poets of Persia were Saadi and Hafes. Also Goethe let himself be inspired in the westeastern Diwan of Hafes. Other well-known poets are Rumi, Omar Chayyām, Rudaki, Ferdousī or Dschami. Also manyWorks of Persian scientists - like z. B. the mathematician aluminium-Chwarizmi or the physician Ibn Sina (Avicenna) - are to be mentioned here.
Web on the left of
|Wikipedia on Persian|