, from each other independent States of the same head of state have personnel union with a personnel union. In a broader sense the term is used, if different offices or functions are in such a manner coupled that they are always noticed by the same person.
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combination of countries
the government of several countries in personnel union played particularly into the Feudalzeit a large role. Until far in 18. and 19. Century inside gaveit usually no uniform “state”, but a larger monarch governed a more or a multiplicity of countries with ever own conditions, systems of government and ständischen participation rights.
The modern state formation since that 18. Century set on standardization of these varieties. But also then it gave occasionally furtherPersonnel unions. The modern states concerned of it had the same ruler, however likewise after different laws were led and remained separated legally. The modern trend for state standardization was connected however since that for 19. Century with that of the nationalism, and in the course of the national state formation prevailing at that timeeither nor existing personnel unions disintegrated, or they were solidified to a material union. With the material union developed a new, united total state, which was integrated firmly not only over the person of the monarch, but over further institutions ( condition, parliament , army etc.).
Examples ofPersonnel unions are:
- Israel in the time of approx. 1025-926 v. Chr. under the kings Saul, David and Salomo.
- Austria Hungary between 1867 and 1918; the emperor of Austria was in personnel union also king of Hungary; the two states were however also by material union elementsclasped, approximately by a common foreign policy, a common army and common parliamentary consultative organs.
- Personnel union between the Kingdoms of Hungary and Croatia of 1102 - 1918 see to history of Croatia
- 1386 Polish Litaui personnel union (Jagiellonen dynasty) and starting from 1569 Polish Litaui material union (see also aristocracy republic).
- Personnel union between England and Scotland of 1603 - 1707 (starting from 1707 material union Great Britain, thus state-legal combination).
- similarly personnel union between England (and/or. starting from 1707 Great Britain) and Ireland already since the Middle Ages, last militarily forced around 1690 and around 1740, since 1801 as material union between Great Britain and Ireland (“united kingdom”),after longer civil war 1922 under dismissal of the Free State Ireland into independence reduction to the material union between Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
- Personnel union between Great Britain and Hanover von Georg I. to William IV.. By different in Hanover and Great Britain (female succession to the throne or not) those became successor-successfulPersonnel union 1837 solved.
- Personnel union between Spain and Portugal (1580 - 1640).
- To Kalmarer union between Denmark, Norway and Sweden (1389 - 1521) see history of Norway.
- Union between Denmark and Norway (1521 - 1814).
- Union between Norwayand Sweden (1814 - 1905).
- Iceland was, after it was recognized of Denmark 1918 as own state, connected until 1944 further by the person of the common king with Denmark (since that time republic).
- Cure principality Saxonia and Poland under August the strong one and August III. (there Poland choice monarchy was, existed several times personnel union with other countries).
- Combination of the Mark Brandenburg and Prussia 1701 by coronation/culmination Friedrich III. from Brandenburg to the king Friedrich I. in Prussia.
- The kings Karl XI. and the XII. were at the same time kings of Sweden and dukes of Pfalz Zweibrücken.
- The kings of Denmark were until 1864 also dukes of Schleswig and Holstein and from 1667 to 1773 governing counts of Oldenburg.
- The Russian Zaren governed the rule Jever from 1793 to 1807.
- Duchy Warsaw and Saxonia at present Napoleons.
combination of functions
- the king of the united kingdom from Great Britain and Northern Ireland is at the same time:
- the Pope is:
- each cardinal is at the same time over a Roman title church member of the Klerus of Rome.
- That Patriarch of Konstantinopel is:
- Patriarch of the Ökumeni Patriarchats of Konstantinopel
- head of the Weltorthodoxie
German Empire of (1871-1918)
- the Prussian king was at the same time German emperor
- the Prussian Prime Minister was at the same time German realm Reich
- the term personnel union is very far seized, can one also use it, if a Minister (if necessary. temporarily) leads several Ministries.
- The Austrian Federal President is also commander in chief of the federal army.
- the president of the Federal Statistical Office is always also a federal returning officer: Here in fact, but not de jure one liesPersonnel union forwards.
- Certain office-holders in the public service are determination persons of the public prosecutor's office.