# Perspective

 of these articles treats the perspective in the geometrical sense, further meanings sees to perspective (term clarifying)
2-Fluchtpunktperspektive: a vanishing point lies right, the other one to the left of the picture.

Perspective (lat. by mirror-image cerium,) summarize the possibilities see through in such a way of illustrating three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional surface that neverthelessspatial impression develops.

## Kinds of perspectives

• geometrical projection procedures
• central projection: Sehstrahlen proceed from one August point, spaceparallel edges seem in the projection in one point aligning
• Zentralperspektive: Central projection, a space edge is appropriate parallel to the image plane, this picture parallel is illustrated, the other one orthogonal in addition - for of themSpace edges aligning in one point
• on/off perspective: Central projection, the horizon-parallel space edges are not image plane and aligning in their respective vanishing point, the vertical ones picture parallel are illustrated.
• Frog perspective: Central projection, it does not give image plane-parallel space edges, point of August is under the shown article
• to bird perspective: Central projection, it givesimage plane-parallel space edges, point of August does not lie over the shown article
• fish eye projection: spherical projection. Lines, which do not go through the center, are illustrated curved, surfaces at the edge smaller, than in picture center, the point of view reach 180 degrees and more.
• Parallelprojektion: Sehstrahlen run parallel, spaceparallel edgesin the projection are likewise parallel illustrated.
• Panorama picture: With the panorama picture the illustration takes place first on a cylindric surface, which can be rolled up then into one level. In addition, there are large panoramas, which are set up as cylinders. Parallel lines become parallel only in the special caseillustrated. One reaches a point of view of 180 degrees and more (up to 360 degrees).
• Meaning perspective, term in the painting. The size of the represented figures and articles depends on their picture meaning, not of the spatial-geometrical conditions.
• Air and color perspective: the color and luminance contrasts takeinto the distance off colors appears more matte to represent or illustrate mostly more brightly and
in blue shifted

## [

work on] history spatial situations was perspective procedures already the Romans well-known. In Pompeji Wandfresken were found, which should continue the area into a painted garden.In the centuries following on it this knowledge was not developed further; the earlyChristian and medieval painting availed itself almost exclusively of the “meaning perspective”, i.e. the size of the represented persons and articles was determined by their meaning in the picture, not by their spatial arrangement. One obtained spatial effectalmost exclusively by the window blind effect. In the Renaissance the Zentralperspektive became (in connection with the Camera Obscura) (again) discovered, which corresponds in for instance seeing with an eye or a distortion-free photographic illustration. “Painter architects” like Filippo Brunelleschi, Leon Battista Alberti and Giottocreated works, which showed motives of the Christian iconography in spatially correctly designed architecture window blinds. </br> In a book from the year 1436 Leon Battista Alberti described the mathematical methods, with which on paintings a perspective effect was to be obtained. Albrecht Dürer published 1525 its book Underweysung thatmeasurement with zirckel un richtscheyt, which represented the first summary of the mathematical-geometrical procedures of the Zentralperspektive and so that also the bases of representing geometry forms.

## examples of perspectives

### ISO-metric projection

military perspective

in technical representations prefers parallel projection procedures (howe.g. the isometry) related. With a ISO-metric projection the units of all three axes of coordinates in the same yardstick are represented, i.e. Distances, which lie parallel to the axes of coordinates, are illustrated true to scale. An example is the military perspective, with which the sketch is undistorted.

### Axonometri representation

cabinet perspective

during a axonometrischen representation the yardsticks are different along the axles. As example the “Kavalierperspektive” is mentioned, with their is undistorted the diagram, distances, which run perpendicularly for this, (in the picture with the factor 0.5) shortened is represented.

This perspective becomes traditional inthe Chinese painting uses.

### Zentralperspektive

In architecture and the illustration the so-called become. Zentralperspektive uses. In the Zentralperspektive spaceparallel edges are represented not illustration, but unite in an apparent point, to that so-called. Vanishing point, which is used with the vanishing point perspective.The simplest form of the perspective forms the Zentralperspektive with a vanishing point:
Zentralperspektive

those the viewer turned surfaces of the object are picture parallel, while the space edges leading into the depth of the area unite apparently in a vanishing point on the horizon.

Further variants place the perspectives with two- also overhitting a corner perspectives mentioned - or three vanishing points:

 two vanishing points of three vanishing points - bird perspective of three vanishing points - frog perspective

there with a perspective with three vanishing points the horizon necessarily upward, and/or. down, calls one moves the respective illustrations also frog perspective or bird perspective.

computer-generated relief model

### cylindrical projection

different artists like e.g. M. C. E with further variants of the perspective experimented, like e.g. the cylindrical projection. With this perspective panoramas of 180° are more perspectively material representable and, straight lines distort themselves however toocurved curves. An example of it is Eschers Lithografie stairway I from the year 1951 (with “Krempeltierchen”).

### relief perspective

this Perspektivart leads not to a complete 2D-Darstellung, but shortened only one dimension of the 3D-Raums strongly. The appearance changes from a firmObjects did not regard point of August, since in the back lying objects are made smaller also accordingly with an accurate relief

### reverse perspective

Dreifaltigkeitsikone of Andrej Rubljow

with two eyes see one at close range articles lying more near more narrowly, than further remove lying. The effect results from thatzweiäugige (spatial) seeing. If one sees only with an eye, seeing corresponds to the normal perspective. The geometrical perspective considers only seeing with an eye. In the Fernbereich the viewing distance does not play a role and one sees as with the geometrical perspective.

The reverse perspective becamefor example in the Byzantine icon painting applied, together with the meaning perspective. Parallel lines in picture parts approach on the viewer, as it is to be seen with the foot banks of the Dreifaltigkeitsikone.

With photographic illustrations one knows the perspective by application of a mathematical transformationcompensate by means of “reverse perspective” (inverse perspective mapping), so that parallel lines appear again parallel and again occur the original relative importance.

### meaning perspective

in the time before the Wiederentdeckung of the geometrical perspective were used in board pictures the so-called “meaning perspective”. The size and adjustment thatin the picture represented persons after their meaning one selected: important Protagonisten published largely, fewer important was smaller represented, even if these are spatially before the other person. In the picture example right the quasi-ISO-metric perspective of the foot banks refers only to the respective figure -in graphic kompositorischer regard this arrangement makes (laminar) the opening possible of the image space to the background. The “meaning perspective” was used in the icon painting and is also today still in the naive painting to be found. Also in the old-Egyptian forming art there was the “meaning perspective” already. During the Pharaotogether with wife in full size, showed one was explained slaves and yard state very many smaller. This is however not to be rated so much as conscious artistic decision, but usually a consequence of the kind, in which our brain interprets pictures.

### air and color perspective

An example of Luftperspektive in the photography

air and color perspective must be differentiated.

With the Luftperspektive a depth impression is produced, as

• the contrasts decrease from the front to the rear.
• the brightness from the front to the rear increases.

The color perspective provides for a depth impression, by in the front, centraland background different colours dominance to be used. In the foreground warm colors (yellow, orange, red, brown) dominate, in the middle ground green tones and in the background blue tones. Instead can also a green and/or. Blaustichigkeit are present.