Peru

of these articles treats the State of Peru. For further meanings see to Peru (term clarifying)
República del Perú
Republic of Peru
Flagge Perus Wappen Perus
(detail) (detail)

Wahlspruch: Libertad y medal
(splinter for „liberty and order “)

office languages Spanish, Quechua, Aymara
capital Lima
system of government Republic of
president Alejandro Toledo Manrique
head of the government Pedro Pablo Kuczynski
surface 1.285.220 km ²
number of inhabitants 27.925.628 (19. June 2005)
Population density of 21.4 inhabitants per km ²
independence from Spain to 28. July 1821
currency Nuevo Sol (PEN) 1€ = approx. 3.85 Nuevo Sol
time belt UTC -5
national anthem Somos of libres, seámoslo siempre
Kfz characteristics PE
Internet TLD .pe
preselection +51
illiterate rate 11%
Lage Perus in Südamerika
Karte Perus
climatic regions
Klimadiagramm Lima (Costa)
climatic diagram Lima (Costa)
Klimadiagramm Cuzco (Sierra)
climatic diagram Cuzco (Sierra)
Klimadiagramm Iquitos (Selva)
climatic diagram Iquitos (Selva)

Peru (Spanish República del Perú, officially Republic of Peru) is a state in South America and borders on Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia and Chile.

Table of contents

Geografie

landscape zones

Peru possesses three completely different climatic regions:

Costa

Ica in der peruanischen Costa
Ica into the Peruvian Costa

the Costa stands under the influence of the Humboldtstroms and is to a large extent a coastal desert, in only along outagriculture is possible for the Anden of coming rivers, in river oases.

In the south of Peru, at the border to Chile, the driest desert of the earth begins, the Atacama - desert. Within the southern range of the Costa until Lima, approximately on thatHalf of the coastal strip lies, is extremely rare rainfalls during the yearly.

North of Lima soil quality and rainfall increase somewhat, so that also agriculture is possible outside of the river oases here. The temperatures vary between 12 °C in the winter and 35°C in the summer.

Sierra

Sierra bei Cuzco
Sierra with Cuzco

behind the narrow coastal region begins the Sierra. It consists those of several mountain courses of the Anden, from longitudinal valleys (splinter callejón or valle) to be interrupted. For the entire and region are typicalin addition deeply cut valleys (Canyon) and break-throughs of the mountain chains (splinter Pongo) by large rivers, at the west and eastern side of the Kordillere.

Ancash shows up a typical cross section of the Anden in the central region: Of westafter east that is „the black Kordilleren “(Cordillera Negra, to approx. 5,000 m), followed of the Callejón de Huaylas (around 3.000 m). The next mountain course are the “white Kordilleren” (Cordillera Blanca), here is the highest mountainPeru, the Huascarán (6,768 m). Far direction the east the Callejón de Conchucos ( with the river Marañón , a source river of the Amazon ) extends, replaced from further mountain ranges.

The highest mountains are Nevado Huascarán (6768 m), Yerupaja (6634 m), Coropuna (6425 m), Ampato (6310 m), Chachani (6075 m) and Volcán Misti (5822 m) -

while in the north of the country the Anden not up to the snow border rich and (climatic zone of the Paramo), show they are very vegetation-rich itself in the central areavery steeply, partly with broader valleys and high mountains with eternal snow and ice (glacier). In the middle south of Peru (starting from the degree of latitude of the capital Lima) the landscape shows up rather „hilly “between 3.000 and 4,000 meters, with fewsalient snow-covered mountain massifs over 5,000 meters.

Machu Picchu

starting from here direction the south arise likewise to volcanic cone with partial sporadic, volcanic activity, and and chain spreads strongly, with development of few mountain chains and intermediate hilly Hochebenen. In the south of the country(in the regions Arequipa, Puno, Moquegua and Tacna) in particular a certain flattening of the Hochebene, it shows up forms for the so-called Altiplano, which receives its typical development around the Titicacasee.

The middle yearly temperature in 3.300 mHeight is with 11 °C. Every now and then violent rainfalls from October are to be expected to April in the region rather of light precipitation. Larger cities in this region are Huaraz (a Paradies for Bergkletterer) and Cuzco.

In the proximity Cuzcos lies alsothe legendary Inka - city Machu Picchu.

Selva

eastern of the Anden begins the rain forest region („Selva “). The transition is thereby flowing, since there is a tropical mountain forest, in which a milder climate prevails.

Selva bei Puerto Maldonado
Selva with Puerto Maldonado

inthe region determined by time of day climate amounts to the annual average temperature approx. 26 °C and the yearly precipitation reaches up to 3,800 mm. There rise also further source rivers of the Amazon, which flows by the Amazon basin toward Brazil.

The Peruvian rain forest is closeand nearly impenetrably. The rivers, which flow from the chains of the Anden into far river loops to the Amazon, are the only traffic veins by the far forest areas.

The only larger and also cities in this region, important for the tourism, are Iquitos and Puerto Maldonado. Iquitos is attainable by Lima from not on the Landweg, but only with the airplane or the boat. Puerto Maldonado can by boat, airplane (1 ½ h to Lima; ½ h von Cuzco) and by truck(24-60 h) by Cuzco to be reached.

waters

most important rivers in Peru are the Amazon and its source rivers Río Apurímac, Río Urubamba, Río Ucayali and Río Marañón, in addition the Amazon tributaries Napo, Putumayo and Huallaga.

The largest and most important lakes of Peru are the Titicacasee and the Lago Junín between and chains.

Flora and fauna

the Flora Peru are very varied and various. In the dry and sandigen coastal plains only few growGrasses and bushes. In the rain forest regions one finds however a large abundance at plants. Representatives of these vegetations are among other things india rubber - and Mahagonibäume, Zedern and Vanillepflanzen. In the high mountains only a meager lies due to the natural conditionsPlant variety forwards. Here grow mainly drying plants (Xerophyten), as for instance Kakteen and Mesquiten.

Just as the Flora has to offer also the animal world of Peru large variety. In the coastal plain and on the coasts pre-aged islands live sea gulls and Seeschwalben, lizards, scorpios, seals and penguins. In the Peruvian territorial waters one finds among other things Sardinen, lobsters and Makrelen. Animals of the more fruitful regions in the east are for example armadillos, alligators, Jaguare, Pumas, Parrots and flamingos. , One finds the national animal of Peru , the red rock cock (Rupicola peruviana) in the Manu national park.

cities

the largest cities are Lima (7.363.069 Einw.), Arequipa (860.000), Trujillo (861,044), Chiclayo (634,600), Callao (824.329) and Iquitos (400.000).

See also: List of the cities in Peru

population

Ein großer Teil der indigenen Bevölkerung Perus arbeitet im informellen Sektor. Hier eine Blumenverkäuferin aus Ayacucho (Peru) in typischer Kleidung der dortigen Quechua
a large part of the indigenen population of Peru works in the informal sector. Here a Blumenverkäuferin from Ayacucho (Peru) in typical clothes of the there Quechua

Peru is beside Bolivia and Guatemalaone of the three countries with by the majority indianischer population. 45 per cent of the inhabitants are indianischer descent, they belong predominantly to the Quechua (40%) and Aymará (5%) speaking peoples. 37% the inhabitant are Mestizen, 15% are European descent andthe remaining 3% are African in each case and asiatic descent.

The high Zuwanderung into the capital, in which approximately a third of the population is concentrated, released by migration from the land, entails large social problems: a substantial part above all that indigenen population in Lima lives below and/or. at the edge of the poverty border.

Approximately two and a half million Peruaner live due to a continuous emigration abroad, particularly in the USA, Europe and Japan.

history

major item: History of Peru

Peru is a country with thousands of years old prä inkaischen cultures. The first immigrants came about 20,000 to 10,000 v. Chr. into today's Peru. About 4,000 v. Chr. agriculture and cattle breeding began. The earliest today still recognizable advanced culture was those the Chavínde Huántar, of approximately 800 v. Chr. to 300 v. Chr. existed. Around the Titicacasee 1 developed starting from that. Century v. Chr. until approximately 1000 n. Chr. the Tiahuanaco - culture. At the coast that developed in the irrigation areaAndenflüsse im ersten Jahrtausend n. Chr. differentiated cultures like those the Moche in the region around Lambayeque. Before the Inkareich Chanchan was as capital of the Chimú a large city with developed urban culture.

The realm of the Inka developed around 1200and re-clamped to 1532 large parts of the today's states Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile. The city Cuzco lain on the Hochebenen of Peru was the capital of the Inka realm.

The Spaniards conquered this country starting from 1532and created for the Spanish crown the viceroy realm Peru, which reached on its high point from today's Panama to the extreme south of the continent.

1821 were released the country by José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar and received itsIndependence. Rebellions and civil wars prevented however the development of a modern state.

The today's Peruvian national coat of arms became official to 25. February 1825 by law of the national congress determined. The design comes from the parliamentarian José Gregorio Paredes.

Sea-battle of 1879 between Chileand Peru around Tarapaca
1879 broke out the saltpeter war , because Bolivia and Chile had argued since the declarations of independence of both countries by O'Higgins in Chile 1817 and Bolivar in Bolivia 1825 about the region Antofagasta. Peru possessed several guano andMine enterprise in the disputed area, Bolivia offered in case of an alliance economic privileges in Antofagasta to Peru. In addition Peru saw its political and economic supremacy, which had taken over the country from the colonial age as former viceroy realm of Spain, endangered by Chile in the south Pacific.1874 were closed with Bolivia a secret pact against Chile. This alliance could not prevent however the victory of Chile. Bolivia withdrew itself 1880 after several lost battles from the war and did completely without its requirement on the region Antofagasta.Chile had marched in the meantime to the north into the Peruvian region Tarapaca and offered to Peru the armistice and a peace treaty. Peru refused however surrendering Tarapaca to Chile. Chile started a war of invasion in the following years, and marched 1881 after thatDestruction of the Peruvian army into the capital Lima. The official government was dissolved, and the Chilean general Patricio lynch as a governor of the country one used. However were some Peruvian generals such as Miguel Iglesias and Andres Caceres escape and tried,to lead from the eastern and northern Sierra an organized guerrilla war, with rather doubtful success. Caceres created it in July 1883 still to place a conventional division of 1500 men in order to aim at a last Befreiungschlag. However last hopes becamein the battle of Huamachuco of the Chilean Colonel Alejandro Gorostiaga destroys, which was war finally lost. In the peace treaty of Ancon in October 1883 the end of the war was sealed, Tarapaca and Tacna were surrendered to Chile, and the chilensiche armywithdrew itself from Peru.

between 1968 and 1980 governed military a junta the country and tried to establish by soil and restaurant economics a socialist system. 1980 took over the 1968 fallen Fernando Belaúnde Terry as a selected presidentagain power and handed the put under state control enterprises over again into private property.

In the 1980-he 1980 the left-wing oriented Guerilla began - organization Sendero Luminoso („bright path “) an armed fight against the government. Both sides committed cruel massacres at the civilian population, around these toodiscipline. The activity of the Sendero Luminoso lasted into the 1990er-Jahre. The other left Guerilla of the country, Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru, rejected force against the civilian population.

See also: List of the presidents of Peru, list of the prime ministersfrom Peru

politics

the government are representatively, decentralized and according to the principle of the division of power developed. To the priority interests of the state the defense of the national sovereignty, the protection of the population from threat of their security as well as those belongPromotion of the common weal. In the reality however engraving political, social and economic problems exist despite some externaleconomical successes.

political reform not yet strengthened

although Peru since 1980 as Präsidialrepublik designation, is the democratization process up to now littlestrengthened. So the international promotion for human rights could determine 2000 substantial irregularities during the election campaigns in the year. For the financing of the election campaigns tax fundses and also the military were used were not only as neutral observers locally. Besides is the desiredDecentralization and regionalization of the country so far not over beginnings away come. The national income flows further after Lima and by the there national organizations the individual municipalities is assigned. From the decentralization desired the State of a discharge that promises itselfCentre government and by regional independence a positive effect on the economic development of the country.

task of the president

after the condition of 1993 is selected every five years a president by the people, who cannot be red-elect. Alejandro Toledo Manrique of the party Perú Posible is since 2001 a current president of the Republic of Peru. To the extensive fields of application of the president belong the agency of the state inward and outside, the guidance of the general government politics, the summoning to thatElections to the office of the president and the congress as well as the fulfilment and keeping of the condition and the laws. Toledo could not fulfill so far high expectations of the population. Still no measurable successes leave themselves with the fight of the seriousUnemployment and the poverty determine.

elections in Peru

to 8. April 2001 presidency and congress elections were held. Alejandro Toledo, persistent adversary Alberto Fujimoris, succeeded it, to combine 36.51% of the voices after itself followed surprisingly ofFormer presidents Alan García (25.78%) and the candidate of the Christian people's party to the right PPC, Lourdes Flores nano (24.30%). From this reason became at the 3. June 2001 a ballot between Toledo and García held. In a dramatic exit defeated outpoor conditions coming Toledo its contractor García with 6 per cent points difference. The party Toledos, Perú Posible, was established as a political alternative. In the congress Perú Posible 45, the APRA 26, has Unidad Nacional 17 and FIM 11 of the 120receive seats the available. The choice winner has the support of the FIM (11), the people action AP (3), SOMOS PERU (4), UPP (6) and Renacimiento Andino (1) receive, with which the government party possesses a majority of 70 seats in the congress. Toledo hadto the increasing criticism several times with a cabinet reorganization react to its government (last in the August 2005, after which resignation of the Prime Minister Ferrero). To emphasize are the designations of Kuczynski as Ministers of Finance (in the 1. Government cabinet Toledos already Ministers of Finance) and of Carlo Ferrero asPrime Minister, which separating Jaime Quijandra and Silva Ruete as well as the appointment of Fernando Olivera as the minister of foreign affairs, which released the resignation Ferreros.

With the local and regional elections of November 2002 it succeeded the APRA, first political Kraft inTo become country. In 12 of the 25 regions and in 10 large cities of the country now the APRA places the political point.

elections of 2006

major items: Elections in Peru 2006

to 9. April 2006 the presidency elections took place. AfterCounting of approximately 85 per cent of the voting cards received Ollanta Humala to 30.9 per cent of the voices. The former president Alan García follows it with 24,7%. At this time at place 3 (only scarcely 1% behind García) the right-conservative Lourdes Flores nano lies,still few months ago as a safe winner one acted. Only some hundred voices will decide over lining up between García and Lourdes. Since none of the candidates has the necessary absolute majority, it becomes fixture. In the middle of May a ballotbetween Humala and - most likely - García come.

For the parliament Humalas UPP received 44 seats, Garcías APRA of 35 seats. The center right alliance national unit (Unidad Nacional) from Flores receives 19 mandates.

pressure groups in the country

itself outthe large basic owners of the high country and the coast recruiting Peruvian elite over centuries as oily archie the country governed, by the agrarian reform of 1969 it their power basis was only extracted. In the years after new pressure groups arose themselves in addition,Industry and financial activities concentrated, to a large part of European descent were and of the protectionism of the state lived. Fujimoris entrance in the policy and the consistent penetration of a neoliberalen economic policy on South American soil led to a restructuring of the power bloc: During someGroups in weight lost, arose new, more competitive groups. Nowadays exist to the ten economic groups, which exert a strong influence on economics and politics.

administrative arrangement

major item: Peruvian regions

Peru is in 26 regions (Regiones), 194 provinces (Provincias) and 1,821 districts (Distritos) arranged. Since the regionalization of the country in the year 2002 are the regions autonomy units with directly selected organs.

infrastructure

the most important traffic routes for the country are the Panamericana and the sea routes to North America, Eastern Asia and Europe.

Peru possesses 3,462 km railroad line, 72,900 km roads and 254 airports.

By the extremely large differences in height of the Anden larger infrastructural problems exist particularly along the west east axle. This shows upat the small portion of the paved motor roads, straight once 9,331 km and/or. 13% amount to. Thus strengthens the peripheral character of the Selva region, which is hardly settled, which means again that the Landbevölkerung in these areas not of the economicalUpswing of the coastal regions profits.

economics

major item: Economics of Peru

Obstverkäuferin in typischer Kleidung auf dem Markt in Ayacucho
fruit shop assistant in typical clothes on the market in Ayacucho
Strassenhändler beim Verkauf von Orangen im Zentrum Limas
street trader with the sales of oranges in the center of Lima

Peru has a guided national economy, which dereguliert in the last years increasinglyand one denationalized. This led to the fact that above all North American companies and European companies control the market. The condition is monopoly-like partly. Mentioned for example the controlling position of Spanish companies is in the telecommunications.

The country is rich at Bodenschätzen,above all gold and copper, which are exploited and exported by international consortia. Additionally the fishery and agriculture play an important role. Beside Zuckerrohr much coffee is implemented. These products are cultivated particularly in the inhabited areas in the west,in those only by artificial irrigation agriculture to be operated can. The large areas of the Selva are however agriculturally used hardly. There Subsistenzwirtschaft is operated to a large extent. Is cultivated also the Kokastrauch, whose sheets are habitually chewed by the natives. ThoseCultivated area of this plant amounts to approx. 121,000 hectars, thus is Peru the world-wide largest Kokaproduzent. Approximately 85% of the Kokaanbaus are intended for illegal production. Proceeds from the illegal export exceed those of the legal by far.

The industry concentrateson the coast and there particularly on Lima. The remaining areas are subordinated, except with Bodenschätzen.

Ökotourismus offers itself, since there is much unaffected nature, particularly in the rain forest in the east of the country. The Anden offers migrationsHuaraz and Cuzco as well as Machu Picchu, one of the most popular archaeological places of South America. Also the Titicacasee is a routistic highlight.

The country is well opened in a close road system, but off the most important traffic routes most roads are not asphalted,rumplig and in the rain time frequently impassable. Also the mountain situation and the large distances can make the travel on the country more cumbersome than in Europe.

culture

the cultural life is primarily concentrated on few large cities, forwardseverything on the capital Lima. Wide ranges of the culture are today coined/shaped by the imported culture of the Spanish conquerers and the religion represented by them.

religion

many of the religious traditions from präkolumbischer time and from that Inka - time are still alive in Peru and maintained, above all also in rural areas.

89% the Peruaner are catholic, a consequence of the Missionierung by the Spanish conquerers (partial obligatorily) and after independence by mission of groups of missionsfrom Peru, from Germany, the USA, Italy, etc. The catholic-Christian traditions are mixed with Ur-traditions from pre-Christian epochs (Synkretismus), which particularly manifests itself with religious celebrations.

For few decades evangelikale churches experience and sparkling wines like the witnesses Jehovas and Mormonen a large inlet, which - supported to a large part financially from the USA - recruits actively and partly also aggressively members. About 9% of the population are Protestant.

art

  • Amílcar Salomón Zorilla painter

literature

of the poets César Vallejo (1892-1938).

The probably oldest work of the Peruvian literature is Ollanta, a drama, which was written by Inka in the Quechua - language.

Ricardo Palma created in 19. Century the literature kind of tradiciones, thosea mixture from fiction and history represents.Clorinda Matto de Turners novels were particularly coined/shaped of the culture of the Inka. Unusual works the poet César Vallejo wrote in 20. Century. Particularly became Vallejos Trilce admits of 1922, that for the first timeappeared. Further important Peruvian authors 20. Century were José María Arguedas, Julio Ramón Ribeyro, Manuel Scorza, Sergio Bambaren, Alfredo Bryce Echenique and Mario Vargas Llosa.

music

music is an important componentthe Peruvian culture. The Quena (also and flute called), the Panflöte (Zampoña), which is Cajón and the classical guitar far common.

The most well-known song of Peru is El CONDOR Pasa, that by numerous Coverversionen, among other things from Simon andSparkle, internationally one liked. At the north coast of Peru the Marinera one dances. Apart from traditional music kinds skirt music is very popular since the 50's-years. Líbido is an example of Peruvian skirt volume.

Well-known musicians and singer are for example Yma Sumac, Susanna Baca, Chabuca Granda, Lucha Reyes, Raúl García Zarate, Sonia Morales and Zambo Cavero.

in

the 20's and 30's-years developed for film by directors such as Ricardo Villarán some mute and monochrome photographic films, thosehowever beyond the national borders usually found no public. Also remaining 20. Century Peruvian films received only to little attention.

Francisco J. Lombardi is considered as the most important modern film director of Peru. it won 1991 for its drama of the skies overLima the Goya. Its literature filming NO SE lo digas A nadie was successful with international Filmfestivals. Likewise Josue Mendez ' Días de Santiago (2006).

Werner of duke of films Fitzcarraldo and Aguirre, which became anger of God in Peru produced.


Work on []

Apart from

local harvest thank and patronage days there are holidays the following official holidays:

further topics

literature

Web on the left of

Wikibooks: Peru - learning and teaching materials
Wiktionary: Peru - word origin, synonyms and translations
Commons: Perú - pictures, videos and/or audio files


coordinates: 0°-18° S, 69°-81° W

 

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