Peter IV. (Portugal)
Peter IV. (on Portuguese cathedral Pedro IV) (* 12. October 1798 in Queluz; † 24. September 1834 ebenda) was 1826 king of Portugal and from 1822 to 1831 under the name Peter I. Emperor of Brazil. It came outthe house Braganza.
Table of contents
escape to Brazil
1807 was occupied Portugal by French troops. Napoleon wanted to punish the country so for his refusal, onto participate the continental barrier against England. Peter of nine years fled thereupon with the remainder of the royal family to Brazil, Rio de Janeiro became the new Residenzstadt. It should enter Portugal only 1832, thus after 24jähriger absence, again.
1815 became Brazil by a resolution of the Viennese of congress an own kingdom made, with Portugal by personnel union connected. With it ended for Brazil of the colonial statuses. Peter's grandmother, queen Maria I., received in such a way apart from its Portuguese titles also still those became to a queen of Brazil. 1816 died Maria I., and their sonJohann VI. mounted the Portuguese and the Brazilian throne.Peter became thereupon in both realms successors to the throne.
In Portugal in the meantime British troops had terminated the French crew. Since the king did not want to return however first to Portugal, the country of the British commander in chief became William CarrBeresford as a military dictator governs. 1821 came it into Portugal to the liberal revolution. Beresford was announced fallen, a liberal condition, the king was requested by the parliament ( the Cortes) ultimatively to the return.
Heavy hearts decided Johann VI. to leave Brazil and return to Portugal. Also Peters Mutter, Königin Charlotte Johanna und sein jüngerer Bruder Prinz Michael verließen Brasilien. Peter against it remained in Rio de Janeiro and from his father to the regent in Brazil was appointed.
The Portuguese Cortes did not agree however with this arrangement. There there were efforts, forTo introduce Brazil again the colonial statuses and to arrange also the Crown Prince to the return to Portugal.
establishment of the Empire of Brazil
Peter called therefore to 7. September 1822 with dramatic „independence orDeath “(Indepêndencia ou morte!), which entered as „cry of Ipiranga “(o grito DO Ipiranga) history, Brazilian independence out. From Crown Prince Peter von Portugal became in such a way emperor Peter I. of Brazil.
Some points however on the fact that this stepbefore with its father, Portuguese king, was denied to who. Through Latin America at this time a dramatic revolutionary movement, Brazil neighbouring Spanish colonies went explained by the dozen its independence and became republics (see. Simón Bolívar). The Portuguese king feared probably rightfully that, ifthe Cortes their will would explain to intersperse and Brazil again as the colony, the result a similar development in Brazil would be. In independence a possibility was thus seen, to Brazil, the richest Portuguese colony of retaining for the house Braganza. Also independence was thosemost elegant possibility of extracting perfectly the country from the influence of the Portuguese parliament. The Portuguese king could recognize the independence of the country not immediately, this happened only 1825, but it did not punish its son also, especially it did not extract from it successor to the throne-genuinly in Portugal.
There it had come 1824 to dramatic developments. Conservative forces under guidance of the queen and the prince Michael tried to cancel the result of the liberals revolution and introduce the absolutism again. Since the king faced these efforts rejecting, it became from its wife andits son practically as a prisoner held. He could however finally escape and take over with British assistance the government again. Peter's brother Michael in the exile to Vienna one forced.
accession and resignation
king Johann VI. 1826 died. Peter mounted thereupon as Peter IV. also the Portuguese throne. It refused however leaving Brazil and returning to Portugal. Portugal was governed therefore first by a regency under his sister Elizabeth (Isabel) Maria. Since the rebellion of 1824 Portugal had no more condition, there the liberal conditionthe yearly 1821 still of Johann VI. one recalled.Peter gave the country thereupon 1826 a new condition, the Charter in such a way specified. The Portuguese Regentin and it surrounding politicians was however absolutist adjusted and found that the country very well also without conditionwould get along. They tried to prevent therefore the entry into force of the Charter. Only the stout-heartet intervention of the later duke of Saldanha led finally to the fact that the Charter could step into Portugal into force.
Peter IV.it did not succeed to unite its both realms again. It failed afterto govern short time at the impossibility Brazil and Portugal at the same time. In Portugal one was no longer determined to bear again a king, who did not reside in the country. In Brazil against it the criticism became to the fact that the emperor more and more energy for solution thatPortuguese problems spent, ever louder. The monarch had to finally decide between Brazil and Portugal and he decided for Brazil. Thus he resigned in May 1826 after only two months government in Portugal.
It before regulated however still the follow-up in its sense.In Portugal it his oldest daughter Maria II. should.after the throne follow, in Brazil against it after its death one of its sons. Since it was obvious that his sister Elizabeth Maria was overtaxed with the regency in Portugal, it sat down its brother Michael, to thatsince 1824 ruled in the exile in Vienna, to the regent for its daughter still under age. It planned that its brother should marry, if Maria were older these later, so that they could govern then Portugal together. So the two disliked lines of the house Braganza should again to be united.
In Vienna a deputy wedding was even already accomplished. Maria, who had be up to then at the yard of its father in Rio de Janeiro, traveled to Vienna, where it should terminate their education at the imperial yard. Michael against it traveled, after he its brotherand had sworn the loyalty to his niece as a queen as well as the condition Charter, to Lisbon, where he took over the regency from Elizabeth Maria.
war of the two brothers
however had made Peter the calculation without his brother. As soon as Michael had arrived at Lisbon, recalledthis the met arrangements. It allied itself with the reactionary circles around Elizabeth Maria, dissolved the new two-chamber parliament, called up a traditional Cortes (advice of the three conditions, Conselho DOS três Estados), and left themselves of these as Michael I. proclaim to the king (1828). Thus became the legal queen, its niece under age and bride Maria II., for whom it had been supposed to lead the government, set off. The legalistic reason of this coup was that Peter IV., when it could be proclaimed 1822 to the emperor of Brazil, to the foreignMonarch had become (Johann VI. Brazilian independence had finally nevertheless recognition) in the year before its death and therefore for itself and its had merrily gone to descendants of all requirements on the Portuguese throne.
Peter was not ready, the breach of trust of its younger brother adds and wantedthe Portuguese throne to its daughter receive. Thus „the war of the two brothers “or Miguelistenkrieg began (1832 - 1834).
In Brazil Peter with increasing difficulties relating to domestic affairs had to fight. Also one criticized there strongly the interference of the emperor into the Portuguese difficulties. Peter I.therefore 1831 in favor of his son Peter thanked II.in Brazil as emperors off, in order to be able to dedicate itself to the Portuguese problems completely. It accepted the title of a duke of Braganza and regents of Portugal (for his daughter Maria II.) and traveled to France, whereit the new king Ludwig Philipp (the citizen king) without reservation supported.
On the Azores in the meantime the later duke of Terceira had struck a fleet Michaels, so that this part of Portugal remained outside of Michaels sphere of influence. Peter landed at the 3. March 1832 on the Azores and entered therebyfor the first time since 1807, when it had fled as ten-year one together with its father before the troops Napoleons to Brazil, again Portuguese soil. There it arranged its own army, with which it entered the Portuguese mainland still in the same year.
It succeeded to itto 1834 Michael destroying to strike, this had thereupon again in the exile to Austria. Queen Maria II. 1833 had already returned to Lisbon, where she had been enthusiastically received.
Peter was thus again a regent of Portugal, Maria II. again queen. Over attempts of Peter, alsoseinem Bruder zu einem Ausgleich zu kommen und diesem den Titel eines königlichen Infanten von Portugal zu belassen und eine angemesseneApanageim Ausland zu zahlen, kam es allerdings zu einem Zerwürfnis mit den neu einberufenen Cortes, die, in Erinnerung der Grausamkeiten, die Michael währendits rule in Portugal had committed, were not ready to come to meet the ex king.Peter, already critically ill, pulled itself thereupon resigns from the Portuguese policy back. Its daughter was explained by the Cortes for of age, so that its regency ended also officially. Short time died later Peter in Lisbon.
to 5. November 1817 marriedit in first marriage in Rio de Janeiro Maria Leopoldine, Erzherzogin of Austria (* 22. January 1797; † 18. December 1826), a daughter of the Roman-German emperor Franz II. (= Franz I. of Austria) and Maria Theresia of both Sicilies. ThoseBefore did not run for the ore duchess lucky, since Peter preferred openly his loving his wife.
From the marriage the following children originate:
- Maria II. (* 4. April 1819; † 15. November 1853)
- Michael (* † 1820)
- Johann Karl (* 6. March 1821; † 4. February 1822)
- Januária (* 11. March 1822; † 13. March 1901), ∞ 1822 Ludwig von Bourbon, prince of two Sicilies
- Paula Mariana (* 17. February 1823; † 16. January 1833)
- Franziska Caroline (* 2. August 1824; † 27. March 1898), ∞ 1822 Franz of Orleans, prince of Joiville, a son of king Ludwig Philipp of France
- Peter II. (* 2. December 1825; † 5. December 1891)
From this marriagea daughter came out:
besides was it father of the following illegitimate children
|ALTERNATIVE NAME||Peter I.|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||king of Portugal, emperor of Brazil|
|DATE OF BIRTH||12. October 1798|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Lisbon|
|DYING DATE||24. September 1834|