Peter I. the large one, (Russian Пётр I and/or. ПётрВеликий, it called itself however not Pjotr, but dt. Peter (Пeтeрь); * 30. May 9. June 1672 in Moscow; † 28. January8. February 1725 in sank Petersburg) was a Russian Zar. It was one the most important Zaren Russia.
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Peter the large one became to 9. June 1672 in Moscow as a son of Alexei I. of Russia and its second wife Natalja Naryschkina born. There the day on the holiday of the Isaakfrom Dalmatien , became this fell its Schutzheiligen (see Isaakskathedrale).
Already as a child it maintained relations too in Moscow living German (see Nemezkaja sloboda), it bereiste inkognito different countries of Western Europe and left books from the French, English,Netherlands ones and Germans translate. As Zar governed it and its older brother Iwan V. up to its death 1696 together since 1682 the country.
It was married in first marriage with Jewdokija Lopuchina, with which it had three children, thosehowever all before it died:
- Alexei (* 18. June 1690 - † 26. June 1718), Zarewitsch of Russia,
- Alexander (* 3. October 1691 - † 14. May 1692), prince of Russia, and
- Pawel (* † 1693), princeof Russia.
In August 1697 Peter in the Dutch Zaandam experiences in shipbuilding wanted to collect. He spent in addition some days in the small timber building of the Schmiedes Gerrit Kist. Because of the large crush it is to be able hardly to have left however the house.
- Pawel (* † 1705), prince of Russia,
- Pjotr (* † 1706), prince of Russia,
- Jekaterina (* 1707 - † 1708), princess of Russia,
- Anna (* 27. January 1708 - † 15. May 1728), princess of Russia,
- Elizabeth I. (* 18. December 1709 - † 25. December 1761), Zarin of Russia,
- Marija (* 20. March 1713 - † March 1713), princess of Russia,
- Margarita (* 19. September 1714 - † 7. June 1715), princess of Russia,
- Pjotr (* 28. October 1715 - † 25. April 1719), Zarewitsch of Russia,
- Pawel (* 13. January 1717 - † 14. January 1717), prince of Russia,
- Natalja (* 20. August 1718 - † 22. February 1725), princess ofRussia, and
- Pjotr (* † 1719), Zarewitsch of Russia.
Around its dying many myths climb. A wide-spread theory is those,that he deceased at a pneumonia, which he tightened himself with the Errettung of several sailors from the cold water of the Baltic Sea. Often to his personal affection to the navy one refers. It is however certain that it to 8. February 1725 in sinking Petersburg (most likely at the consequences of its illness) deceased.
The surname “the large one” refers on the one hand to its life's work, on the other hand in addition, to its body size, which was with 2,04 m.
Peter oriented itselfstrongly at the west. It introduced numerous reforms in Russia, which had the goal to make the Russian culture of the European more similar. In addition belonged the introduction of centralWestern European clothes, which are enough traditionally beards became with one beard-expensively occupied. That Julian calendars to Russia one introduced, although to Europe in this time already slowly the Gregorian calendar was transferred. Also it created the Academy of Sciences and accomplished a writing reform. Sank Petersburg consciously as a European city one basedand promoted. Also regarding technology and science oriented yourself Peter I. at western models.
Peter developed noticing anti-reading tables an economy. In addition particularly it ranks that he promoted Manufakturen strongly. With the assumption of office of Peter existed inRussia only 10 Manufakturen.
Peter furnished the holy Synod , by which it secured itself the force over the Russian-orthodox church to 1721. Thus the Zar transferred the entire church force to Russia, those before the Patriarchhad. The Patriarchat of Moscow was abolished.
by the transformation of the army and the establishment of the Russian fleet could Peter the large one in the large Nordi war after initial failuresSweden back urge. In the place of a Swedish fortress (Nyenschanz) it created 1703 sank Petersburg, the later capital. In the battle with Poltawa it could do to 8. July 1709 Sweden destroying strike. Thus Russia had again an entranceto the Baltic Sea (window to Europe) in the north - the way to the Weltmeeren seemed free and Peter created the imperial-Russian navy. An exchange between Peter I. had preceded the battle. and Friedrich William I. 1716 came that Amber room on the gift list of the Zaren. After the won battle, which gave Prussia an area increase, Peter I. “gave”. 55 borrowing soldiers at Friedrich William I., who added it its elite troop.
1721 it changed its official title of Zar in Imperator (this title the Zaren carried officially until 1917). Already being ailing, he instructed in his effort to modernize Russia to 8. February 1724 the establishment of a Russian Academy of Sciences in sank Petersburg. Its summer residence was that Peter yard (see also Neptunbrunnen).
Peter was perpetuated even on several modern Russian coins (in silver, gold and palladium).
- Jörg Peter Findeisen: The struggle for the Baltic Sea rule. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1992, ISBN 3-428-07495-5
- Guido Knopp: The amber room. The myth on the trace; the book to the large series in the Second Channel of German Television. Hoffmann & Campe, Hamburg 2003, ISBN 3-455-09396-5
- Robert K. Massie: Peter the large one. Its life and its time. Fischer, Frankfurt/M. 1992, ISBN 3-596-25632-1
- Alexander Moutchnik: The “Strelitzen rebellion” of 1698, in: Risings of the people in Russia. Of the time of confusions up to the “Green revolution” against the Soviet rule, hrsg.by Heinz Dietrich lion. Research to Eastern European history, Bd. 65, Harrassowitz publishing house, Wiesbaden, 2006, S. 163-196.ISBN 3-447-05292-9
- Reinhold Neumann Hoditz: Peter the large one. In self certifications and picture documents. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2000, ISBN 3-499-50314-X
- Alexej Tolstoi: Peter first. Novel. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1987, ISBN 3-499-40012-X
- Voltaire: History of the Russian realm under Peter of the large one. Frohberger, Leipzig 1840
- pure hard joke RAM: Peter the large one, Czar and emperor. To history Peter of the large one in its time. Publishing house Vandenhoeck andRuprecht, Goettingen 1954
Web on the left of
|Commons: Peter I OF Russia - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|List of the Russian rulers|| successor|
|NAME||Peter I., the large|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Пётр I, ПётрВеликий|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of Russian Zar|
|DATE OF BIRTH||9. June 1672|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Moscow, Russia|
|DYING DATE||8. February 1725|
|DYING PLACE||sank Petersburg, Russia|