Pfälzer forest

Lage des BiosphärenreservatesPfälzer Wald-Vosges du Nord
Situation of the biosphere reservation
Pfälzer forest Vosges you north
in the Pfälzer forest with Annweiler
stump forest course
Die Rietburg mit der Schneise der Sesselbahn
the guessing castle with the flight corridor of the chair lift
Haardtgebirge with Eschbach, view after north northeast
Blick von der Nonne beim Bärenbrunnerhof
view of the nun with the Bärenbrunnerhof
Geologische Formation im Pfälzer Wald
geological formation inPfälzer forest
Asselstein
woodlouse stone
large Kalmit
Eiswoog im nördlichen Pfälzer Wald
Eiswoog in the northern Pfälzer forest
realm castle tri rock
castle Berwartstein
biosphere house in fish brook with Dahn
view over the Haardtgebirge from air

the central mountain landscape Pfälzer forest (so the official way of writing, frequently also Pfälzerwald) in the Land of the Federal Republic Rhineland-Palatinate is the largest coherent forest area of Europe and has a surface of 177.100 hectars (= 1,771 km ²). The Pfälzer forest takes a good third of the entire Pfalz , from which it has its name.

A compilationall article with purchase to the Pfälzer forest is in the portal of the same name.

Table of contents

meaning

1958 became the nature park Pfälzer forest created. This nature park became 1998 German part of the first transnational biosphere reservation of the UNESCO, i.e. the biosphere reservation Pfälzer forest Vosges you north. It was thereby 12. of (conditions: 2005) 14 German biosphere reservations. With these it acts overSurfaces, to which a special meaning for the global receipt of the biological variety is attached.

The designations “Vogesen “(franz. Vosges, S. and) and “which gau “(in the Middle Ages Wasigenwald, S. and) decrease/go back to the same latin origin, i.e. Vosegus (mons).

structure

arrangement

of the Pfälzer forest is divided into three landscape parts:

  • , mountain country limits the northern Pfälzer forest and to the south up to the line Kaiserslautern in the north by the Nordpfälzer - Bath Dürkheim being enough
  • the middle Pfälzer forest, of the line Kaiserslautern - bath Dürkheim up to the Queich and the line Pirmasens - Landau being enough
  • the southern Pfälzer forest, the which gau in such a way specified, of the Queich andthe line Pirmasens - Landau up to the French border in the south is enough.

forest the Nordpfälzer mountain country with the thunder mountain (687 m) follows borders northern, south the elsässischen Vogesen at the Pfälzer.

The east edge of the PfälzerForest toward Rhine level the hill country lying between Haardtgebirge and level becomes as Haardtgebirge, where the Pfälzer of wines is cultivated , when Haardt designates. In the midst of the Haardt the German crying race runs.

To the west of Kaiserslautern the narrow moorland valley begins of the Landstuhler of break, which to the south to the Südwestpfälzi high surface follows, which west a line Kaiserslautern - Pirmasens at the Pfälzer forest borders.

geology

development

of the Pfälzer forest belongs like many low mountain rangesGermany to the Variszi mountains, which drew themselves more than 300 million years ago in the Devonian by large parts of Europe. Trip of the Gebirgsbildung was the collision of the two continents Ur-Europe and Ur-Africa.

In the Trias forwards approx. 200 million yearsthe country lowered itself again, and the Germanic basin in such a way specified formed, in which meter-thick layers of the red new red sandstone could settle. These were covered later by the shelly limestone deposits of a large Binnenmeers, followed of the sediments that Keuperzeit. Thus the South German layer stage country formed.

As itself the country within the range of the today's Pfälzer of forest approximately 180 million years ago again main headers, several 100 m of the sediment layer z became by erosion. T. up to the redNew red sandstone threadbare, as it is to be seen in the west of the Pfälzer of forest. In the eastern Pfälzer to forest and in the Haardtgebirge at some places still shelly limestone deposits lie over the new red sandstone.

The last comprehensive geological change in the range of the Pfälzer of forest went before approximately 45Millions years: At that time the upper Rhine ditch broke in , whereby itself the earth's crust in a power of at least 20 km over approx. 2,500 m encompassed, so that it came at the surface to the formation of lowlandses. The ditch later filled itselfup to the today's level of the level with young river and sea sediments, because still approximately 20 million years ago the North Sea handed over lowers the Wetterau to down into the valley of the upper Rhine.

Before the Grabenbruch it hadin this region a continuous land mass given, those from west to east from the today's low mountain range Pfälzer forest/Vogesen, the today's soil of the level - as mentioned without the recent deposits - and the today's low mountain range desert forest / Black Forest existed.

The Grabenbruch is tectonically active into the present, occasional light earth impacts as well as lava - deposits at the edges of ditch of it certification placing. At forest at the crying race basalt is , a young at the pitch stone head, which belongs to the Haardtgebirge ,Eruptivgestein, to day stepped. The liquid magma, forwards approx. 29 (after other sources 35) million years in a tear ascended, solidified already in the tear columns and formed thereby basalt columns. The gas eruptions connected with the ascent of the magmathe columns let break to basalt breaking into. These were industrially diminished into the 1980er years .

actual condition

today extends the by far largest part of the Pfälzer of forest on a new red sandstone formation, only in parts from younger sedimentsfrom softer limestone one overlays. The reddish sandstone and by erosion created schroffen rock things coin/shape the picture of the Pfälzer of forest. The quarries, in those v. A. Building material is won, supplies depending upon Oberflächengestein red new red sandstone (in the western andcentral Pfälzer forest) or brighter, sometimes white-yellow limestone (within the eastern range). The quarries of the Haardtgebirges are to be constituted from the Rhine level as bright “wounds” in the bluish green silhouettes of the mountains.

heights

characteristic

of the Pfälzer forest rises inentire range steeply from the Rhine level to the Haardtgebirge up.

Within the middle range, south of new city at the crying race, he achieves the highest point with the Kalmit. Here different mountains and elevator points exceed the 600-m-Marke into a connected Höhenzug.This Höhenzug sits down from the riser head Schänzel out with approximately 500 m height westward away up to a central massif around Eschkopf (609 m) and white mountain (611 m). This massif extends from Hochspeyer over Johanniskreuz up to B 10 Striking stone. It concerns straight within the middle range between Johanniskreuz and Hermersbergerhof rather a high plateau, which is limited by deeply cut valleys. Also this high plateau sits down to the west with approx. 500 m height away and sinksgradually on 400 m off. It cut through of black brook and Moosalb. Against southwest Höhenzüge between the valleys of the Merzalb and the source rivers of the point-loud run.

South the Queich is less the Pfälzer forest by connected Höhenzüge thanrather by individual mountains with pronouncedly round crests structures. They reach 450 M. on average. Highest collections are followed the castle mountain of the ruin Wegelnburg (571 m) with Nothweiler, of the high Derst (560 m) 6 km to the west of Bath Bergzabern and the large Eyberg (513 m) 4 km southwest from Dahn. High cunning (476 m) and Erlenkopf (472 m) with Eppenbrunn are the highest collections in the southwest.

The line Hochspeyerbach /Speyerbach the highest collection is northernthe 577 m high kite rock. In northward by the Isenach and eastward by the German crying race formed triangle are a whole set of collections over 500 m height. The northern Neustadter house mountain is most salient,wine-offer (553 m), as well as the hitting a corner head (516 m) with Deidesheim.

North the Isenach exceeds only the Rahnfels (516 m) 500 M. In the further process northward the height decreases against 400 to 300 m.

Mountains over 600m

waters

standing waters

the sandstone massif is a very good water leader, that filters precipitation. If the water seeped collects itself over less permeable barrier layers underneath the sandstone, stepsit in lowering again out. Thus a set of moorlands, moorland lakes as well as lakes, Wooge so mentioned formed. Most Wooge was put on however artificially by accumulating by brooks and served as collecting stations and water reservoirs for those Trift of wood. Surface-moderately however are insignificant all seas and Wooge in the Pfälzer forest. The most well-known are the Gelterswoog at the northwest edge and the Eiswoog in the northeast.

running waters

of drainage systems

of the Pfälzer forest becomes from four large drainage systemsand beyond that of smaller systems or individual brooks drains. The four large systems are the Speyerbach, the Queich, the point-loud and the black brook. While the first three flow directly to the Rhine, the water of the black brook flowsfirst over and Saar of the Mosel blew too. Smaller drainage systems are z. B. the Saarbach or the Isenach, which has supplies only to small extent. Most small discharges, which drain the Haardtgebirge directly into the Rhine level, transferexpanded ditch systems the nearest northern river too. Thus the Speyerbach takes also the water of the shark brook (Böchingen), the fashion brook (shark field) and the cancer brook (pc. Martin) up.

The pfälzische main water sheath runs between Kaiserslautern and Hochspeyer southward over Johanniskreuz to the Eschkopf and then southwest direction Münchweiler to the Rodalb, Lemberg after Eppenbrun.

Single rivers

direct to the Rhine flow (sequence from south to north):

over the close one to the Rhine flows the Alsenz. Straight still in the Pfälzer forest lies thoseSource of the forest-loud, which likewise sends its water over the Glan into the close one. It represents thus its own drainage system.

Over black brook and blew to Saar, Mosel and Rhine flow (sequence from north to south):

biology

Flora

the forest surfaces constitute more than 76% of the biosphere reservation, them cover nearly the entire central mountain region. Since that 17. Century it intensively used, nevertheless point ita multiplicity of particularly species-rich subsections up.

For the Pfälzer forest the beech forests, which prosper in the sour environment of the new red sandstone soils well, are very typical. Something similar applies for grape/cluster and and to the oaks, both and pedunculate oakarise in damper lowering. There and in brook valleys are frequently also Erlenpopulationen. On the peat soils with Bitche in the French part of the biosphere reservation a Relikt Kiefernwald kept. Nowadays the Kiefern like also douglas firs and firs, often which can be foundwere not typically for the Pfälzer forest and only in the course that management were originally cultivated here.

fauna

apart from a multiplicity of beetles, butterflies and other insects gives it in the Pfälzer to forest also a row more rarely Birds, z. B. the Eisvogel and the Steinschmätzer. Are from kinds of mammal threatened in their existence here z. B. Bats, Baummarder, game cat and Luchs resident. The majority of the fauna place certainly, as in other European low mountain ranges also, Paarhufer, i.e. deer, red deer and wild pigs.

²

the transnational biosphere reservation are to settling scarce 1,800 of 3,105 km on German area. The entire biosphere reservation is thinly populated; live therein (conditions: 1999) of 237,000 inhabitants, thatcorresponds to an average population density of only 76 inhabitants per km ².

The few cities in the Pfälzer forest, iron mountain, Lambrecht, Annweiler and Dahn, have all among 10.000 inhabitants. Larger settlements are only at the edges of the Pfälzer of forest.Because of the eastern edge the cities green city, bath Dürkheim, new city are at the crying race, Edenkoben, Landau and bath Bergzabern as well as in France the city Wissembourg (dt. White castle). Because of the western edge, which so-called westsmell, are Kaiserslautern, Rodalben and Pirmasens.

traffic

roads

the two main traffic veins by the Pfälzer forest run from west to east:

Federal motorway 6 (Saarbruecken -) Kaiserslautern - green city (- Mannheim), at the same time European route (Paris - Prague)
Federal highway 10 Pirmasens - Landau

the gap conclusion of the federal motorway 8 between Pirmasens and Karlsruhe by the Dahner valley is probably final to favour of a vierspurigen development of B 10 from the table.

Of regional importance are:

Federal highway 37 Kaiserslautern - bathDürkheim
federal highway 39 Franconia stone - new city at the crying race
federal highway 48 Enkenbach Alsenborn - bath Bergzabern
federal highway 427 Hinterweidenthal - bath Bergzabern

railway lines

of the Pfälzer forest becomes and/or. by several railway lines one opened:

objects of interest

although the Pfälzer forest is still thinly settled and he exhibits, possesses many hardly affected surfaces nevertheless a rich landschaftliches, historical and a culturalInheritance, who reflects itself in a multiplicity of objects of interest, by which only one selection be specified here can.

localities

  • Johanniskreuz, center of the Pfälzer of forest and former health resort

castles and locks

Industrial monuments

nature experience

history

see also

Web on the left of

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