the Pfalz is a region in South West German country in the south of the Land of the Federal Republic Rhineland-Palatinate. Because of the idyllischen landscape and in the east very mild climates the Pfalz in the advertising industry is called gladly the German Toskana.
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situation and structure
in the west becomes the Pfalz throughthe Saarland limited, in the north borders the Nordpfälzer mountain country on Rhinehesse and in the east the Vorderpfalz on the Rhine, in the south follows beyond the German French border the Nordelsass .
The Pfälzer forest belonging to the biosphere reservation Pfälzer forest Nordvogesencovers more than one third of the region and is the largest connected forest surface of Europe. The highest mountain of the Pfalz is the thunder mountain lain in the Nordpfälzer mountain country (687 m). The deepest point of the Pfalz (87.3 m) is to that on the GemarkungCity Frankenthal and is only few hundred meters far away from the Rhine.
the Nordpfalz is a hilly to hilly farmer country and by the massif of the thunder mountain is towered above. It is very thinly populated,the largest places iron mountain, Kirchheimbolanden and skirt living have less in each case than 10,000 inhabitants.
The Nordpfalz consists of only one district, which was created 1969 by pool of the circles Kirchheimbolanden and skirt living:
- Thunder mountain circle (Kfz characteristic KIB, administrative seat Kirchheimbolanden)
the Vorderpfalz is the level between the upper Rhine and the Haardtgebirge, the eastern edge of the Pfälzer of forest. The transition between level and mountainsforms the narrow hill country of the Haardt, which represent the pfälzische Weinbaugebiet. By the Haardt the German crying race pulls itself from the north to the south over 85 km.
The Vorderpfalz exhibits by far the largest settlement density, also mostlarger cities are to be found here. Besides hate hole, that lies about into the Vorderpfalz the most densely populated village of Germany. 21,000 inhabitants has.
Districts and circle-free cities of the Vorderpfalz (with Kfz characteristics) are:
- District bath Dürkheim (DÜW)
- city Frankenthal (Pfalz) (FT)
- Rhine Pfalz circle(RP, administrative seat Ludwigshafen on the Rhine)
- city Ludwigshafen on the Rhine (LU)
- city new city at the crying race (size)
- city Speyer (FR)
- city Landau into the Pfalz (LD)
- district Germersheim (GER)
- district southern crying race (SÜW, administrative seat Landau in the Pfalz)
Districts and circle-free cities of the Westpfalz (with Kfz characteristics) are:
- District Kusel (KUS)
- city Kaiserslautern (KL)
- district Kaiserslautern (KL)
- city two-bridges (ZW)
- city Pirmasens (HP)
- district Südwestpfalz (HP, administrative seat Pirmasens)
(the district Kusel added on the sketch of the Nordpfalz belongs in reality to the Westpfalz.)
after this more geographically stressed breakdownthere is not the Südpfalz actually at all. Their existence cannot be denied meanwhile because of the quite uniform mundartlichen peculiarnesses of their inhabitants seriously. By the city Landau as well as the circles southern crying race and Germersheim from the Vorderpfalz extracting andfrom the Westpfalz the East part of the circle Südwestpfalz, which adds Dahner rock country, succeeds in, creating also this fourth pfälzische region.
historical existed the today's Pfalz up to the end 18. Century from several territories,from those the largest areas of the Pfälzer cure prince, the duchy Pfalz Zweibrücken and the high pin Speyer were. The area around Kirchheimbolanden was subordinate to the house Nassau. Besides smaller reichgräfliche and ritterschaftliche territories and not least the free realm city existed Speyer. The area of the Kurpfalz (including its rechtsrheinischen part around Mannheim and Heidelberg) was combined still before the French revolution with Bavaria, as the old-Bavarian line of the Wittelsbacher became extinct and 1777 cure prince Carl Theodor from the line Pfalz Sulzbachthe inheritance in Munich began.
In the process of the French revolution wars into the 1790er years the entire linksrheinischen areas and with it concomitantly the today's Pfalz were occupied by French troops. In peacetime of Lunéville (1801) linksrheinische Germany became formal andaccording to international law part of the French republic. The pfälzischen territories summarized with other parts of a territory (under inclusion its that should be called after 1815 “Rhinehesse “) in the newly formed Département thunder mountain (Mont Tonnère) and at the latest starting from 1802 than an integrated component of theFrench state administers. The rechtsrheinischen areas of the Kurpfalz came up in the Grand Duchy of bathing .
To the wars of liberation and the Viennese congress (1815) came the territorially again outlined (linksrheinische) Pfalz 1816 as „Rhine circle “back at Bavaria. It acted therebyaround a remuneration for the areas on the right of the Inn and the city Salzburg, which Bavaria in the resident of Munich contract had surrendered from 1815 to Austria. In the year 1837 the Bavarian king Ludwig I. ordered that the administrative units of the middle level notmore according to the French model after rivers, but after historical points of reference to be designated should. The “Rhine circle” was renamed therefore in “Rheinpfalz”. The designation should remind of the long tradition wittelsbachischer rule in the region before 1816. Before this historical backgroundstood „Rheinpfalz “long time also for the pfälzische Weinbaugebiet. Since that 27. August 1993 reads the name for this cultivation area likewise „Pfalz “.
Within the kingdom Bavaria enjoyed the Pfalz a legal and administrative privileged position, there the Bavarian government substantialAchievements of the French time maintained. Like that were into the Pfalz the basic rule waived (in rechtsrheinischen Bavaria only 1848), the separation from law and administration up to the lowest level of the administration interspersed (separation from Landkommissariaten and regional courts) and the completeFreedom of trade into force. Besides the code Napoléon up to the decree of the BGB applied in the year 1900 as a civil law of the Pfalz.
The rule of the Bavarian king house became by building projects like the royal mansion in Edenkoben and the comprehensive restoration of the cathedralbrought to Speyer to the expression.
After the First World War the Pfalz was occupied according to the armistice and peace conditions until 1930 by French troops. The Versailler contract ordered the separation of western areas of the Pfalz, which were inkorporiert the again formed Saargebiet,for his part under administration of the Völkerbundes one placed. These parts of a territory form today the district “Saarpfalz “within the Saarland. During French occupation it came between that 6. November 1923 (rebellions in Kaiserslautern, new city and Landau) and that 12. To separatist movements in the Pfalz, which culminated in proclaiming the autonomous Pfalz by Heinz Orbis, but rapidly failed to February 1924 ( storm on the office for district in Pirmasens).
After the Second World War the Pfalz part was that and went to French zone of occupation then to regulation No. 57 of the French supreme command in the 1947 again formed Land of the Federal Republic Rhineland-Palatinate up, that beside the Pfalz still that in former times part Rhinehesse (capital Mainz ), belonging to to Hessen, and in former times to the Prussian Rhine province due moselfränkische Rhine country (with the low mountain ranges Hunsrück, the Eifel and Westerwald) covers.
A referendum in the year 1956 for a back arrangement after Bavaria did not find the necessary support in the population.
within the new Land of the Federal Republic was the Pfalz first an independent governmental district with the seat of the district government in new city at the crying race. 1968 were folded up the governmental district Pfalz with the governmental district Rhinehesse to the governmental district Rhinehesse-Palatinate. While Mainz was void as seat of a district government, the administration becamein new city developed.
With the restructuring of the Landesverwaltung to the 1. January 2000 the governmental districts in Rhineland-Palatinate were dissolved. The district governments became in supervision and service managements (ADDS) and/or structure and permission managements (SGD) does not transfer, now country-wide for selected fields andmore for all tasks within their past district are responsible. In new city is now the SGD south.
The region of the Pfalz is subdivided in districts and circle-free cities. These are members of the district federation Pfalz, a body of thepublic right, which is based on earlier administrative structures: The Conseil général, in the year 1800 of France taken over, flowed 1816, when after end of the era Napoleon the Pfalz the Kingdom of Bavaria was slammed shut, in the 20-köpfigen Landrath, that approved by Bavariafinally to the district day Pfalz, which became parliament of the district federation Pfalz.
The district federation administers different cultural and social mechanisms in the region and promotes co-operation between the districts and circle-free cities. Chairman of the district federation is since 2004 that Frankenthaler mayor Theo again (CDU).
in Ludwigshafen is the BASF of largest employers. To the Haardt are the viticulture and particularly into the Südpfalz additional the tourism strong restaurant factors. The Pfalz is the second largestWeinbaugebiet of Germany and has many traditional family businesses.
The Westpfalzis structure-weakly, there itself z. B. the there traditional shoe industry in a difficult phase finds. Into and around Kaiserslautern the OPEL work and (still) US armed forces offer important jobs. In the surrounding field of the University of Kaiserslautern increase young, innovative companies settle themselves on,the modern jobs create.
the Pfälzerinnen and Pfälzer („Pälzer “), which are called in humorous kind gladly „Pälzer Kri “or also in such a way to call, are considered themselves as„genuine “people impact. Personal openness, natural curiosity and sociability to them, is after-said in addition, directness and Dickköpfigkeit. Important characteristic is the proverbial Pfälzer cosiness - one sits down gladly together to a table and feeds and drinks together. Consumer wine becomes out Schoppengläsern drunk, which have a capacity of 0,5 litres.
usually concerns it thereby the traditional Pfälzer „Dubbeglas “. In contemplative round (for instance on the Dürkheimer sausage market or other wine celebrations) it is not uncommon that thatSchoppen is handed reihum. The traditional Pfälzer kitchen is partly quite deftig and enclosure and. A. rough Bratwürste, sow stomach, Leberknödel as well as Flääschknepp (Fleischklösse), which are served to a special kind rye roll typically with sea radish sauce, sauerkraut or Weinknorzen.„The Gebreedelde is legendary “, the Pfälzer roasting potatoes, which are enriched frequently with bacon bits or liver sausage. Also „Grumbeere with white Kees “, Pellkartoffeln with quark, are into the Pfalz a popular court.
Although Pfälzerinnen and Pfälzer are rather conservative liberal and tolerant,the cosiness can change also to anger, if somewhat does not run in such a way, as it is. If then „the thunder wedges “fly („Dunnerkeitel “- popular Pfälzer curse), should one better into covering go. Finally the Pfälzer was relevant at the farmer war (1525), at the Hambacher celebration (1832) and at the March revolution (1848) takes part…
Due to the two latter events the Pfalz applies also as a master country of the early German democracy movement. As German border area the Pfalz has centuriesthrough afflicting by wars experience again and again, what led probably to the close co-operation of the Pfälzer.
the landscapes and the buildings of the Pfalz, particularly the vine hills of the crying race and the castles of the Pfälzer of forest, have a set of painters andother artists and artists inspires. Many of them obtained the beautifulnesses and the life feeling in their works in the Pfalz. Those, which originate from the Pfalz or these erkoren to the Wahlheimat have, are in the list of the educating artistscontain in Rhineland-Palatinate.
See also under literature: Clemens Jöckle into “Pfälzi history”, volume 2, pages 307-361)
- to district federation Pfalz
- Pfälzer dialect poet
- Pfälzi dialects
- Pälzer of Kri
- Pfalz as Weinbaugebiet
- governmental district Upper Palatinate in Bavaria
- Pfälzi regional studies, with contributions of M. Violonist and. A., 3 Bde., Landau into the Pfalz 1981
- Pfälzi history, volume 1 and 2, publishers: K. H. Rothenberger, K. Scherer, F. Staab, J. Keddigkeit. Institut for pfälzische historyand Volkskunde, Kaiserslautern 2002
- M. F. Mangold: The Pfalz in the glass - the leader to the best wine situations and into the cellars of the region. Höma publishing house, open brook with Landau 2005