Plow

of these articles treats the plow in the agriculture; For further meanings see plow (term clarifying).
Farmer with branch-stretch and a crowd plow
Dreigespann pflügt in schwerem Boden
three-bottom plate plows in heavy soil

a plow is agricultural equipment, which is used for making up the field (plows).

Table of contents

history of the plow

already prähistorisch replaced the plow heel, spade and grave stick .

The earliest method to up-loosen the soil was supposedthis very day in parts of the third world grave stick used. Loosen the soil with heel and spade took place only on small surfaces. Already before 5.500 v. Chr. existed in Europe simple, first hook plows made of wood, pulled by humans. With LINE volume ceramic(s) died 5,500 v. Chr. the plow pulled from oxen by means of yoke and table-ware up. The Hakenpfüge consisted of a course-sharpened wood, that the soil broke and had neither plowshare, Sech, turning board or wheels. Such plows held themselves in Central Europe in the late Middle Ages.First pulled only cattle, thus cows or oxen the plow. Later were added donkeys, camel or Maultiere , in the long run took over this the more efficient horses.

In 4. Century arose the wheel plow, these concentrates the tractive power of the animal more on breaking the soil openinstead of on pulling the heavy equipment. The use from horses to plowing became really effective with the invention of the Kummets, because still up to 8. Jh. used neck and body belt did not impair the respiration of the course animal and the strand table-ware common thereafter was alsomany more effectively.

Abbildung eines historischen Räderpflugs mit Eisenschar, Sech und Streichblech
Illustration of a historical wheel plow with iron crowd, Sech and moldboard

a substantial improvement was the iron plowshare. The impact of the plow improved by the mounting of a Streichbrettes (since plows from steel are manufactured, caper sheet metal mentioned), and the colter knife enormously: By thoseCutting tools crowd and Sech the earth strip is cut out and turned by the moldboard. The vegetation, also inadvertent Beikraut (so-called. Weeds), are buried thereby and it are only clean earth on the surface.

Cast-iron (however forgeable, not inflexibly) plowshares (chin.: guan) with sharp point, followingCentre web and for friction reduction easily upward bent Seitenflügeln for scraping the earth off gave it in China already since that to 3. Century v. Chr.Already at this time before the turn of an era - four kinds of Streichbrettern, those existed properly matching in China (i.e. without friction) inthe plowshare ignored and the soil differently turned and raised. Further one could stop the depth, in which one wanted to plow the earth on the construction. The knowledge around the building method was spread in old China by official side.

In Europe Streichbretter became only inthe late Middle Ages (first from wood) imported and afterwards to in 18. Jh. still very primitively built, so that one had large friction losses and more course animals for the same work needed (6-8 opposite 1-2 oxen in China). Only in 18. Jh. began with the Rotherham Plougha serious reorientation, probably inspires by the plows bring along by the Dutchmen from China. A pioneer in the area was James Small (around 1730-1793), whose plows interspersed themselves in England and Scotland (however not yet in Germany) for 150 years.

The American forge John Deere1837 invented the first self-cleaning steel plow (steel is harder as cast iron) and put thereby the foundation for his enterprise DEERE & Company, which is today the largest agricultural machinery manufacturer of the world.

The plows pulled by horses distinctive in:

  • Stelzpflug (only one wheel or a skid platebefore that crowd)
  • swinging plow (no wheel for guidance; the plow is led only by the kind of the connection in the depth)
  • Karrenpflug (two-wheel truck as guiing device before the plow)

the plows had starting from the Middle Ages in the back two grasps (Sterzen), at those the Pflüger thatPlow lead and causes to also steer could. Normally one had to lift the plow at the end of a furrow toilsomely around. For and the Zurückpflügen in a direction one needs a turning plow.

The Wanzleber plow made that for low plows possible in the cultivation of sugar beet. The substantial innovation was thatto the wooden standards (a rack) iron moldboard fastened. Now a furrow of 12 became " (approx. 30.5 cm) Deep one reaches.

Plows for animal course become until today still in large number of items e.g. in India manufactured.

plows without course animals: Fully-automated system of plowing

freshly more plowedField

the age of full-mechanized plowing began in Europe at approximately 1850 with the steam plow, that was Lokomobilen, which were set up at the end of the field, in order at rope hoists the plow on the field and be tightened. There these Lokomobilen for direct pulling of thePlow on the deep culture soils in Europe, arose tractors were too heavy, like we them today know only with invention of the lighter combustion engine.

1858 lent the British Royal Agricultural Society (royal agricultural society) to English engineer John Fowler a prize money of 500 Pound for a steam plow, which had expenditure-praised it for an economic replacement of plow or spade.

Modern plows are pulled by tractors. The first plows had originally only one plow bottom, while the modern plows are usually mehrfurchig.

today's remarks of plows

5-schariger Volldrehpflug mit Beschreibung der Komponenten
5-scharigerVolldrehpflug with description of the components

kind of connection:

  • Cultivation plow = plow, which is cultivated firmly at the tractor and by this is dug. (Today mostly to 5-scharig, rarely 6-scharig)
  • Aufsattelpflug = plow with own chassis (1 or 2 wheels), which a part plow yielding width unit carries. (Today usually off5 crowds and usually in Europe upto max. 12 crowds)

plow design

  • general-purpose plow = plow with a row crowds (turns only in 1 direction, usually to the right). Larger fields must be divided therefore into smaller “patches”, therefore the name general-purpose plow.
  • Volldrehpflug = plow also2 rows crowds, 1 x left 1 x right-cutting.

The Volldrehpflüge are turned with hydraulics (oil pressure).

miscellaneous items

in household of German citizens around 1900 belonged to that volume behind plow and vice of the writer and engineer max of Eyth to the iron existence.

In the transferredSense is used the term with a snow plough or when ski driving for the plow elbow used in former times (see momentum (ski))….

see also: Tilting plow

the largest plow museum of Switzerland: Plow museum Guntmadingen

manufacturer

manufacturer of horse-pulled plows:

Light TIG, Eberhardt, Landsberg, Rud. Bag, Ventzki,

today's manufacturers:

Eberhardt, bold, Landsberg, Niemeyer, Rabe, Lemken GmbH, Pöttinger, bird & Noot, Kverneland, frost,

literature

  • Ulrich Bentzien: Hook and plow. Berlin 1969.
  • Refuge W. Praise ore: From the history of the plow. Agriculture museum Lüneburger heath Nr.5, Ülzen 1993.
This article or section is still incomplete and exhibits the following gaps :

Beetplug (off. 11 Jh.), old-German land plow (usually in 18. Jh. used), Flandri plow (center 19. Jh.), Kehrpflug (multi-crowd plow), Härtelpflug --Flominator 10:17, 9. August 2005 (CEST)
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