the Phönizier were a semitisches people of the antique ones and lived mainly in the range current Lebanon and Syria at the Mediterranean coast. The realm consisted of city states, which had political independence. The most important cities were: Era DOS, Byblos, Berytos, Sidon and Tyros, which in the time between 1000 to approx. 774 v. Chr. prominent power under the cities was.
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the name “Phönizier” is derived from the Greek designation “Phoinikes”. They never called themselves “Phönizier” or similarly, but after the cities, from which they came, e.g. Sidonier = people out Sidon. The Phönizier ranks among the first well-known sailors. Phöniki fabrics, in particular magenta materials, were very estimated in Greece.
After Herodot the Phönizier descended from the Kanaanitern and had its origin in the area Persian Gulf. Their languagewas nordwestsemitisch. A phönizische colony was Karthago (in the today's Tunesien). The Karthager was called by the Romans Poeni (Punier).
The Phönizier was excellent sailor. They colonized the Mediterranean area of Cyprus over Sicilies to Spain, bereisten Gadir, Cerne, and under Hanno the sailor drove through them (from Karthago ) Gibraltar and traveled up to the gulf of Guinea. They acted with Britannien and bought tin of the pits of the peninsula Cornwall. There are popular-scientificTheories, after those the phönizischen sailors already approx. two millenia before Christoph Kolumbus the way over the Atlantic until America found - and regularly drove on.
Starting from the year 586 v. Chr. Affiliation to the newBabylonian realm, except Tyros, which a 13jährigen FE storage (from 585 to 573v. Chr.) to withstand could. Around 520 v. Chr. again the country finally came under Persian rule, whereby the phönizischen cities were integrated as Persian Vasallenkönigtümer. Under Persian rule they placed a large part of the Persian war fleet with their ships.
On behalf the Pharaos Necho II. are they around 600 v. Chr. a large expedition undertook, of the Sinaihalbinsel outgoing, with ships from approx. 40 m length, equipped with 40 belts (Ruderern) and a sail, over Somalia, that Equator to South Africa, and then along the west coast of Africa back in the Mediterranean, so that they orbited Africa completely within 3 years - a distance of 30.000 km in unknown waters. The travel became by longer land stays sowingand harvests interrupted by grain. This journey was described by Herodot, is otherwise not however not verified. For its plausibility it speaks however that after its report the sailors were surprised that it, westward driving, the midday sun on the right side (thusin the north) to see got - which Herodot did not want to believe.
The Christians in Lebanon, particularly the Maroniten, call themselves today as Phönizier. This often serves for it, around itself from the Arab neighbours, those as Muslims in the westare noticed to differentiate and around itself from a collection of the Islamic-Arab culture area by the stress of the own identity extract. (see also to Orientchristen)
the Phönizier were culture-forming. They created the prototype of the European alphabetand were first admitted users of the color magenta (a colour between red and violet). To this royal color was the magenta snail ( Murex trunculus ) pours. Magenta and those outstanding for shipbuilding suitable Libanonzeder were relevant as natural resourcesin the ascent of the realm takes part. To destruction of the Zedernbestände the formerly powerful realm under an impressive example of the consequences did not go to lasting use. The natural area originally which can be set in Lebanon with 500.000 hectares is today on 2.000 hectarestogether-shrunk, of it straight 342 hectares of pure existence, of it 85 hectares close Tanourinne and Hadem and in each case 40 hectares with Ain Zahalsa and Jebel Baroun. There is only only one previous stock level of 16 hectares with Besharri.
The Zedern suppliedlarge thick trunks of very beautiful, durable and easily to working on wood. This does not distort itself with drying. Not only the wood hunger of the fleets of 2.700 before Christ into the first millenium after Christ devoured hectares around hectares.The Zedernholz was desired also for palaces and temples in the far surrounding field. The first report originates from the time of the Pharao Senefru around 2750 before Christ and mentions its supply with Zedernholz from Byblos. In addition, became after Mesopotamienthe Zedernholz supplied, e.g. around 2.400 v. Chr. Supply for the prince Gudea in Lagasch many 20-30 meters long trunks. When Phönizien belonged to the Egyptian realm, forced laborers led large eradications for the enormous temple plants of Theben, Karnak and Memphisthrough. In addition, consumer durables like the coffins (also those the Pharaonen) were made of the aromatic wood, which was burned even as perfumes. Also Greece e.g. imported. for the temple of the Diana in Ephesos Zedernholz from Phönizien just like thoseKings of Israel, David and Salomon for the building of temples and their buildings of palaces. However in the Bible the Libanonzeder in 40 chapters in 18 books finds over a hundred times to mention. It applied in the antiquity as a most beautiful tree of the earth. In the salomonischen templewere columns, walls, choir, roof structure, all all this and the panel of the altars from Zedernholz. Zedernholzschindeln were used as roof cover. No miracle that 333. v.Chr. Alexander the large one in south Lebanon already no more Zedernholz for its need for shipbuilding foundand these in remote areas anti-Lebanon to only cover could do. In Phönizien the wood served also for the production of high-quality furniture and for utensils. Also the resin was used estimated and often up to the Einbalsamieren of the Egyptian mummies.
Became richthe Phönizier however in the long run by their trade based on its colonies and bases and its powerful merchant fleet from Libanonzedern on the other hand.
in the Greek mythology is considered the Phönix as a master father of the Phönizier and is father of Kadmos and Europe. The Phönizier had a highest God El as well as several city Gods, as if female divinity preferred Astarte, and the vegetation God Adonis.
- Herm, Gerhard: The Phönizier - the magenta realm of the antique ones, Econ,Duesseldorf 1980, ISBN 3-430-14452-3.
- Markoe, Glenn E.: The Phönizier, Darmstadt 2003, ISBN 3806218161.
- Moscati, Sabatino: The Phöniker. Of 1200 v.Chr. up to the fall Karthagos, Zurich 1966.
- Mueller, H. - P.: Religions at the edge of the Greek-Roman world: Phönizier andPunier, in: H. - P. Mueller - F. Victory ore: Antique edge companies and fringe groups in the eastern Mediterranean area (Münsteraner Judaisti studies 5), Münster 2000, S. 9-28.
- Summer, Michael: The Phönizier - commercial gentlemen between Orient and Okzident, Kröner, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3520454017.
Web on the left of
- http://phoenicia.org - to Exzellente extensive Site in English language
- with the inventors of the alphabet: Everyday life in the old Phönizien (materials college radio)