The Philippines

Republika ng Pilipinas (Filipino)
Republic of the Philippines
Flagge der Philippinen Wappen der Philippinen
(detail) (detail)
Wahlspruch: Maka Diyos, Maka Tao, Makakalikasan RK Makabansa (EN. For God, People, Nature, and Country)
office languages Filipino/Tagalog, English
capital Manila
system of government Präsidialrepublik
president GloriaMacapagal Arroyo
surface 300,000 km ²
number of inhabitants 87.857.473 (July 2005)
population density of 293 inhabitants per km ²
independence from Spain to 12. June 1898 (officially)
currency Philippine peso
currency symbol Bild:PHP.png; ISO-4217-Code: PHP
time belt UTC +8
national anthem Lupang Hinirang (Selected country)
Kfz characteristic RP
Internet TLD .ph
preselection +63
Die Philippinen in Asien
Karte der Philippinen

the republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas, English Republic of OF the Philippines; the name leads itself from the Spanish king Philipp II. ) lies off in the western Pacific ocean and belongsto Southeast Asia. The southChinese sea separates the Inselgruppe from Viet Nam in the west, the Celebessee from Indonesia in the south. The archipelago, which extends from 5° to 21° northern latitude and from 117° to 126° of eastern length, forms thatfifth-largest island state of the world to Indonesia, Madagascar, Papua New Guinea and Japan.

Table of contents

geography

the Philippines consists of 7.107 islands, by which however only about 2,000 is inhabited. Only 11 islands have a surface of more than 2.500 km ², the largest are Luzon, Mindanao, Samar, Negros, Mindoro, Panay and Palawan; only 1,000 is larger than 1 km ².

The archipelago is divided into three Inselgruppen: Luzon with the island Luzon, the Visayas, and. A. with the islands Palawan, Negros, Cebu, Leyte, Samar, Masbate and Bohol and as the third group of Mindanao, and. A. consisting of the island Mindanao, Basilan and the Sulu archipelago with the island Jolo.

In the core are the islands the points over the sea level of rising submarine mountain chains at the border of two continental plates, the Philippine ones and Eurasi. Spaciously seen the Philippines are part of the Pacific Feuerrings with earthquakes and volcanism on as frequent accompaniments of this situationthe shelf border. There are at present about 20 active volcanos, from which the Pinatubo and the Mayon - both convenient on Luzon - showed special activity in the last years. East the Inselgruppe runs the Philippines ditch, with up to-10,540 m of one of the largest deep sea ditches of the earth. As consequence of sea-quake know enormous tsunami, which Tsunamis, to develop.


Pfahlbauten im Meer auf den Philippinen


The climate of the Philippines is coined/shaped particularly by the proximity to the sea, no place is further as 200 km ofremoves for the coast. The situation of the islands in the low tropical widths and the influence of the surrounding seas cause over the year a very balanced temperature of approximately 26° C with only small fluctuations. Most precipitation falls in the connectionwith the southwest monsoon particularly in the time of May until November. At the west coast (Manila) the northeast monsoon brings only small precipitation, during at the east coast (Davao) completequite humid climate prevails. Because of that in north south direction running mountains fall predominantlyat the west side of the Inselgruppe of clearly fewer precipitation than at the eastern side. From August to Octobers frequently Taifune pull over the center and the north of the Philippines; between 1945 and 2000 the Philippines were crossed or touched by 349 Taifunen.

Klimadiagramm Manila
Climatic diagram Manila
Klimadiagramm Davao
climatic diagram Davao

animal and plant world

of Philippine Koboldmaki

on the Philippines gives it over 5.000 different animal and innumerable kinds of insect, as well as 14,000 different plants. Among them also water buffalos (Carabao) are, parrots, flight crescent, Delfine, crocodiles, queues, Koboldmaki,Manabo, turtles, Echsen and others. Allegedly the Philippine animal world of the Indonesian is very similar, since in the past many malaiische immigrants along-brought animals from Indonesia. There are Calauit on the Philippine island, northwest from Busuanga since 1976 among other things alsoa private, commercial nature reservation (open zoo) with 70 giraffes and numerous other African animals such as Zebras or Impalas. The island belonged to the district Palawan and one can go there as in Africa on “safari”.

population

Philippine languages

on the Philippines determine more than 70 languages and dialects spoken; practically each region has its own language or dialect.

Filipino, on Tagalog is based, apart from English, the office language of the Philippines. Tagalog predominantly becomes upthe island Luzón spoken. Only about 25% the Filipinos speak Tagalog, but Filipino is spoken and understood of approximately 80%. Cebuano is predominantly spoken in central Visaya as well as in the north and the west Mindanaos. About 15% of the population speakCebuano. Further important regional languages are Ilokano (12%) and Waray Waray (9%).


Spanish

Spanish was to 1898 the official language of the Philippines and also of approximately 10% of the population was spoken. Most, the Spanish, were Mestizen spoke or came from the Oberschicht. At higher schools usually in Spanish one informed, and also many newspapers appeared in this language.

1901 became the Philippines an American colony. The Americans introduced English as the first office language. Soit came that the Spanish lost ever more at meaning. (See also Philippine Spanish)

English

English came for the first time 1898 on the island. By American influence English beside the Filipino is today the second office language andof approximately 125,000 humans (usually Americans) as native language one speaks. For more than 50% the Filipinos is English an important secondary language.

religion

Santo Nino, älteste Kirche des Landes in Cebu-Stadt
Santo Nino, oldest church of the country in Cebu city

catholic 82.9%, Protestanten 5.4%, Muslims 4.6%, independent Filipini church (Iglesia Independente Filipino) 2.6%, Iglesia ever Cristo 2.3%, in addition do not come Buddhisten (usually Chinese, few Filipinos) and Hindus (Indian)

(source: Fischer world yearbook 2006)


with the mostly catholic population plays the faith inEveryday life a large role. 80% the Filipinos practice their faith. 30% call themselves even as very religious. Religious illustrations and figures control many private and public areas, as well as most means of transport.

The catholic church has, in particular in ruralAreas, on the Philippines still another large influence on the policy and the Philippine society.

The Buddhismus reached the Philippines for the first time in the 7.Jahrhundert by Chinese and malaiischen dealer and buyers (Sri Vijaya) on the Philippines establishedhad. It was particularly common on the Visayas and Mindanao in before-Spanish time. The Hinduismus came isolated into 14. and 15. Century by Indonesian dealers on the island, seized however only in the south Mindanaos and on the Sulu island foot.

The Islam reached the southern Philippines for the first time end 14. Century and spread up to 16. Century on the whole Philippines out. Today it is however only common in Mindanao. About 4 millions Filipinos are Muslims.

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Demografie

Filipina
Filipina

the population builds itself in the majority (90%) from Jungmalaiien , since 4000 the v. up. Chr. predominantly of Malaysia and Sumatra (Indonesia) to the country immigrated. Besides the people of 2% Chinese consists as well asfrom altmalaiischen trunks and the Negrito natives. Mestizen constitute further 2% of the population. Beside Philippine-Spanish (these predominantly live in the south Mindanaos and speak a Spanish Kreolsprache, i.e. Chavacano), there are also about 300,000 Chinese and approx. 20.000Japanese Mestizen. Contrary to Indonesia and Malaysia where the Malaien in 15. Jh. to the Islam, is most Philippine Malaien converted Christians. Christian Malaien constitutes today 92% of the population. Here 83% are catholic and 9%Protestant.


In addition the following minorities on the Philippines live:

  • 110,000 Americans and European
  • 35,000 Indonesier
  • of 31,000 Arabs
  • of 30,000 Indian and Pakistaner
  • of 30,000 Japanese and Koreans

for the 80's are besides about 70,000 Christian Indonesier, particularly from Maluku and south Kalimantan,due to religious or ethnical conflicts on the Philippines fled.

there are

Malaii peoples on the Philippines numerous malaiische peoples. The Philippines are exactly the same as Indonesia a many people state. The largest group among the malaiischen peoples are the Tagalogs,which on the island Luzon live. They constitute 30% of the population and its language, the Tagalog, form the basis for the Filipino. Filipino is, apart from English, the office language of the Philippines. The moreover one there is still the Ilokanos, thosePangasináns, the Kampampangans, the Bicolano, the Hiligaynons, the Sugboanons, the Waraynons, the Masbatenyos and the Butuanons. The Tausug, and the Maranaos, which predominantly live in the south Mindanaos and on the Sulu islands, are predominant, contrary to the other malaiischen peoples,Muslim. Into the 70's the Islam in countries hardly played such as Indonesia, Malaysia or the Philippines a role. 1968 practiced only scarcely to 20% of the Philippine Muslims the Islam.

Since then it experienced however an upswing. Many Philippine Muslims howalso their Malaysian and Indonesian neighbours became more conservative and took the Islamic rules more seriously. Many Muslim Filipinos felt besides rather to Malaysia associated as to that the predominantly catholic Philippines. Numerous Muslims emigrated to Malaysia.

Ethnical minorities

6 million Filipinos belong to an ethnical minority. These ethnical minorities live over the entire island state scattered and nourish themselves as hunters, collecting tanks and field farmers. The following groups are differentiated:

  • Negrito, to those the Aeta,Agtâ, Ayta, Ati and Ata count. These trunks populate the islands excluding Negros and Panay, in addition completely south and Mittelluzon and far parts of Nordluzons. They are the remnants of the Philippine natives and differ in the appearance substantially fromthe Jungmalaii and Altmalaii subpopulations. Negritos means “small negroes”, what represents a quite geringschätzige and devaluing designation in the view on it that bright skin is an ideal of beauty.
  • to the mountain trunks Luzons (Igorot) belong the Apayao, Tingguian, Kalinga, Bontok, Kankanai, Ifugao, Ibaloyand I-wak. They live in Nordluzon at the slopes of the 2,022 to 2,702 meters high mountains and built the legendary rice terraces.
  • the Mangyan lives on Mindoro in seven trunks, Iraya, Alangan, Batangan, Tadyawan, Buhid, Hanunoo and Ratagnon, mainlyin the interior of the island.
  • the island Palawan accommodates three trunks of the Palawanvölker, the Tagbanua, the Batak and the Tau´t Batu.
  • likewise to the mountain trunks the Mamanwa, Manobo, Manobo Bilit, Manobo Tasaday, Mandaya, Mansaka, T´boli and those countsSubanun, these peoples live however only in the mountains Mindanaos.
  • while the previous peoples are primarily Animisten, live in the south of the Philippines also Muslim races, the Maranao, Magindanao, Samal, Yakan, Badjao, Tausug and the Jama Mapun. They populate that Sulu archipelago, the south Mindanaos, the turtle islands and the islands south of Palawan.

poverty

Leben auf den Philippinen
life on the Philippines

poverty is in the Philippines a large problem, roughly 40% of the population lives under the poverty border. In allLarge cities (Manila, Davao town center etc.) there is expanded Slums. However in Manila there are about 60,000 road children, of whom many are alone posed perfectly on itself.

Not few girls must make their money by prostitution, others make its money thanSchuhputzer, autoscrubber or garbage collecting tank. Frequently they must a part of their earnings/services at middlemen deliver or as protection money at gangs pay.

  • See also: [1] - Klaus Polak over Slums in the Philippines.

history

major item: History of the Philippines

sinceprähistorischer time Negritos inhabit or also Aetas mentioned, as if population the Philippines ursprünglichste. Around 25.000 v. Chr., at a time as the immigration still over land bridges was possible, moved austronesische trunks in the country.

Off approx. 2000 v. Chr. those camefirst ethnical Malaien from Indonesia and Malaysia to Mindanao and the Sulu islands and spread in the course of the centuries over the entire Philippines. In Vorspani time parts of the Philippines under the influence of Sri Vijaya came later and of Majapahit. SouthChinese dealers had likewise a large influence in the region. Until today words from the Sanskrit are received in the Philippine languages. 1917 were found in Mindanao a Indian Malaii Golstatue from the Majapahit time.


1380 seized the Islamon the southern Philippines foot, different sultanates developed, under it the influential sultanate of Jolo. Around 1500 it reached Luzón. Around 1530 May Nilad was created. The area was already settled for centuries, but only the Rajahs gave to thatPlace a name.

When the Spaniards 1565 stressed the Philippines as their colony and attached it thus to new Spain, already far parts of the Philippines were islamized by malaiische Rajahs. However these obtained a tolerant form of the Islam. Animisti practices were also with islamized Filipinos spreads. May Nilad (later Manila) was a Muslim village with approximately 10,000 inhabitants as the Spaniards it 1571 conquered. They forced to convert the Muslim Rajah Sulayman to the catholicism. Two further Rajahs of May Nilad,Rajah Lakandula and Rajah Matanda converted under the pressure of the Spaniards likewise to the Christianity. The Spaniards succeeded it fast also the Muslim population to the Christianity to bekehren, since the Islam was not yet strengthened in the society. 100 years laterthe Islam was usually limited to the southern Philippines.

The Muslims, by the Spaniards Moros called, could be however never completely subjected in the south by the colonial gentlemen. In the opinion of Philippine historians would be the Philippines, without the arrival of the SpaniardsCenter 16. Century, completely islamized, as it is today in Indonesia or Malaysia the case.

politics

the Philippines are since that 4. July 1946 an independent state. With the choice of Ferdinand E. Marcos toIn the year 1965 a time of the dictatorship, which is only terminated in February 1986, begins presidents, after also military the people resistance against Marcos follow and this finally leaves the country. At the 11. February 1987 stepped a new condition intoKraft and since 1987 are the Philippines a Präsidialrepublik. The president has extensive executive of powers. It calls up the cabinet . The parliament consists of house of representatives and senate.

Present head of state is Dr. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (*1947), since 20. January.2001 (before vice-president); them became again to 30. June 2004 swears in. Macapagal Arroyo is successor of Joseph E. Estrada, that after loss of its power base as consequence of corruption reproaches and/or. the pressure of demonstrations had left his seat prematurely. Estradaone accuses of of “economic plundering” of the country and is until today in detention.


The Philippines are member in the security council of the UN, ASEAN, APEC and the Unión Latina.


terrorism

country-wide regarded is the ChristianReligion (about 84% catholic and 9% Protestant) on the Philippines furthest spreads. About 5% of the population are Muslims. Compared to the other regions particularly is the portion of Muslims under the population on Mindanaohighly (scarcely a third Muslim). Only on the Sulu islands Muslims place the majority of the inhabitants also over 85%. Particularly in the south Mindanaos comes it again and again to armed arguments between rebels of the separatist MNLF (Moro national liberationFront), the Islamic MILF (Moro Islamic liberation front) and government troops. The MNLF uses itself for an autonomous Muslim state, which is to consist of the islands Mindanao, Palawan , Basilan and the Sulu archipelago. In the course of these arguments comesit also again and again to attacks of terror, as for instance the bomb attacks on the international airport in Davao in the spring 2003 as well as on a port terminal in Davao approximately at the same time. Both notices demanded several victims. The moreover one it always comesagain too religiously justified notices on Christian churches. Due to this endangerment situation became and. A. the Foreign Office in particular in the past several times travel warnings for the Philippines given change and from journeys to Mindanao one advised against. It acts only superficiallyregarded around a pure religion conflict. Another of the underlying causes is for example the land law of 1903, which permitted Christians to possess up to 23 hectars country implemented by the United States, during the Landbesitz for Muslim and not-Christian natives up10 hectars was limited. This law formed only one component of a continuous systematic expropriation campaign, which led in the long run to one of the largest forgotten wars of our time: the civil war on Mindanao demanded at least 120,000 victims, those until 2002 according to data of the World BankMajority of them civilians. Numerous attempts at serious peace conclusions to arrive failed so far, among other things because of a missing long-term perspective for the region, which offers a fair reconciliation of interests of all involved ones and concerning.

to unrests February 2006

see articles Putschversuch on the Philippines 2006

administrative arrangement

the Philippines are developed hierarchically as follows: The lowest management level is the Barangay. Barangays form cities and municipalities. The next higher level are the 79 provinces (conditions 2002) of the country. Thisagain are grouped into 17 districts, in order to simplify the administration. Each province is led by a governor and a vice-governor; whereas manage each city and municipality in each case a mayor and an town councillor.

Most government offices of the districts possess inOffice for regional, in order to support the individual provinces. With exception of the autonomous moslemischen districts Mindanao and Cordillera the districts possess however no own government like the provinces and cities.

districts

  • Ilocos region (district I)
  • Cagayan Valley (district II)
  • Cent ral Luzon (district III)
  • CALABARZON (district IV-A) ¹
  • MIMAROPA (district IV-B) ¹
  • Bicol region (district V)
  • Western Visayas (district VI)
  • cent ral Visayas (district VII)
  • Eastern Visayas (district VIII)
  • Zamboanga Peninsula (district IX)
  • Northern Mindanao (district X)
  • Davao region (district XI)
  • SOCCSKSARGEN (district XII) ¹
  • Caraga (district XIII)
  • Autonomous region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM)
  • Cordillera administrative region (CAR)
  • national Capital region (NCR) (Metro Manila)

¹ the designations are abbreviations, which the names of the condition province or - city carry.

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Economics

general

Cebu-Stadt - Wirtschaftsmotor in Visayas
Cebu city - restaurant economics in Visayas
  • currency: 1 Philippine peso = 100 Centavos
  • 1 € = 68.10 Philippine peso (conditions 28. July 2005)
  • BSP: 77,25 billion euro (2004)

the Philippines belong to that, outEuropean view seen, poorer countries. It prevails a strong economic contrast between a small rich Oberschicht and the broad population majority. In Manila about there is on the one hand the clean and safe cloud scratch city of Makati with numerous international enterprises, on thatother side in addition, many expanded Slums without sufficient water and current supply. Further a clear north-south gap in the income can be determined. During on the Hauptinsel Luzon (in the north) an export-oriented industry (particularly within the range of the textile and electronic industry) presentis, to a large extent the agriculture (cultivation of rice) prevails forwards in the southern Mindanao. The most important trade partners are the USA and Japan. Export goods are above all electronics, machines and means of transport.

foreign country Filipinos

an important restaurant factor represent the Filipinos,those abroad as so-called. OFW = Overseas Filipino Worker works. The transfers of these immigrant workers amounted to in the year 2004 approx. 8.5 billion US Dollar (source: Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas = Philippine central bank).

About 8 million Filipinos (approx. 6% of the population)work constantly abroad, Philippine women particularly frequently in Hong Kong, Singapore and Arab countries, particularly as house or child girls in addition, in simple activities, approximately as a cashier. Also the marriage with a “Foreigner” (white man) is muchpopular and frequently to the cause is taken to begin the country too left and a new existence abroad. With the income in hard currency large projects in the homeland can be carried out with relatively small expenditure. The monthly paymentsfrom Filipinos home constitute a large sum and let the population in the actual sense a better standard reach.

Due to the good training and good English knowledge are Philippine emigrants in the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Europe (Great Britain,Italy, Spain, France, Germany) well by right. They work frequently in the health service, mostly as technician/inside and technologist/inside, in addition, as physician/inside and nursing for the sick r/R as well as educator/inside, house personnel and in the catering trade. Philippine men are to be found on large cruise ships world-wide, mainlyin laundries, as musicians or as service personnel. On cargo ships they serve as crew members or also as ship masters and - officers. Since many good-trained Filipinos pull abroad, the native economy under the loss of specialists (Brain drain) suffers, alsothe marriage market is drained thereby. On the other hand foreign exchange comes into the country by the foreign activity.

The government considers the re-establishment of a 5-prozentigen income tax for all abroad busy Filipinos, in order to let money flow into the national budget. This project pushes however uplarge resistance of the concerning.

Typical traffic scene

traffic

the traffic of the island state is based predominantly on navigation, aviation and traffic. The railway nature is developed few and consists essentially of only one state railway distance of the Philippine national Railways (PNR). InManila was begun in recent time to develop a modern metropolitan railway system measure rapidly transit Manila. Nearly generally speaking country dominating vehicles are the so-called Jeepneys.

between

1992 and 2000 was appropriate for public expenditures the portion of the public expenditures for

culture

Spanish name

the Filipinos, in addition, the islands, regions and localities carry continuing Spanish colonial rule for that as consequence approximately 330 yearsmostly Spanish names. To 1849 most Filipinos had only one first name; some designated itself also after catholic holy ones (e.g. San Pedro, del Pilar, San Buenaventura). To 21. November 1849 issued the Spanish governor general Narciso Claveria y Zaldua a decree, which makes mandatory for all Filipinos surnames. For this purpose to all province governors an alphabetical list of Spanish names is distributed. The province governors send one cutout each from this list to the municipality ministers. The oldest person of each family could thenselect a name for its family for the whole family from these Unterliste. Since by this system places got only names, which began with a certain letter, one can recognize the local origin from many names. The list, on thoseall Philippine surnames decrease/go back, are well-known as Claveria list. The sense of the decree was a simplification of the administration, tax receipt and census. Although the Spaniards controlled approximately 330 years the island, the Spanish language could never become generally accepted; differently than inCentral and South America set one on the Philippines less on the mixture of two cultures, but was rather in the trade interested. Therefore speak less as 5,000 Filipinos Spanish than native language, however about 230,000 Filipinos Chabacano speak, a Spanish Kreolsprache.


For many everyday terms, among other things time and number data, designations of house compartments, household and clothe articles and vehicle parts, uses Spanish names or words. Also these were converted partly or alienated, remind however still much of the Spanish terms. For examplemeans the word “siempre” in the Spanish “eternally”, on the Philippines this word rather for “naturally, obviously” is always, used. Partial own Tagalog expressions for the terms specified above, these exist become however from aesthetic reasons (Spanish terms to sound more beautifully)hardly uses. There is however efforts under way to revive following the national hero and man of letters José Protasio Rizal, the historically delivered language. Of Spaniards created schools such as Colegio de San Juan de Letran, Univ. de Santo Toma, Colegio de Santa Catalina and other organizations, like z. B. Circulo Cervantino and Casino Español teach to communicate still Spanish and also in this language.

Philippine kitchen

meal

about 60 to 70% thatPhilippine courts descend from Spanish courts. Fish and sea fruits are the basic food of the Philippines. Shrimps, crabs and Langusten however are reserved expensive and exclusive courts. In addition, as arm people meals shells and snails, these are considered become as if delicate-eatin good restaurants serves. Rice is a component each meal.

Schweinefleisch is gladly eaten, except in the Islamic regions. As national court Adobo , this is considered consists either of Schweinefleisch, beef, poultry, fish or vegetable, which are gedünstet. In addition come still vinegar,Garlic, bulbs and depending upon region Sojasosse or Kokosmilch. For solemn causes usually roasted splinter piglet with liver sauce is served, in the Philippines admits under the name Lechon with Sarsa. Other popular meals are meat or fish-mirror-image-eat Inihaw (grilled) oralso at air dried and gesalzenes beef (Tapa), which is roasted or grilled and peppered with Nipapalm - vinegar. The meals are not as strongly peppered as in other asiatic countries. Except in the province Bicol, there becomesgladly sharply eaten (Bicol express). Chinese origin are with meat or vegetable filled paste bags (Siopao). One of the few Philippine soups on the Philippines is called Sinigang (a säuerliche soup with vegetable and meat). At birthdays long noodles (Pansit) become,some long life to symbolize are, served. Liked with child birthdays: Spaghetti with Meatballs.

Due to the Spanish Kolonisation Essbesteck is used when eating. However without measurers, only spoons and fork. The traditional intermediate meals - e.g. Rice on banana leaves - become alsothe right hand eaten.

For European tastes the intensive employment of sugar is habituation needy with many courts. Even a world-wide well-known manufacturer of Ketchup had to increase exclusively for the Philippines the sugar content.

beverages

main beverage to the mealsclear water is, this however ever more by soft drinks is displaced. A very large beer mark is San Miguel (even if the two breweries the same names have: The Philippine beer “San Miguel” does not have anything with the Spanish beer mark San Miguelto do). Expensive import wine is usually drunk only by the wealthy population. Other strongly alcoholic beverages are tuba, the vergorene juice of the Kokospalme, Basi - and Lambanog - liquors, those of rice or palms to be made and moderate Rum from Zuckerrohr.

Coffee is drunk predominantly as finished coffee.

there are

Philippine celebrations on the Philippines annually many celebrations among other things the Barrio Fiesta and Fiesta de Sandugo. Each area has its own celebrations frequently with paradesand fireworks in honours/that restaurants holy ones to be committed. In before-Spanish time many hinduistische and buddhistische elements came on the Philippines, since the Philippines were attached both the Sri Vijaya realm and the later Majapahit realm. In consequence of the 333Years continuing Kolonisation by the Spaniards flowed also many Spanish and Mexican traditions into the culture also and after 1898 came additionally still American influences on the island. About 60% of the Philippine traditions and customs have despite thatcentury-long foreign rule their origin in before-Spanish time.

A large celebration gives it in the city to Davao, it is called Kadayawan and goes one week, there steps into the Shoppingmalls famous Philippine of star and singer on and on weekend gives ita large parade with festively decorated fixed cars. At the end by a jury the most beautiful fixed car is selected.

Philippine mythology

the Philippine mythology is a collection of stories over magic natures and creatures. Despite strong Verwestlichung and Christianisierungbelieve many Filipinos still in the existence of such natures, particularly in the provinces. There are also reports of sighting, which remained often unconfirmed however.

Since the country consists of many islands and is inhabited by many ethnical groups, is the Philippine mythology much splinters. There is however thing in common under these groups like the faith in skies (Kaluwalhatian or Kalangitan), hell (Kasanaan) and the human soul (kaluluwa).

  • Aswang
Aswang, the probably most famous mythologische shapethe Philippines, is corpses of corrosive Ghul and can - like the European who wolf - which accept shape of an animal.
During the day Aswangs accept the shape of humans or an animal (usually a bat or a pig). At night they appearwith full moon around midnight, in order to make hunt for nothing suspecting sleeping humans. The myth of the Aswang is particularly popular in Capiz and in Duenas, Iloilo.
  • Dila
Dila is the tongue of a spirit. Dilas penetrate through the bamboo floor of rural housesand certain humans lick to death.
  • Diwatas and Engkatos
Diwatas or Feen are to live in large trees such as acacias and Baletes. They are the protection spirit of nature and probably bring benedictions or a spoiling over those, forests and mountainsdo or harm. Famous such Diwata is Maria Makiling, the Wächterin of the Mount Makiling in the province Laguna. Engkantos (also Encantos written) or male Feen lives mainly in the sea. Under Philippine Fischern it is custom after a goodTo throw catch meat and other delicate meals than victims for the Engkantos in the sea.
In other regions Diwatas correspond to the Greek Gods and God inside. To the most well-known Diwatas belong: Bathala (also admits as Kabunian, Malayari and Lumawig), rulersthe sky;Amanikable, ruler over the seas; Dian Masalanta, goddess of the love; Apolake (or Adlaw), sun God; May air (or in other areas Bulan), moon goddess; Tala, goddess of the stars; and Anitan, guard of lightnings.
  • Dwende
Dwendeis the Spanish word for dwarf. Dwendes live frequently in houses or on trees in rural areas. Depending on how one treats them, they bring mischief or luck. Filipinos often leave meals on the floor, thus the Dwendes,those the house do not inhabit (or, as they say, protect) are insulted, but bring benedictions to the house. There are also Dwendes, which live in ant hills, and if one comes to a ant hill, one asks for its permission past happensmay.
  • Kapre
Kapre, a large and dark giant, inhabits forests. Kapres smoke tobacco, why Filipinos are very sensitive in rural areas to tobacco smoke.
  • Manananggal
a Manananggal is a Zauberin, which can divide their body into two parts. At the backit carries for Fledermausflügel. Head and torsos roam across the country and eat bettlägerige and ill humans. If the lower half of its body is covered with ash and salt, their head cannot return and it is finally destroyed. Sometimes it becomes alsoa Aswang confounds or on an equal footing.
  • Mangkukulam
Mangkukulam is a witch. On the Visayas it is called Mambabarang.
  • Matruculan
Matruculan penetrates vogue ore it into the house of a virgin and. After another version the Matruculan kills a becoming nut/mother, openstheir body and eats the Fötus. For the defense the married man cuts through a blowing air with its axe during that. The faith in Matruculan is not as far common today as in the Spanish time.
  • Multo
Multo, the word for spiritinto Tagalog, comes from the Spanish muerto, i.e. Death. Filipinos believe that a Multo, often the spirit of a deceased used, it regularly visited. The word for the attendance of a Multo is called minumulto or dinadalaw. Re+born Christians under the Filipinosregards the Multos as bad spirit, the catholics however as well-meaning.
  • Nuno SA Punso
of the Nuno SA Punso inhabits small hills in the soil. Therefore Filipinos say „makikiraan long po “(“apology please”), if they go past at an embossment in the soil,in order not to insult the Nuno. Often they are brought in disorder with the Dwende.
  • Putol well Kamay
Putol well Kamay live frequently in mail boxes or cabinets in rural houses. The name means „cut off hand “.
  • Santelmo
Santelmo, or Santo Elmo, is a fire ball, which was seen particularly in the mountains of the Sierra Madre by dozens of Filipinos. Scientifically the features were explained as electrical fields, which had separated from lines. There were reports over sighting however already in the SpanishEra (16. to 19. Century).
  • Sirena and Siyokoy
Sirena is a sea virgin. Above all often reported Fischer from the cities at the Pacific of Sirenas at the beach. Siyokoy is the male counterpart of the Sirena. It has a browngeschuppte skin similarly that of the fish and Kiemenschlitze.
  • Tikbalang
a Tikbalang is a nature with the head of a horse and the body of humans.
  • Tiyanak
after the faith of the Filipinos is a Tiyanak the descendant of a woman and a Dämons (change bellows compare). A Tiyanak can be also a driven off Fötus, which awakes to the life and brings misfortune over the nut/mother. It is described as hairless with red skin and glowing eyes.


  • Thanbucha
after the faith of the Filipinos is inThanbucha the descendant of a man and a desire scrapper-cleaning. A Thanbucha can be also a driven off Fötus, which awakes to the life and brings misfortune over the nut/mother. It is described as hairless with red skin and glowing eyes. Illegitimate childrendirectly after the birth are drowned.

there

ein Hotel auf den Philippinen
are objects of interest a hotel on

the Philippines on the Philippines 30 well receiving temples from the Srivijaya - and Majapahit - time between 700 and 1400 was built. On Luzónare the famous rice terraces of Banaue and Batad as well as the volcanos Pinatubo, Taal and Mayon (many as the most beautiful volcano of the world regard, there it as almost perfect cone from a flat level rise). Are remarkablealso the many beaches, which offer the coasts of the Philippines.

The most important objects of interest belong also here to the world cultural heritage, like the baroque churches in Manila and Intramuros Paoay and Miagao or the corral reef Tubbataha. The moreover one is also worth seeing of national parkin country, as the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River national park, in which the longest underground river of the world is, as well as the Quezon national Forest park or dog-talk of Iceland national park and the historical colonial city the Vigan. Up Bohol gives it also the “chocolate in such a way specified hills”. The name comes from a Philippine sweet, of which the hills remind. One can make also a route with the touring bus, which to one across 100 the hill leads.

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Other

the Philippines are one of the few countries, in which divorces are forbidden. For this reason many Philippine married couples in the Dominican republic let themselves be separated. Adultery stands likewise under punishment.

literature

  • Harry Sichrovsky: The revolutionariesof Leitmeritz. Ferdinand flower footstep and the Philippine liberty fight. ÖBV, Vienna 1983 ISBN 3-215-04989-9
  • Jens Peter: The Philippines travel guide - Umfassenster of German-language Philippines travel guides, ISBN 3-92382130-1
  • Eduard Brachetto: The Philippines. Paradies in the permanent development state of emergency. 2003, ISBN 3-0344-0167-1.
  • Rolf Hanisch: The Philippines. Current land customer. 1989
  • Gisela M. Reiterer:The Philippines. Continuity and change. Special number of 1997, ISBN 3-85449-112-3.
  • F. Jagor: Journeys in the Philippines - shortened rendition of in the meantime already classical expenditure for original from the year 1873. ISBN 3-9800154-8-3
  • James Hamilton Paterson: Wasserspiele. Novel adhesive report of oneSelf identification by the study, development and description of the Philippine coastal world and a ethnographisches book concerning their inhabitants.ISBN 3-442-72298-2
  • Domingo A. Madulid: Apictorial guide ton the noteworthy plants OF Palawan.- Palawan Tropical Forestry Protection program (in partnership with EuropeanUnion), ISBN 971-92544-1-6
  • Ronald van de Vooren: Philippine Diving - detailed dipping leader in English for Apo Iceland, Bohol, Cebu and Siquijor, ISSN 016561511-7

Web on the left of

Commons: The Philippines - pictures, videos and/or audio files


coordinates: 5°-21° N, 117°-126° O

 

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