Philosophy of the antique
the philosophy of the antique ones, the birth of the love (philia) the wisdom (sophia), becomes by the owl of the goddess Athene (Roman: Minerva) symbolizes. The antique European Philosophy (Greek φιλοσοφία) begins with the Vorsokratik, has its bloom in classical philosophy and ends finally with the Neuplatonismus.
Meaning philosophies developed about at the same time with Indian and Chinese philosophy also in the antique far Orient (see. Axle time).Here it concerns however European antique philosophy, together with the Hebrew, Egyptian and mesopotamischen culture and. A. in Athens and in Rome the world view spectrum of the evening country justified later.
With his rich philosophical tradition formed Athens the outstanding and radiating center of antique thinking about the cosmic order to live the nature of humans and the correct kind. The mathematician and philosopher Alfred North Whitehead noticed once that all later drafts of European philosophy in the reasononly footnotes to Platon are.
Already before Platon the market place (Agora) in Athens symbolized the liberty of thinking by exchange of the opinions and arguments in the Agon, a peaceful contest. Here the large questions came to the language: From wheredoes everything come? What is the virtue? What is the beginning or the Urgrund ( Arché)? What is the truth ( Aletheia)? What property, is the luck etc. ?
at the beginning of such thinking stood thoseionische nature philosophy, whose heads rank among the Vorsokratikern. They set, those for the mythologisch coined/shaped conception of the world of the homerischen Epen about at the same time with the first olympic plays (776 v. Chr.) seized were common and with these in writing an important impulse forthe cultural growing together of the Hellenen had set themselves, a aufklärerische view against, e.g. in the forecast of a solar eclipse 585 v. Chr. by Thales of Milet to confirm left. With the victorious exit of the Perserkriege Athens became starting from that 5. Centuryv. Chr. to the cultural center of Greece and for the center of the further philosophical development.
Platon left its philosophical school with the academy likewise like Aristoteles its in shape of the Peripatetiker. Soon thereafter additionally the schools developed in Athensthe Epikureismus and the Stoa. Nearly a half millenium rendered later the stoisch coined/shaped philosopher emperor Marc Aurel its respect to all four schools, than it them in the year 176 n.Chr. on the occasion of a Athens stay ever financed a chair.
The Christianity, the medieval conception of the world of Europe certain, has antique philosophy into its teachings many elements integrated, mediated first particularly by the philosophically formed Apostel Paulus. The world-descriptive Pluralismus, as it in the antique philosophy schools existing next to each other andReligions was present, has the Christian Monotheismus however from late ancient times into the age of the clearing-up inside no longer certified.
From the third after-Christian century it is to be owed to the historian Diogenes Laertios that many antique philosophers despite thatTurned out for destruction of the probably most meaning antique library in Alexandria not completely into oblivion.
Table of contents
with the invention of philosophy begins itself thinking to discover. Think is thereby forwardsall dialogue. The first Greek philosophers formulate the laws of the logic. With the help of the proving reason - the appropriate Greek word Logos is with difficulty translatable - they develop geometry, the music theory and the astronomy. Itbind a thinking of the public community (Polis). At the entrance to the Orakel to Delphi stands: Recognize you (gnôthi sautón). The Vorsokratik covers the nature philosophy of the Milesier, the Pythagorean school (Pythagoreer), the Eleaten, Heraklit, the younger nature philosophers and the atomicists. Important is also the aufklärerische current of the Sophisten.
The Naturphilosphen looked for an understanding of nature and its procedures. Besides they wanted the world on an element, a beginning (arché), lead back (see. materia great and Monismus). This direction developed for about 600 v. Chr. in Ionien in small Asia. The first philosopher and important mathematicians Thales water regarded the Apeiron as the element , Anaximander (about: the boundlessly undeterminable),and Anaximenes air. Empedokles accepted four elements, which are moved by the forces love and hate.
Pythagoras and the Pythagorean school held the number for the measure of all things. The Pythagoreer Philolaos, Hippasos and Archytas was already important mathematicians and coined/shaped the philosophy of Platon likewise like the large book of elements of the Euklid. With the Inkommensurabilität of conditions of route distances in regular polygons they proved that rational numbers are not sufficient, in order to determine distance conditions.Geometry, the music theory and the calendars - and astronomical theories went already far beyond the later Middle Ages.
Heraklit is considered as more darkly and not easily toounderstanding philosopher of the early time, which some courses of dialectic Hegels (certainly still in raw, undeveloped fundamentals) already over 2000 years before this devised. Unfortunately there are only fragmentary texts from it. The utterance of “everything flows” (panta rhei)is delivered of it. “One can rise not twice into the same river.” The central philosophical term with Heraklit is the Logos, the world through-working reason and/or. Regularity, which controls everything and for everything is the basis.
One more ethical Entrance looked for Xenophanes. It justified the Monismus, which the Eleaten coined/shaped, in particular Parmenides substantially. Admit are to paradoxes the utterances of Zenon of Elea (“the flying arrow rests”). Demokrit continued to lead the atomicism of the Leukipp to a materialism, over which late Karl Marx wrote his thesis.
Since 450 the v. Chr. arising Sophisten directed its considerations away from nature toward humans, and looked for methods to strengthen the individual mentally and physically. Thus broughtthey the young people Rhetorik and combat arts, but were not so quibbling them, as one subordinates them frequently. Not to confound is one Hippokrates of Chios, the first occupation mathematician (half-moon of the Hippokrates) with its contemporary Hippokrates of Kós, the father of the medicine. Further important Sophisten was: Anti-phon, Gorgias, Hippias of Elis, Kritias, Prodikos, Protagoras. From the latter the famous sentence comes: “Humans are the measure of all things, those those are,that they are, and those those are not that they are not. “ (see. Homo mensura)
the classical philosophy 5. and 4. Century v. Chr.
the five decades between the Perserkriegen and the Peloponnesi war (of 478-431 the v. Chr. extending Pentekontaetie) formed Athens classical bloom time, in which the attische democracy found its completion, the schedule of work on the Akropolis carried out as well as for art and culture was extensively promoted,in particular in the era of the Perikles. Thus developed the Parthenon - temples and the Athena Parthenos of Phidias (in Olympia with the Zeus - statue one of the seven world miracles of the antique ones created), during in the theatre the large tragedies of Aischylos, Sophokles and Euripides were specified.
In this socio-political paging phase existed appropriate mental orientation need, which the sophistische clearing-up sought to cover. Philosophy became in such a wayto the public affair, which was operated on the market place and in interested circles. Sokrates with its training way and attitude left a special and to impression away-working today to the life. It tended to shake its interlocutors in their before-bleached knowledge, byit by boring inquiring mental-logical gaps opened, in order to then promote in continued dialogues new realizations with its partners to day, a procedure, which it called midwife art (Mäeutik). The Unerschrockenheit and firmness of its occurrence in against itwhen alleged crude of the youth it the Urbild of philosophical existence accomplishment let led process and the kind, as it and assumed the death sentence, become.
left there Sokrates themselves nothing written, is its picture in philosophy historysubstantially of its pupil Platon determines, which noted the method and the contents of the sokratischen teachings after its understanding in dialogue form and delivered thereby. In addition it developed however its own teachings, so that today sokratische and Platonic portions of thisphilosophical building, how it is present in the Platonic dialogues, with difficulty to separate are. Is particularly famous Platons cave-equalsneeze: Without knowledge of the ideas, which represent the truth behind the things, we are like humans, who sit in a cave,and our shade for the genuine, which true lives hold never, saw the sun. With the fact Platon assumed that the ideas (ideae) existed independently in a higher world. A further direction antique philosophy, itself at the model of the Sokratesoriented, in this case particularly at its need-poor way of life, the Kyniker formed. Its most famous representative, Diogenes of Sinope („Diogenes in the ton “), is to have granted Alexander the large one, when this visited asked him and for its desires: „Gome from the sun! “
as Aristoteles its teacher Platon to philosophically only partly agree could do, admitted it, to Platon feels it friendship, to the truth however still more than to this. During Platons philosophy in the core on one ourssinnliches perceptivity of the world transzendierende idea teachings aimed, sought for Aristoteles the experiencable reality of nature and human society comprehensively to investigate and scientifically arrange. It sees the ideas present contrary to Platon as in the things, and givesthe material world so again more weights. Here it has and. A. for biology and medicine, in addition, for the political theory enormous performed (to the political theory and practice see above all its work politics). Its enzyklopädischer knowledge urgeas a philosopher arranged itself and. A. on the dynamics dynamics (dynamis δύναμις also: kinēsis κίνησις - movement, change) of form (philosophy) (eidos εἴδος - kind, form), material (hylē ὕλη - material, subject, material) and substrate (hypokeimenon ὑποκείμενον- Subject, substrate); see also Hylemorphismus. The authority, which possessed Aristoteles as researcher and a philosopher still in the European Middle Ages, was so large that its name stood for the term of the philosopher absolutely.
after-classical philosophy tointo late ancient times
the brightism and Roman philosophy
In the brightism the classical starting points were continued to continue. The brightistic „MUSE yards played a special role thereby “. Thus those developed much in Alexandriainfluential Alexandrini school, while the Peripatetiker the starting points of the Aristoteles of far developed and the Platonic academy Platon followed.
At the transition of 4. to the 3. Jh. v. Chr. developed with Stoa and Epikureismus two philosophical schools, far outside overTime and place of their emergence radiated and ethical basic positions for luck end a life marked. Their damage potential is not today yet by any means exhausted until, as newer publications point to luck and life art. During the Epikureismus the individual luck through optimally proportioned benefitsto promote trachtet and in public affairs restraint recommends, turns the Stoa against the enslavement of the soul in the craze after need satisfaction, takes shelter to reason control completely and sees the individual as part of a human community and a cosmicWhole one, which in relation to obligations exist, which are to be considered in acting.
Vermittelt by Panaitios and Poseidonios found stoische guidelines entrance into thinking prominent circles to republican and emperor-temporal Rome and became in the zenith of the Empire of (Prinzipat)to the guide and Meditationsgrundlage of the Roman emperor Mark Aurel, „the philosopher on the emperor throne “. In the contact with the political reality of the Roman realm by the severity and absoluteness of the stoischen output draft this and that one were sanded off. Stoisch inspiredRomans such as Cicero in the time of the outgoing republic and Seneca in the early Kaiser era, referred elements of other philosophical schools also; that did also Lukrez, which appointed itself however to Epikur. It likes such as own philosophicalAre missing to direction led Eklektizismus at originality, then it increased certainly life fitness and practicability of the philosophical teachings nevertheless.
Third beside Stoa and Epikureismus at number of members are subject far, but philosophy-historically most important philosophical current of the brightism and the Kaiser eraform the sceptical schools in such a way specified. To differentiate are their three: The older Pyrrhonismus, by Pyrrhon justified of Elis, taught a general Ununterschiedenheit and indistinguishableness of all things and opinions (Indifferentialismus), from which it v. A. ethical conclusions drew. Moreor less independently of it a realization-critical direction developed later also in the Platonic academy:Arkesilaos, with that the so-called. Middle academy begins, taught after Sokrates 'model a strict Agnostizismus. This became from Karneades, the founderthe so-called. New academy, to a kind probability teachings moderated, which over its successor Philon of Larissa in particular Cicero affected and still the young Augustinus of Hippo impress should. Finally Ainesidemos , probably a former trailer of the academy, justified sincelong extinct Pyrrhonismus again: the Neupyrrhonismus, v.a. in the writings of the Sextus Empiricus, connects the systematic realization criticism of the new academy is described with the ethical motivation of the older Pyrrhonismus to a sceptical attitude, those by the abstention ofany realization judgement (the so-called.epoché) the fight of the opinions to terminate and straight thereby soul peace (Ataraxie) wants as well as the desired luck blessedness (Eudaimonie) to find hopes.
late ancient times
the philosophical impulse, Romes rule eliteover centuries orientation had ordered, erlahmte, when the outside pressure increased on the borders in late ancient times and ever more humans and means bound their defense; it, particularly in the east realm, did not triumph nevertheless. The prevailing philosophical current placed to that Neuplatonismus . The urge of philosophers such as Plotin and late Proklos for standardization (for search, the Göttlichen) flowed into a rear wall ending to Platon and into a reorientation of the Platonic idea teachings. From it linkage possibilities between Neuplatonismus resulted more like a Christian andReligion.
important representatives of the antique Christian Apologetik were in 2. Century Justinus of the martyrs, in the 3. Century Klemens of Alexandrien († after 215) and Origenes († 253)as well as in 5. Century Augustinus of Hippo († 430) with its work over the God state. Thinking the Augustinus reflected late ancient times paging phase and put the foundation for the philosophy of the Middle Ages. Turned out in Platons Parmenides dialogue thoseStill very puzzlingly, then the early Christian church teachers in God believed to have found search for the one one (and everything , Hen dock pan), which solves all mysteries.
In the eastRoman realm 5 still worked in. in 6. Centuryimportant philosophers such as Isidor, Simplikios, which wrote a large Aristoteles comment, and its teacher Damaskios. From a complete fall of philosophy in late ancient times thus the speech cannot be. Philosophy was in the east realm in addition also inHort der paganen Traditionen (was die heidnische „Renaissance“ zu Zeiten des KaisersJulian Apostata verdeutlichte, der selber ein Anhänger des Neuplatonismus war). Zu den bemerkenswerten Werken in der ausgehenden Spätantike zählt schließlich der Trost der Philosophie des neuplatonisch geschulten AniciusManlius Severinus Boëthius († 524). Only the actual locking of the Platonic academy in Athens by emperors Justinian I. in the year an end made 529 (or somewhat later); if sieved heidnische philosophers moved thereupon into the Perserreich out, turned however alreadysoon again in the Imperium back. In the age of the Christian state religion the philosophical search for the truth was no longer seen gladly. Soon after the center 6. Century expired therefore the tradition of antique (heidnischen) philosophy finally, although in Byzanzthe occupation with it did not tear off.
the Weitervermittlung antique philosophy, which was first neglected in the evening country for religious and historical reasons, happened in the future mainly with Arab philosophers such as Avicenna (980-1037) and Averroes (1126-1198), throughthe Jewish philosophers and physician Maimonides (1135-1204)) and by Byzantine scholars, who left Konstantinopel the eve of the Renaissance on the escape before the Turk. Over such detours the philosophy of the antique ones, in particular, won those of the Aristoteles on philosophy of theThe Middle Ages with scholastics such as Albertus Magnus († 1280) and Thomas's von Aquin († 1274) as well as with philosophers of the early Renaissance gradually meaning.
- portal: Philosophy
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- society for antique philosophy
- Carl Friedrich Geyer: Philosophy of the antique ones. An introduction. 4. Aufl. Primus, Darmstadt 1996, ISBN 3-89678-305-X
- Friedo Ricken: Philosophy of the antique ones. 3. Aufl. Kohl hammer, Stuttgart and. A. 2000, ISBN 3-17-016084-2
- Luciano De Crescenzo: History of Greek philosophy.Diogenes, Zurich 1998, ISBN 3-257-06165-X. To recommend (only as the first orientation; the author raises no scientific requirement as a layman consciously.)
- Klaus hero: Meeting place Platon. 3. examined and extended Aufl., Reclam, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-150-10479-3 (property readable introduction; the authoris professor for philosophy.)
- how/as-breaks Ries: The philosophy of the antique ones. Darmstadt 2005, ISBN 3-534-17480-1.(Introduction to the topic.)
- light courage Flashar, Friedrich overtravel (Hrsg.): Sketch of the history of philosophy. The philosophy of the antique ones.4 Bde. Schwabe, Basel and. A.1983-98 (u.ö.).(Fundamental manual with enrich bibliography.)
- Eduard Zeller: The philosophy of the Greeks in their historical development. 6 TBde. 6. Aufl. Olms, Hildesheim and. A. 1990.
- A. A. Long (Hrsg.): Manual early Greek philosophy. From Thales to thatSophisten. Metzler, Stuttgart and. A. 2001, ISBN 3-476-01852-0
- Christoph horn, Christof Rapp: Dictionary of antique philosophy. Beck, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-406-47623-6 (explanation of the fundamental terms.)
- Pierre Hadot: Philosophy as way of life. Mental exercises in the antique one.2. Aufl. Gatza, Berlin1991, ISBN 3-928262-02-5
Web on the left of
- Ancient Ethical Theory. Entry (English) in the Stanford Encyclopedia OF Philosophy (inclusive Literature data)
- buecherei.philo.at/ - sources of Internet for the philosophy of the antique ones
- epistemelinks.com - sources of Internet for the philosophy of the antique ones (English)
- GANPH - society for antiquePhilosophy registered association.
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