|of these articles is concerned with the pilot, who steers an aircraft. For other meanings see pilot (term clarifying).|
a pilot is a person, who is entitled and able to steer an aircraft.
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responsible person pilot
the “responsible person Luftfahrzeugführer” (English one: Pilot in COMMAND, ABC: SPADES;), which is a 'commander ', who leads an aircraft, a valid permission in possesses, and the flier-medical fitness has. Airliners are mostly flown by two pilots. One continues to differentiate here in “flying pilot” (English one: Pilot flying, ABC: PF;) and “not flying pilot” (English one: Pilot emergency flying, ABC: PNF;). The PF implements active flying, the PNF the further work, e.g. , etc. read radio traffic, check lists. The commander as well as the copilot specify, who has which role on a flight.
The responsible person Luftfahrzeugführer is that, which is responsible for aircraft and passenger not only for the controlling of the aircraft , but also for the observance of regulations and the maintenance of security and order, and in addition also the instruction right opposite on board persons present exercises (vulgo: Captain).
One differentiates depending upon aircraft
- the air sport equipment leader, the air sport devices flies (only D)
- the pilot, the one airplane flies
- the airliner leader, the one commercial airliner flies
- the private airplane leader, the one private airplane flies
- the helicopter pilot (“helicopter pilot”), a helicopter steers
- the airship leader, the one airship drives
PICUS (English one: Pilot in COMMANDs of under supervision) is a pilot that solely responsible an aircraft e.g. leads, but. because the appropriate license is missing to it, with a special order for flight flies. Normally with training flights the case is. The pilot flies (as SPADES) an airplane in the solo flight. As a flying student it requires in addition an order for flight of a flight instructor. Therefore the designation “SPADES of under supervision”.
already flies of a glider or a paraglider requires a flight license. One differentiates with respect to Germany between the sport pilot license (SPL) for ultralight aircraft (in Switzerland Ecolightflugzeuge) and paragliders, the private pilot license (PPL) for airplanes and the sail flight license (GPL) for gliders.
The private pilot is responsible person Luftfahrzeugführer, may however no commercial person or luggage transportation accomplish. The private pilot license is however in exceptions commercially usable (airplane and banner-drag, as a flight instructor, for photo flights).
There there for gliders and ultralight aircraft in Germany no professional pilot light (CPL) is, acquires one with the sail flight license and the sport pilot license quasi a national valid professional pilot light for gliders, and/or. Ultralight aircraft.
during pilots in the beginnings of the aviation of pioneers were, developed with the first commercial flights the occupation “pilot”. Nowadays one differentiates between occupation pilots, who are commercially in aviation active, and airliner leaders, whom usually at airlines fly. For commercial flights with airplanes to 5,7t MTOW by a pilot to be flown can, is prescribed the professional pilot light, on the other hand pilots need a mehrköpfige crew for the commercial enterprise by airplanes, for their enterprise are prescribed and/or. their take-off weight over 5,7t MTOW lies, general transport pilot license, the ATPL.
- the flight captain or commander /pilot in COMMANDs as a responsible person Luftfahrzeugführer of an airliner, who carry the responsibility for the security of aircraft and passenger, and for this the decision and instruction power has. The badge of rank of the captain are four strips.
- the copilot (second pilot, also first officer mentioned), who supports and represents the flight captain. It accomplishes likewise independently flights, and carries as badge of rank usually three strips. At some airlines begins the career copilots as a second officer. The badge of rank of the second officer are two or three strips. Depending upon training model of the airline the activity does not differ from that of the first officer, or the second officer works at first on Langstreckenflügen as Cruise relief pilot, who sits only during the cruising to tax. The senior roofridge Officer (short: SFO) represents a special form of the first officer and is justified to replace the captain during the cruising. Starting from a route distance of approximately 7500 km the employment of a SFO represents the rule with most lines airlines .
- and the flight engineer, who does not steer the aircraft, but serves its technical systems. For this counted in the courseness even engine/thrust/achievement control and the fuel system price increase over own automatic controllers. The badge of rank flight engineer are three strips.
In former times often also a radio operator and a navigator belonged to the crew. Today a two-man cockpit with commander and first officer is usual.
basic condition for the flight training and the activity as a pilot is the flightworthyness, also “Medical” mentioned. One differentiates with respect to the area the Joint aviation Authorities (JAA):
- Class 1 for professional pilots
- class 2 for not-professional pilots
the flight surgeon issues the “flier-medical qualifying certificate”/Medical, which is to be carried from the pilot. The pilot is even in the responsibility whether he is up-to-date flightworthy. If it should have doubts whether it is flightworthy, it must contact the competent and license-prominent authority or better its flight surgeon.
For on-line computation of the validity period of a Medicals see .
the flight training for the different kinds of pilots is in detail from the Joint aviation Authorities regulated and effected in a flight school, e.g. in an air sport association or at a traffic flier school. In the context of the training the general radio speech certification (AZF) is usually acquired, which the pilots for the execution of the voice transmission entitled.
in the area the Joint aviation Authorities (JAA) from the responsible aviation authority to conclusion of the respective flight training with the examination the following licenses are issued:
- Ultralight flight license, SPL (English: Sport pilot; national, not JAA regulated)
- sail flight license, GPL (English: Members pilot; national, not JAA regulated)
- license for private airplane leader, PPL - N to 750kg/2t MTOW (English: Private pilot; national)
- license for private airplane leader, I.C.A.O. - conformal (old PPL-A) or in accordance with JAR-FCL
- license for occupation pilot, CPL (English: Commercial pilot)
- license for airliner leader, ATPL (English: Air transport pilot)
The flight license is to be carried during the flight of the pilot.
- Andreas Fecker: Pilot. To Munich ISBN 3765472220
- test pilot, list by occupation, acquaintance pilot and air boat operator: see under flight pioneer
- flier language, G-trousers
- portal: Aviation, aviation, air traffic, airplane, helicopter, aircraft
- Joint aviation Authorities
- pilot test
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