the mushrooms (Fungi) form their own realm beside the animals , plants and Protisten. As Eukaryoten mushroom cells possess a genuine cell core ( nucleus) at least and a Cytoskelett. The Vermehrung and propagation take place sexuallyand ungeschlechtlich by Sporen or vegetativy by propagation (possible with fragmenting) the Myzelien very long-lived in different cases and/or. Mykorrhizen. Mushrooms are heterotroph and nourish themselves usually by separating enzymes into the direct environment, whereby nutrients are unlockedand to the cells to be taken up can.
For a long time to the plants counted, mushrooms apply today due to genetic and physiological characteristics as substantially closer related to the animals. Mushrooms come like the yeast as single-celled organisms or as for instance the Steinpilz as Mehrzeller forwards. From the plants the mushrooms differ by their heterotrophe way of life, which gets along without the pigment chlorophyll, and by the occurrence of Chitin in the cell wall. From the animals they differ among other things by the presencea cell wall.
Those in former times as „low mushrooms “designated groups, thus Schleimpilze, mushroom-similar Protisten like the Eipilze (Oomycota) or Hypochytriomycota are not ranked today no more among the mushrooms (Fungi).
The science of the mushrooms is the Mykologie. The word„Mushroom “comes of the old high German buliz and is probably derived from latin boletus. From this bülz the modern form of the word over bülez and finally developed. In South Germany and Austria in place of mushroom also the word Schwammerl is used.
Table of contents
structure of the mushrooms
the size spectrum of the mushrooms hands from microscopically small kinds toto the easily recognizable large mushrooms. The Myzel of a Hallimaschart (Armillaria ostoyae, in America Honey Mushroom mentioned) from the Malheur Forest (the USA) is national with an expansion of 900 hectares and an estimated age of 2400 years onethe oldest and the largest organism of the earth.
Mushrooms exist in two different forms: as Hyphengeflecht or as single-celled organisms (yeasts or also budding fungi called). Yeasts are single-cell stages, itself mainly asexuell by formation of Blastokonidiosporen or through Sprossung increase.
the Hyphen form a microscopic network, which is called Myzel in the substrate. This takes up nutrients from the environment. The Hyphen consists of individual Hyphenzellen, which are by Septen from each other separated. The Septen (partitions)contain pores, which ensure an exchange of Cytoplasma. The mushroom is present in its vegetative phase either as Myzelium or branch cell; it lives in the substrate like the soil, wood or Pflanzengewebe. The different fruit bodies of the large mushrooms are the outwardly most remarkableDistinguishing feature; whether hat, club, tuber or krustenförmig, consist them of interlaced Hyphen, which form „an illusory fabric “(Plektenchym). Multi-cell Hyphenaggregationen is called also Thalli. The fruit bodies represent however only a small part of the total organism mushroom, and serve thatVermehrung by formation of Sporen, which came out from a Meiose. The Sporen are formed with many mushrooms in special fruit layers of the fruit bodies (Hymenien). With hat mushrooms is the fruit layer under the hat; it can from borders, lamellasor tubes exist. With many hose mushrooms the Hymenium is scarcely under the surface of the fruit body in small chambers (Perithekien), which look like Pusteln.
in the cell walls of the Hyphen Hemizellulosen come as building materials Chitin , Lipide, proteins and other materials forwards. The Hyphen can modify itself and specialize also strongly; thus pflanzenparasitische mushrooms often train Haustorien. These invert themselves into vegetable cells, in order to take up nutrients there. Some soil-inhabiting, carnivore (carnivorous) mushrooms are evenin the situation to train with their Hyphen bolting traps for small thread worms Nematoden. With the Durchkriechen the Nematoden is noted by the fact that the Hyphendurchmesser of the Schlingenhyphe becomes smaller fast increased and thus the loop opening fast. Another modification of vegetative Hyphen are the substrate or Lufthyphen. Several bundles of Hyphen put to form parallel together and macroscopically visible Hyphenstränge (Synnemata), from those depending upon environment or environmental change either outlasting organs (Sklerotien, Chlamydosporen) or ungeschlechtlich produced Sporen to develop can (Konidiosporen).
The probably ursprünglichste formthe mushrooms, the Töpfchenpilze (Chytridiomycota) forms no Hyphen, selects an undifferentiated Thallus . With many Töpfchenpilz kinds begeisselte stages occur during their life cycle, which points on a common origin of animals and mushrooms.
with mushrooms can the reproduction both sexually via changes of generations and ungeschlechtlich via pinching off from vegetative parts take place.
by a reduction division (Meiose) produce the mushrooms sexual Sporen (Meiosporen). The Meiosporangium, thatOrgan for the production of the Sporen, is trained sometimes very typical and serves as basis for the differentiation of the mushrooms. With the hose and Basidienpilzen there is the Asci and/or. Basidien. After germinating from the Meiose Meiosporen come out is the mushroom network (Primärmycel), developing from it, a first usually haploides Monokaryon, contains thus per cell only one cell core. If two different Myzelien fitting from the type of crossing meet, then they train a crossing bridge. Over these the genetically different cell cores becomeexchanged. This procedure is called Plasmogamie. One calls a Hyphe with different kinds of cell core Heterokaryon. Since with hose and Basidienpilzen only maximally two genetically different cell cores are possible for Thallus for each, these two departments of the mushrooms become also gladly thatDikaryomycota in summary. Their Thalli is dikaryotisch after the Plasmogamie. In addition, there are deviations from this pattern. Thus already diploide - combined by nuclear fusion - cell cores in Hallimasch were found - Myzelien. This condition exists otherwise only in thatPhase of the sexual Sporengenese in the Meiosporangien.
the number of the produced Sporen depends on the kind. The Riesenbovist (Langermannia gigantea), as largely as Riesenkürbiswill can, holds with 5 and 15 trillion Sporen the past record. An average Steinpilz produces nevertheless still some billion Sporen.
with the mushrooms is frequent the ungeschlechtliche, vegetative or asexuelle Vermehrung. It gives evena great many mushrooms, which lost the ability for sexual reproduction completely. One calls this group Fungi imperfecti or Deuteromycota. Among them are mold fungi and some plant-damaging kinds. One calls the ungeschlechtlich produced Sporen Mitosporen or Konidiensporen (Konidiosporen). They developusually by Ausstülpungen at the end of the Hyphen (akropetale Konidosporen).
of mushrooms form beside plants and animals the third realm of the multi-cell Eukaryoten. Their ecological importance is accordingly great.
mushrooms as Destruenten
all mushrooms are for their metabolism dependent on material organic of other organism formed (Heterotrophie). They form the most important group of the subject organic at the dismantling (dead organisms, Exkremente, Detritus) for organisms involved and apply thereby beside the bacteria asmost important Destruenten. So there is almost exclusively mushrooms, which can split up and use lignin, complex connections in cell walls of plants, felled trees. Also in the dismantling from cellulose, Hemizellulose and Keratin are they most important worth.bacteria and animal Kleinstlebewesen form it from organic waste the humus.
one assumes that about 80 per cent of all plants by the presence of mushrooms in the soil intheir growth to be promoted. Often the roots of the plants are surrounded by a coat from mushroom threads (Pilzhyphen), a Myzelmantel. This kind of the symbiosis between mushroom and plant is called Mykorrhiza (mushroom root). With the Mykorrhiza are the tree roots of thatHyphen of the mushroom umschlungen closely. It takes place exchange of material: The tree produces coal hydrates and delivers these to the mushroom, these nourishes itself of it. The tree receives mineral materials by the mushroom network with its very large surface more water and. Thusthe tree prospers better, since additional water does to it well. Tree and mushroom draw thus both use from their symbiosis, this concerns a Mutualismus. She was observed for the first time 1885 by Albert Bernhard Frank at Waldbäumen. Also many Orchideen live with mushrooms in symbiosis and are obligatorily dependent on their symbiosis partners for germinating their seeds under natural conditions.
mushrooms as pests
many kinds of mushroom do not only use dead,but also alive material and become thereby with economically important useful plants pests. As such they can cause heavy plant diseases. Important examples are the wide-spread mushroom illnesses of the Kastanien or the elm trees. Pilzliche illnesses of the plants can withoutVorbeugung or counter measures to total failures and harvest failures leads. To the pests also many kinds of the tree mushrooms belong.
Economically important mushroom diseases are corn dent fire, stone fire with wheat, ergot with rye, Kartoffelfäule (Phytophtora infestans), Welkekrankheit (Verticillium)many cultivated plants, Apfelschorf (Venturia), pear grating (Gymnosporangium sabinae), fruit tree cancer (Nectria galligena) and genuine flour ropes (Erisyphaceae). Besides still about 10,000 further pilzliche plant diseases exist.
mushrooms in various use
meaning for humans humansRegard, approximately as food mushroom or as bio fermenters for the production of alcohol, citric acid or Vitamin C. Also in the human culture and technology mushrooms play an important role.
In addition, mushrooms are pathogens and can with humans numerous mushroom diseases cause.
feeding and toadstools
many kinds of mushroom are admitted and liked to food. In addition cultivatable kinds, like Steinpilz , do not belong Pfifferling and Trüffel, in addition, kinds of culture and - to sorts of Champignon, Shiitake and oyster mushroom. With Collect from game mushrooms is largest care required, in order not to risk by inadvertently harvested toadstools a mushroom poisoning. As a the most important condition for collecting mushrooms fundamental knowledge of feeding and toadstools is considered. Many kinds of mushroom contain poisonous Hämolysine or heat-unstable poisons,by heating up to be destroyed. Only some food mushrooms such as Steinpilze and Champignons can without doubts also roughly verzehrt to become.
meaning for alcoholic beverages and milk products
of the single-cell mushrooms are the wine, beer or yeast the most well-knownUtilizable mushrooms.
During the wine production the Mycelpilz Botrytis plays cinerea an important role. It produces a noble rot, which causes in herbstlich coolingdamp weather with the berries that the berry skin is perforated. The withdrawing water lets the sugar concentration in the berry rise.
of mushrooms are used also as welfare mushrooms. In the today's People's Republic China already are numerous large mushrooms since centuries a componentthe traditional one Chinese medicine. The Shiitake (Lentinula of edodes) applied already in the Mingdynastie (1368-1644) as Lebenselixier, which colds healed, which blood circulation should energize and promote perseverance. The shining Lackporling (Ganoderma lucidum) is as „Ling Zhi “or„Reishi “admits; it should be a particularly effective Tonikum. The Pom Pom mushroom or hedgehog prick beard (Hericium erinaceus) is therefore recommended on illnesses of the stomach. The European pharmacist sponge or larch tree sponge (Laricifomes officinalis) is looked for and highly estimated as cures.Its effective component is Agaricinsäure; it works strongly exhausting and is responsible for the extraordinarily bitter taste.
Charm mushrooms orIntoxication mushrooms are synonyms for mushrooms, which contain halluzinogene substances. There are exotic kinds like the Cuban ones trust-bolts or the Mexican intoxication mushroom (Psilocybe mexicana) in addition, native kinds, particularly from the kind of the Kahlköpfe (Psilocybe). TheirEffect is usually similarly that of the LSD. The benefit of charm mushrooms can end in the hospital, if either wrong kinds were collected, or which effect of the mushrooms was underestimated. The use of intoxication mushrooms had and has this very day with most diversePeoples a ritual-religious meaning.
- Pityriasis versicolor
- Candida albicans: usually harmless co-inhabitant, illness only with defense weakness
- Aspergillus - kinds, as A. fumigatus the most frequent exciter of the Aspergillose, a lung illness
- Cryptococcus neoformans as exciters of the Kryptokokkose
- Rhizopus, a Phykomyzeten - kind, exciter of the Mukormykose
- Coccidioides immitis, that particularly in the Southern States of the USA, in Mexico and Argentina the Kokzidioidomykose causes
- Histoplasma capsulatum, Endoparasit of the retikuloendothelialen fabric andExciters of the Histoplasmose
further one economic use
as a tree parasit particularly in beeches and Birken the increasing Scale sponge, Fomes fomentarius, a white rot mushroom, was used in former times for the fire making: The inside the fruit body bracket-type growing out of from the trunks was cooked, dried, soft-knocked, soaked with potassium nitrate solution and again dried. In such a way received scale can be ignited by sparks.
Also felt similar a material can be won, for the production of different utensils (caps, bags and such a thing) be used by bare cooking, drying and soft knocking can from the fruit inner body.
The inconspicuous Zapfenrüblinge in the professional world excites attention, there inthem Strobilurine were discovered, their synthetic descendants within fewer years a market share of approximately 20 per cent of the world market at fungicides conquered. It is to be assumed their meaning will continue to increase still on the fungicide market.
thosenext of the related mushrooms are the animals (Animalia), whereby this term far and also the single-cell Mesomycetozoa must be laid out enclosure, which is sometimes placed to the Protisten. Whether also the single-cell Mikrosporidien (Microsporidia, also Microspora mentioned) to the mushroomsto count are, is at present still unclear. The common Taxon of mushrooms and animals is called Opisthokonta:
Opisthokonta |--Animals (Animalia) | |--Mesomycetozoa | |--Multi-cell animals (Metazoa) | |--N. N. |? - Microsporidien (Microsporidia) |--Mushrooms (Fungi)
as a common ancestor of animals andMushrooms can be accepted a scourge-basic single-celled organism (Flagellat), which biologically therefore resembled both the today's Töpfchenpilzen and the Kragengeisseltierchen (Choanoflagellata).
supposed already exist mushrooms since 900 to 1200 million years. A find from 850 millionSometimes years one interprets for old slate rock in Canada as mushroom fossil. Alleged, older finds from China and Australia with an age of 1.5 billion years must be confirmed however only still than mushrooms.
The first to a large extent undisputed mushroom finds originate from thatperhaps earth-history epoch of the Ordoviziums and can be assigned to the Arbuskulären Mykorrhizapilze. The successful Landgang of the plants would have been probably not possible without „mushroom symbioses “.
systematics of the mushrooms
one know today about 100,000 kinds of mushrooms. Some specialistsit assumes that it could give over 1.000.000 kinds. Those in former times „genuine mushrooms “or „higher mushrooms “(Eumycota) ways of life mentioned are also divided into the following five departments:
- Töpfchenpilze (Chytridiomycota): These are usually single-cell mushrooms. Because begeisselte stages are present, becomethe Töpfchenpilze as very original form of the mushrooms (Fungi) outstandingly.
- Yoke mushrooms (Zygomycota): They differ from other mushrooms by the education of the named-giving yoke-like bridges between compatible Hyphen during the sexual reproduction. The cell walls contain Chitin Chitosan. The yoke mushrooms formprobably no natural group of relationship.
- Arbuskuläre Mykorrhizapilze (Glomeromycota): The Arbuskulären Mykorrhizapilze trains a typical Endomykorrhiza , with which bäumchenartige diaphragm from inverting, which Arbuskel, into which inside of vegetable root cells grow and establish a symbiotische relationship in this way.
- Hose mushrooms (Ascomycota): ThoseCells are by Septen separated and contained usually only one cell core. The sexual Sporen are formed in characteristic hoses, the Asci. There is a set of kinds, with which macroscopic fruit bodies arise and which one calls therefore large mushrooms.
- Basidienpilze(Basidiomycota): The cells are likewise by Septen separately and contained usually numerous different cell cores. The sexual Sporen are formed in Basidien. The predominant number of kinds of large mushrooms comes of to this group. The Myzel can do in extreme cases as with the Hallimasch several thousandsYears become old.
Technical progress in the molecular genetics and the use of computer-aided analysis methods made it possible to each other to make more detailed and also safe statements about the systematic relations of the Pilztaxa specified above. Some relative shanks, before due to more morphologic, anatomical and physiological differences or thing in common were assumed, by these techniques were confirmed.
The Töpfchenpilze therefore retained itself very early from the other mushrooms abgespalten and many original characteristics like begeisselte Sporen. The yoke mushrooms place however muchprobably no uniform group of relationship, but a polyphyletische group of most diverse lines of descent. The kind Amoebidium, which was ranked so far among them, does not therefore even belong to the mushrooms. Also the Arbuskulären Mykorrhizapilze, which was originally placed to the yoke mushrooms, becomestoday as independent group of relationship outstandingly, which is today usually raised into the rank of its own department. It is then regarded as evolutionary group of sisters of a Taxons from hose and Basidienpilzen, which one calls Dikaryomycota.
Many kinds of mushroom have their ability tosexual Vermehrung lost. Those kinds, which cannot be assigned provisionally clearly to one of the groups specified above, are placed provisionally to the Fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycota); this represents however only a provisional and artificial figuration axon.
the Greek physician Pedanios Dioscurides wrote already in the first century after Christ in its text book of the fact that there would be two kinds of „sponges “:
- „The one are to meals comfortably, the others however indeadly poison. “
Dioscurides assumed that the Giftigkeit of a mushroom was connected with its stature place. Mushrooms beside rusty nails or iron or „putrid cloth “, beside queue caves or beside trees, which carried poisonous fruits, grew, are poisonous with one another „all “. It recognizedat that time already the heavy digestibleness of food mushrooms, and wrote of the fact that with to excessive food the mushrooms choke humans „and suffocates “became. Also Adamus Lonicerus wrote in 16. Century in its herb book concerning the mushrooms that „natureall sponges is, to press “. They are „cold, phlegmatischer, damp and raw nature “. Until into the modern times inside the appearance of mushrooms with „Miasmen was explained “; the mushrooms would develop due to bad evaporation of the earth, or othersputrid-end to substrates. Also at that time many still believed in the Urzeugung (Generatio spontanea), because one could not recognize straight also with the mushrooms seeds. Adamus Lonicerus wrote also to the fact that certain mushrooms were, „sponges of the God children “, because them without a seedwould grow, and therefore it also of the poets Gygenais, that is mentioned terra nati , children that ground connection.
- H. O. Tail: Biology of the mushrooms, Ulmer 1996, ISBN 3-8252-1871-6
- Heinrich village ELT (Hrsg.): Encyclopedia of the Mykologie, Gustav Fischer publishing house, Stuttgart, New York, 1989, ISBN 3-437-20413-0
- Heinrich village ELT, Heike Heklau: The history of the Mykologie, a horn publishing house 1998, ISBN 3-927654-44-2
- Emil Mueller, Wolfgang Loeffler: Mykologie, sketch for scientists and physician, Thieme 1992, ISBN 3-13-436805-6
- Edited by P. M. Kirk: Ainsworth and Bisby's Dictionary OFthe Fungi, 9th edition. Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2001. 624 sides ISBN 085199377X (English)
- Rene Flammer, Egon Horak: Mushroom poisonings. Schwabe publishing house Basel ISBN 3-7965-2008-1
- harsh ore yard: Candida, Aspergillus and CO: Pathogene of mushrooms. Pharmacy in our time 32 (2),S. 96 - 103 (2003), ISSN 0048-3664
- Marcel Bon: Pareys book of the mushrooms, cosmos (Franckh cosmos), 2005. ISBN 3440099709
- Egon Horak, my hard Moser: Röhrlinge and sheet mushrooms in Europe, spectrum academic publishing house, April 2005. ISBN 3827414784
- Silvia Lehner: Thatperfect mushroom leader, publishing house EDITION XXL, 2005. ISBN 3-89736-253-8
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