Pinyin

pinyin (chin. 拼音 pīnyīn) is the official Chinese Romanisierung high-Chinese in the People's Republic China. Actually it is called 汉语拼音文字/漢語拼音文字 Hànyǔ Pīnyīn Wénzì, dt. Indication for the adjustment of the sounds in the Chinese one. This phonetic transcription upthe basis of latin of alphabet by the Council of State 1956 and end of 1957 was officially decided was approved. It replaced thereby on the mainland the 1921 imported non-latin Zhùyīn (or Bopomofo) - transcription, which was shared rather Japanese kana.

By thosePinyin transcription indicated discussion is based on the Peking dialect. Thereby the simplified Chinese characters became simultaneous the official writing system of the VR China.

Hànyǔ Pīnyīn is at the international standard organization ISO as ISO 7098:1991 registered and thus as international standard recognized.

Table of contents

to the discussion

there the Chinese indications always exacta syllable describe, is syllable-based also the Pīnyīn transcription. The Chinese syllable consists of a Anlaut and a Auslaut. The syllable “ba” consists of the Anlaut “b” and the Auslaut “A”. Most Auslaute can be spoken also without Anlaut. Therethe Chinese and the German Lautsystem in some points substantially differ, are the discussion references only approximations (in square brackets in each case the discussion after the international phonetic alphabet).

Anlaute

  • b - like German b, but be correctlessas be correctless in Bavaria, Austria, Switzerland [b̥
  • ] p - behaucht (with inhaling pressure) as English on [pʰ
  • ] m - like German m [m
  • ] f - like German f [f
  • ] D - like German D, but as in Bavaria, Austria, Switzerland [d̥]
  • t - behaucht as English on [tʰ]
  • n - like German n [n]
  • l - like German l [l]
  • z - similar as DS in (Lan) DS (man), begins be correctless, behaucht [d̥͡z]
  • C - as German z behaucht, but strongly [t͡sʰ]
  • s - sharp s, like German ss in (Mu) ss (e) [s]
  • zh - like z, but with to the rear tongue point [ɖ̥͡z̠], curved at the palates
  • , CH - as zh, but strongly [ ʈ͡s̠ʰ] sports club
  • behaucht - similar as German sch,but with curved tongue as with zh and CH [s̠]
  • r - English “r” and French “j” at the same time, tongue curved as at sports club, CH, zh [ɹ̠͡z̠] (often to one of the two components one reduces)
  • x - to say we…German CH into (i) CH, German s and German sch at the same time, and then one [j] - similar off member behind it (as with French gn) [ç͡ɕ͡j]
  • q - x with t before it and strongly behaucht [c͡ç͡ɕ͡jʰ]
  • j - like q, but does not behaucht,and be correctful [ɟ̊͡ʝ͡ʑ] g
  • - like German g, but be correctless as in Bavaria, Austria, Switzerland [ g̊] k
  • - ends like German k, but very strongly behaucht as in the Tiroleri [kˣʰ]
  • h - like German CH in (A) CH [x]; except forwards u, there as on German [h]
  • y - wie deutsches j; wenn Auslaute mit i oder ü ohne Anlaut vorkommen, dann wird ein y davorgesetzt, das von den meisten nicht ausgesprochen wird, also i -> yi (ausgesprochen i, selten ji) oder iang -> yang (ausgesprochen jang), bei ü verschwinden die Punkte, also ü -> yu (ausgesprochen ü, selten jü) oder üe -> yue (expressed üe, rarely jüe)
  • w - wie auf englisch; wenn Auslaute mit u ohne Anlaut vorkommen, dann wird w davorgesetzt, also u -> wu oder uo -> where (discussion similar to y)

Auslaute

  • A like German A
  • o - short OAU, (nearly) like uo
  • e -similarly as short north German e and English he (larynx pull downward) [ɤ], except into ye, there like German B e ɛ ] and in the syllable e ( an unusual Zwielaut tt: [ɯɤ̯]
  • i - like German i, except after z, C, s, zh, CH and sports club, where it is spoken extremely far down in the throat (larynx far to pull downward) [ɯ]
  • ia, iao, IE, ian, in, iang, ing, iong - as and/or. nearlylike the syllables ya, yao, ye, yan, yang, ying, yong; in - ian and yan the A is expressed as in English “on”; e in - IE and ye like German B e tt
  • iu- Zwielaut from German i CH and German u lp
  • u - like German and. A u after y, j, q and x is actually a u (see entry after the next), since no genuine u can occur there.
  • ua,uo, uai, ui, SCN, uang - nearly like the syllables wa, where, wai, wei, wan, wang
  • u - like German u, can be combined with other Auslauten: üe (e like German B e tt), SCN (A as in English on), ün; after y, j, q and x (where the discussion does not seem to u) the u is written simplified as u, the letter comes thus only to n and l forwards
  • ai - spoken like north German egg in Oster egg or ai in M ai; nearly like English I and eye
  • egg - like English D ay
  • it - short e and r, become sometimes r alone shortens: more na'er -> nar
  • ao - nearly like German outer
  • ou - similarly as English l ow
  • on, EN, in, un - n as on German, e as tt in German B e, u is mostly here a Zwielaut similarlike German g ur geln
  • ang, closely, ing, ong - ng as on German, quite nasal spoken; ong sounds rather like German - ung; e in close see above (however likewise nasal); with g do not begin the next syllable, except itstands specially there, how in Yīngguó!

characteristics

with the Anlauten y, j, q, and x begins with u of written Auslaut with a spoken u (blue).

The Anlaut y becomes with following u ori not spoken (“pinyin” thus “pinin” spoken). The Anlaut w is not expressed at all like a u, in the combination “wu”. After the Anlauten z, C, zh, sports club and r becomes the i alveolar, i.e. in the throat, in an educated manner -“it remains being to one in the neck” (yellow). The Auslaute ui, un and iu, uei, uen and iou spoken (green).

In the following some examples. The line title gives the written Anlaut, the column title to the written Auslaut. In thatCell is an approximation to the discussion in German Lesart. “(I)”, an alveolar i suggests. “CH” in the approximate discussion, is spoken like CH in the i CH. “-” It means that it this syllable inpinyin does not give.

… u… ue… SCN… un… i… iu… ui
- w… u - - - - - -
y… u üe SCN ün i - -
j… dchü dchüe dchüän dchün dchi dchiou -
q… tchü tchüe tchüän tchün tchitchiou -
x… chü chüe chüän chün chi chiou -
z… dsu - dsuan DS (i) dsuen - dsuei
zh… dschu - dschuen dschuan dsch (i) - tschuei
CH… tschu - tschuen tschuan tsch (i) - tchuei
sports club… schu - schuan schuen sports club (i)- schuei
C… tsu - tsuen tsuan ts (i) - tsuei
r… ru - ruan r (i) ruen - ruei

the Auslaut ian is spoken rather as iän, iang rather iang. Thus one expresses the syllable lian as liän, liang howeveras liang.

designation of the tones

Töne im Pīnyīn-System

in the Chinese language tones are used for the distinction by meanings. There are in high-Chinese 5 tones, usually the “light clay/tone” however is not actually counted and one does not speak of 4Tones. In the pinyin transcription these are represented by diacritical indications (thus small letter markings) at the vowels. If no character set with clay/tone markings is available, the clay/tone becomes instead often by a number characterizes, e.g. meant hao3, the syllable hao in3. To speak clay/tone (hǎo).

With the first clay/tone the voice remains evenly high, with the second clay/tone rises the pitch on (similarly as German “? ”), with third the voice drops only, in order easily to then rise (similarly as German “?!? ”), withfourth the voice falls (similar as German “! ”). Besides there are also syllables, which are too short and unbetont, in order to have a distinguishable clay/tone; these have the so-called “light clay/tone”, which is not marked.

The 1. Clay/tone becomes througha Makron (ā), the 2. Clay/tone by an acute (á), the 3. Clay/tone by a Caron (ǎ, attention, no Breve - down pointedly, not approximately) and the 4. Clay/tone represented by a grave (à). The light clay/tone mostly does not becomemarked, but occasionally by one point (ȧ) or ring on the vowel (å) or by one point before the syllable (·mA) represented. If several vowels in a syllable are, the clay/tone marking over the dominating vowel is set, i.e. the vowel,with that the mouth furthest is opened. The vowel of a syllable in following enumerating stands further in front, receives the diacritical indication: A, o, e, i, u, and.

Pīnyīn is only used, around Chinese names within non-Chinese textsto show, then one omits the clay/tone data usually completely. In transcriptions of whole Chinese sentences or texts the tones must be marked however, since otherwise often as a result of the Homografie ambiguities can arise.

characteristics

the third clay/tone becomesoften only deeply expressed, if further syllables follow it. It stands alone or at the end of record it clearly low and then is rising spoken.

With two successive syllables in the 3. Clay/tone, becomes the first syllable in 2. Clay/tone spoken. Thus becomes nǐ haǒ („good day “) as ní haǒ expressed and kěyǐ („may “) as kéyǐ. With mehereren successive 3. Corresponding units are formed for tones.

The negative thing (不) becomes before a syllable, likewise in 4. Clay/tone is spoken, to 2.Clay/tone converted. Examples are bú kèqi (不客氣 „nothing to thank “), bú shì (不是 „no/not its “) or bú cuò (不错 „not wrongly (appreciative) “). This takes place, differently than during the transformation of the 3. Clay/tone in the 2. Clay/tone, alsoin writing.

The number word (一 „one (1) “) receives occasionally to the 2. Clay/tone. Thus becomes out (一) and (个) yígè (一个 „a copy/a unit/a piece “). Also this change takes place in writing.

other transcription systems

beside Pīnyīn exist still numerousother Romanisierungen of the Chinese writing.

The calf Giles - system is the most well-known. Until recently it was used of some large American universities as official Romanisierungssystem, whereby each University of however own solutions (like the Yale - transcription) for the inconsistencies in the systemit developed why it never really came to a only one consistent Wades Giles system.

Besides there is also the Gwoyeu Romatzyh officially recognized by the Chinese government 1928, which could however never become generally accepted correctly.

In Taiwan became in the year 2000beside Zhùyīn, Yale and Hanyu pinyin a new transcription system (Tongyong pinyin) imported.

Principal reasons for the today's far spreading of the Pīnyīn are among other things into the VR China printed, good and very inexpensive Chinese text books for foreigner, those todayapproximately around the world in Chinese courses and use those find use constantly the Pīnyīn system, in addition the fact that Hànyǔ Pīnyīn is registered at the international standard organization ISO as standard (ISO 7098:1991).

Pīnyīn in HTML

the followingHTML contractions can be used for the special indications of the Pīnyīn:

neutral
clay/tone
1.Ton 2.Ton 3.Ton 4.Ton
diacritical indication Makron acute Hatschek grave
A ā = ā á = á ǎ = ǎ à = à
e ē = ē é= é ě = ě è = è
i ī = ī í = í ǐ = ǐ ì = ì
o ō = ō ó = ó ǒ = ǒ ò = ò
u ū = ū ú =ú ǔ = ǔ ù = ù
u = ü ǖ = ǖ ǘ = ǘ ǚ = ǚ ǜ = ǜ

see also

to literature

  • Yǐn Bīnyōng 尹斌庸, Mary Felley [Fù Mànlì傅曼丽]:Chinese romanization. Pronunciation and Orthography/Hànyǔ Pīnyīn hé zhèngcífǎ 汉语拼音和正词法 (Beijing, Sinolingua 1990), ISBN 7-80052-148-6 / ISBN 0-8351-1930-0. Yin Binyong was prominently involved in the development by pinyin.

provide

 

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