Pioneer

of these articles is concerned with the pion he space probes, for other meanings sees Pioneer (term clarifying).
Künstlerische Ansicht: NASA-Raumsonde Pioneer 10 fliegt am Jupiter vorbei.
Artistic opinion: NASA space probe Pioneer 10 flies past the Jupiter .

Under the name Pioneer (dt.: Pioneer) altogether 19 different space probes of NASA are combined, those between 1958 and 1978 into the researchthe moon, which was started sun, the Jupiters, the Saturns and the Venus.

To table of contents

mission

the pion he mission stood all together under the slogan of the basic research. Science stood first in second place,the testing of the technology was more important, since space travel was 1958 still in the child shoes.

Pioneer 0 to 4 as well as A to D had the moon as a goal, Pioneer 5 were a interplanetary test flight, “Pioneer” 6-9 and E served for the study of the sun, Pioneer10 and 11 to the raid in the outside solar system (to the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn), Pioneer Venus 1 and 2 flew to the Venus. For the last four probes of the pion he program there are own articles:

process

Pioneer-0,the US Air Force made

-1 and -2 the beginning: It had designed three 38 kg heavy probes. A goal was first a flyby at the moon. All probes were already equipped with optical systems.

  • Pioneer 0 exploded with the Thor Able - rocket after 77 seconds to 17. August 1958.
  • Pioneer 1 started at the 11. October 1958, but could not leave the probe the earth orbit. After 114,000 kilometers (nearly a third of the distance moon) made the probe turns and glowed tags on it in ground atmosphere.
  • Pioneer 2 reached due to a misfiringto 8. November 1958 only a distance of 1.500 km and glowed then in the terrestrial atmosphere.
Pioneer-3 and -4

thereafter was the US Army at the row. Among the scientists involved ranked also who ago from brown. The two probes, those designed under its supervisionwere, had a weight of only 6 kg and carried as scientific experiment a jet detector.

  • Pioneer 3 fell after start with a Juno II - rocket to 6. December 1958 after reaching an earth distance of 102.000 km, similarly as Pioneer 1, again to the earth back.
  • Withthe start of Pioneer 4 on a Juno II - rocket succeeded to the USA to 4. March 1959 the crucial break-through: The moon was passed in 60.000 km distance. The probe left after it the effective range of the Earth's gravitational force and penetrated as the first US-American spacecraft into the interplanetaryArea forwards. The USA were too late nevertheless:Lunik 1 had the same mission already to 4. January 1959, thus two months before, accomplished.
Pioneer-P31

over with the Soviet Union to draw even, prepared the new space authority NASA 1959 the start of four Mondorbitern, all together approximately 170kg heavily. This quadripartite group was only one miss and in the public was kept secret. Therefore also the contradictory designations.

Pioneer-5

in the year 1960 tested NASA also prototypes for a interplanetary space probe. Although for this a only one - 43kg heavy - copy was available, everything folded:

  • Pioneer 5 started at the 11. March 1960 with a Thor Able - rocket. The contact could do regularly up to 30. April 1960 to be held, afterwards one still received up to 24. June 1960 irregularly signals of the probe, but the goal was reached.
Pioneer-6, -7, -8, -9,- E

thereafter occurred a break in the framework the Ranger moon probes and marine programs (Venus and Mars) with „the Pioneers “. Only in the year 1965 new probes were built. The interplanetary area became the goal, in which a probe network should be developed for sun investigation.

The other probes worked however satisfyingly. The experiments covered measurements of dust particles, different jets and magnetic fields. The probe Pioneer 7 became 1986also to the observation of the Halley's comet from 12 Mill. km distance assigned.

As the first NASA lost to 18. May 1983 the contact to Pioneer 9. The other three probes worked to center of the 1990er years. The contact to Pioneer 7 broke to 31. March off 1995, to Pioneer 8 to 22. August 1996. Also to Pioneer 6 communication was partly interrupted after 1995. A last contact to Pioneer 6 became to 8. December 2000 establishes - 35 years after the start. This places an absolute record inpunkto life span.

see also

list of the unmanned space missions, Deep space network, anomaly of pion he

Web on the left of

Commons: Pion estimation ions - pictures, videos and/or audio files



 

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