Pirol (kind)

Pirol
Pirole (Oriolus oriolus)
of Pirole (Oriolus oriolus)
systematics
Order: Sparrow birds (Passeriformes)
subordination: Singing birds (Passeri)
family: Pirole (Oriolidae)
kind: Oriolus
kind: Pirol
scientific name
Oriolus oriolus
(Linnaeus, 1758)

the Pirol (Oriolus oriolus) is a star-large singing bird,also the gold blackbird or, after its call, bird Bülow one calls. In systematics the Pirol belongs into the own family of the Pirole (Oriolidae), which are closely to the Rabenvögeln (Corvidae) related.
Two subspecies are differentiated: The Nominatform as well as O.o.kundoo. This comes into Central Asiaeastward to India forwards and differs from the Nominatform by a still sattgelbere colouring, above all however by the black yellow and handing behind the eye.

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appearance

the Pirol is a slim bird approximately in the size of a star or a blackbird, but more remarkably colored. The size is indicated as approximately 18 to 24 cm (bill point to pushing). Pirole often show a remarkable Sexualdimorphismus in the feather/spring dress,i.e. Males and females do not differ substantially, but are this by any means the rule. The male has a sharply yellow trunk and black Flügeldecken with a yellow mark at the wing, the tail feathers/springs, the impact, is black with two yellow strips. Young females are matte-green colored alsosomewhat brighter, speckled chest and belly and a yellowish hypogastric region. This colouring improves the camouflage when breeding on the nest. Older females resemble however strong the males in the colouring, so that they are to be differentiated occasionally only very heavily from these to.
In the breeding area is the Pirol unmistakable. In the winter accomodation the kind can however easily with the sympatrisch occurring Schwarzohrpirol (O. auratus) to be confounded.

Both sexes show a pink to rostfarbenen bill, which is just as long as with the star, but somewhat less slim. From the bill reason toEye hands this with the male (and with the female in the progress dress) a black yellow and, with young females is grey and less clearly recognizable. Legs and claws are grey colored. The eyes have a brownish, also colour going into the reddish. Easily recognizably is due to the colouring onlythe male, whose contrast between black and yellow is noticeable in the flight. Easily to discover are not the birds, since they are often highly in trees. The nest is likewise hung up within the crown range of high trees wiegenförmig in as horizontal a forked stick as possible. The eggs are lightpinkto whitish with small black Sprenkeln and correspond to those in their size from stars or blackbirds.

voice

Pirol, male (Oriolus oriolus)

as a singing bird shows the Pirol a further sex difference: It is only the male bird, that over a quieter twittering singingordered. Soundful singing call control the old birds of both kinds of sex seam-end that, although the females not in perfection like the male partners. The singing call is shown linguistically hilfsweise with the rewriting “you delüü lio” or however “büloo büloo” (therefore it the regional name) and is in its variability even asDistinguishing feature between individual males distinguishable. The LOCK call leaves itself linguistically as “rääij rääij” or as “wiäächt wiäächt” to indicate. Birds of both sexes krächzen with excitement, which is described with one “chrrrääh”. The aggressive warning call sounds woodpecker-like as “djick jick” (see also to K. - D. Cowardly one (1985): The Pirol. Joke mountain Luther city).

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Habitat

the summer bird Pirol is only of at the end of of April or Anfang May to at the end of of August or Anfang Septembers in northern latitudes, then however is it in large parts of Europe and in the entire German linguistic area to be found in particular. The frequency is not however very high;strichweise gives it individual-rich existence, while in other regions the existence is thinned out. In Switzerland the Pirol is to be found earliest in Bernese the upper country.

The Pirol prefers tree-rich, easily waldige zones, which may not be too closely, but however damp. He is to be foundin leaves and Kieferwaldungen, in Auenwäldern and large fruit tree existence, in addition, in park plants and larger gardens in too strongly not settled area.

food

of Pirole nourish themselves both vegetarian and of animal protein. At insects particularly crawler-type vehicles and butterflies become imprisoned.The vegetable food consists particularly of zuckerhaltigem, sweet fruit such as cherries and different berries.

course behavior

the Pirol is in its entire circulation area an obligatory migratory bird with wintering areas particularly in the high countries and forest areas of the eastern Africa, southward toto the cape provinces. Also Madagascar is reached. Besides winter in particular iberische as well as maghrebinische birds preferentially in the westAfrican Baumsavannen and river basins of the Niger, Senegal and the Gambia. In the wintering areas the kind at values of 3000 meters occurs and more.
Pirole are Breitfrontzieher, it cross alps and the seeing era without by-pass routes. The way course begins already at the end of of July and reaches at the end of of August its high point; Latecomers are to be observed in Central Europe into October. The African Winterquatiere is vacated starting from at the end of January; usually the home course takes place somewhatmore west (loop course) than the way course. The first Pirole achieve its Central European breeding places at the end of March, most appear only at the beginning of of May, therefore one of its trivial names Pfingstvogel.

inventory situation

although the Pirolbestände from year to year can be exposed to very strong fluctuations,are European-wide considered the existence as stable. However in Switzerland the Pirol is led in the national red one lists.
Endangerment causes exist particularly by Zugverluste (accidents, firing), as well as by Habitatzerstörung both in the wintering and in the breeding areas.

other

by thatequivalent call came the aristocracy sex from Bülow to its coat of arms animal. Vicco of Bülow accepted the French name of the bird as artist name: Loriot. The Pirol was the Maskottchen of the mineral oil mark Minol and was bird of the yearly 1990.

literature

  • Klaus Dieter fig: The Pirol. Ziemsen publishing house, joke mountain Luther city 1985, ISBN 3-89432-247-0
  • a hard Bezzel: The Pirol. Blüchel & Philler, Minden 1989, ISBN 3-7907-0447-4
  • Ralf which man: The Pirol. A tropical forest bird in Europe? 95 S. AULA 2004 collection bird customer. ISBN 3891046715

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