Platon (Greek Πλάτων; latinisiert Plato; actually “Aristokles”) was an antique Greek philosopher and lived in Athens of 427 v. Chr. to 347 v. Chr. It is considered as one of the most important philosophers in history.
lives and state-theoretical Hauptwerke
Platon originated from an outstanding old-noble sex of Athens, that the Kodriden, thatalso Solon had belonged. It could have made like these in the policy career. But the execution of its teacher Sokrates 399 v. Chr. the conviction let mature in it that the city of the customs of the fathers had dropped andat all all states would be badly administered (Plat. VII. Letter 325 f. ; the majority of the modern researchers assumes that that the letter is genuine). Eight years long Platon Sokrates had heard, left now after the death of its teacher, it Athensand went on journeys.
It visited among other things the Pythagoreer in Unteritalien and took 388 v. Chr. Connection with Dionysios I., the Tyrannen of Syrakus on Sicilies up. It over-threw itself with this, however friendship with Dion , that closedBrother-in-law and son-in-law of the Tyrannen (Plutarch, Dion 11 FF.). After its return Platon in Athens justified around 387 v. Chr. in the holy Hain of the Heros Akademos the academy as the first Athener philosopher school, designated thereafter. It remainedthe most important “elite university” of the antique world, to it of the eastRoman emperor Justinian I. 529 n. Chr. when last heidnische philosopher school was closed (Johannes Malalas, 451).
The discussion character of the teachings is reflected in the dialogue form of Platons writings.They offer not a training building as finished system, but want its developing process descriptive to represent. Main speaker in the early dialogues is Sokrates. Platon puts its philosophical theories to it into the mouth. These dialogues are the main source for philosophy of the Sokrates, which left even no written recordings. However is difficult the boundary line between Platons of own philosophy and that of the Sokrates to pull. One assumes Platon particularly in the so-called early dialogues (Apologie, Kriton, Phaidon, Sophistendialoge)the ideas of the Sokrates shows, while he wrote own thought down in the late dialogues its. Platons state-theoretically most important work is the dialogue over the State of, the “Politeia “(lat. de RH publica), which it around 370 v. Chr. writtenhas. The sub-title reads: Over the fair, ton dikaion. It resulted from Platons despair at the attischen democracy and the unfair death sentence, which please the people's court over Sokrates had.
In its dialogue Platon (Nom regarded. 829 A) the stateas humans generally speaking. The ideal state, which it developed, is presented as increased image of the soul of fair humans. 366 v. Chr. Platon undertook a second journey after Syrakus on invitation of the Tyrannen Dionysios II.He hoped, the ruling powerwin to be able to carry out its ideal state in the reality. But Dionysios showed up just as unbelehrbar as the philosopher Platon uncompromising. Thus ended also these 2. Journey with an harsh disappointment.
Around 350 v. Chr. Platon put after itsExperiences in Sicilies in its unfinished age work over the “laws” (Nomoi, De Legibus) - Platons secretary Philippos of Opus drew up and edited it postum:Diogenes Laertios III 37 - a second state draft forwards, that theory henceforth and more in line with standard usage is andwith its citizens not as much victim readiness presupposes as still the state of the “Politeia”.
philosophical topics and positions
fundamental to the idea teachings
after the aporetischen definition dialogues of the early writings followed into thatmiddle works the introduction of the idea “teachings” (here frequently the dividing line between sokratischer and Platonic philosophy is seen). Platon developed the idea teachings, after which the sinnlich perceptible world of an invisible world of the ideas is subordinate. To speak of “idea teachings”is however in two regards misleading. First of all Platon in its philosophy does not formulate uniform teachings. Thus for instance elements, which seem to be in earlier dialogues part of such a systematics, in later dialogues are criticized, if not even rejected. Secondly findsitself in Platons philosophy for this Entitäten - as in many other cases - no uniform terminology. Thus it calls frequently the “idea of the beautiful one” as “the beautiful even” or “the beautiful actually”. These ideas point the following characteristicsup: They are
- ontologisch höherrangig (primarily) i.e. in higher measure being than the sinnlich perceptible single articles;
- epistemisch höherrangig (primarily);
- A cause for the fact that somewhat like that is, as it is.
Ontologisch means höherrangig that the ideas inhigher measure being, which be-ends only trueful naturenesses is. The sinnlich perceptible articles hold an insignificant for Platon only to be (a view, which he takes over from the Ontologie of the Parmenides). A cause its means that for instance the beautiful (fair one, same one,etc.) even a cause for it is that the individual things, which beautifully (fairly, directly, etc.) is, exactly this are. A rose is about beautiful, because it participates on the idea of the beautiful one. The sharing (méthexis) designates besidethe relationship of the single articles to the ideas also the relationship of our realization ability to the ideas as well as the relationship of some ideas among themselves.
As Platon carried out thus a radical splitting of the reality into idea realm (previous) and sinnlich perceptible world (derived), he brokenot only with the philosophy of the Vorsokratiker, but conceived at the same time also a binaryistic conception of the world, which affects abendländische history of ideas until today above all mediated by the Christianity.
ideas and realization
knowledge is not for Platon abstraction,won from experience and consideration, as it accepts its pupil Aristoteles. Rather for instance the realization that two articles or two number sums are equally large, is only possible thereby for Platon that both the recognizing and the noticed articles onthe idea resembling sharings. In some dialogues Platon seems besides the position to represent that alleged realization comes by it that we possess a vorgeburtliches knowledge (apriorisches knowledge) in our soul, to which we remembers (Anamnesis).
the idea of the good one
each idea is singular and there it its has, is also always to itself identical it. The ideas among themselves have in as much part together as a certain idea other ideas superordinatelyis. This highest idea actual according to the Politeia - the idea of the good one and/or. the idea of the ideas. It is the highest idea, since the “usual” ideas come out from it. I.e. explicitly that the idea of the good one the ideasyou its and natures lend. The idea of the good one is therefore a kind Meta in certain respects - idea. As highest (around not to say absolute) idea it has it to be and natures from itself (see. Aseität), not onlyby sharing. Due to the causal function of the idea of the good one it is the most ambitious goal of the philosopher (φιλόσοφος; literally: “Friend of the wisdom”) to recognize the idea of the good one if this is possible, and according to the Politeia a condition for it, philosopher rulersto become. Platon lets Sokrates in some places clarify, which “opinions” he has from the idea of the good one, it does this with the help of the three famous Gleichnisse:Sun-equalsneeze, line-equalsneeze and cave-equalsneeze.
'knowledge (shank) is only asUnit possible. '
The theses (A) that the best rulers are the philosophers and that the philosophers in the idea of the good one the highest knowledge attained (B), are characteristically of the following central opinion Platons: (C) 'knowledge and/or. Science (ἐπιστήμη)is possible only as unit. This position means that there cannot be separated single sciences (for instance the policy, which astronomy, which mathematics etc.), which possess different basic principles. (In this opinion Aristoteles Platon will contradict.) logical are the different rangesphilosophy Platons connected. So realization and its teachings (Ontologie) are connected with a people picture (anthropology), alone from the love, the Eros for the good one from noble humanity, the Kalokagathia, the vitally necessary andrealization pin end dynamics receives. Not insignificantly for Platon also the complement of the dynamic Eros, the steadily friendly feeling of the Philia , is the indispensable irrational element of a stable entireness (single soul, personal friendship, State of, cosmos).
philosophical method: Dialectic
“Dialectic “(Greek διαλεκτική (τέχνη)) meant actually” (the art) discussion guidance ". The term is to have been coined/shaped (according to statement of the Aristoteles) by the philosopher Zenon of Elea, us advances toward it however in the works Platons for the first time.
In Platons in former times philosophy means “dialectic” simply a certain form of the discussion guidance, well-known as sokratischer dialogue: Two partners converse about an article. Starting point is a definition of the speaker A (Proponent). To the basis of this definition sets B (Opponent)then questions at A. The roles are distributed thereby on characteristic way: The definition giver A answers usually to questions of his Opponenten, of these however (in Platonic dialogues in all rule Sokrates, after own admitting a notorious “not Wisser”) puts to itfurther questions. The discussion often ends in a Aporie; the realization gain by the dialectic method consists then thus of the fact that durable definitions are not exposed as insufficient .
the Platonic Eros
the Platonic Eros is the gradualAway to the realization of the beautiful one and good one actually. Platon states it in the Symposion , and/or. it lets it announce to Sokrates in a kind myth, which this from the Priesterin Diotima wants to have received. The genuine philosopher therefore goes ofthe love for beautiful humans up to the love for all beautiful one and finally to the love for the beautiful one, for the idea of the beautiful one actually. However this “stage procedure” is not a way to the systematic realization of all other ideas.
State State of (political philosophy)
Platon develops in its work Politeia the ideal state similar to the soul of humans. Three conditions correspond to three soul parts (reason, emotions, impulses), whereby each conditions are characterised by it a to a considerable degree inherent assessment:
The philosophers (regents) possess a by nature given assessment to intelligence. This again must be promoted by further training and education, for the purpose of bringing out this conditions being assigned virtue, i.e. the wisdom. In analogy to the human soul is hereby the rational soul part addressed, which is to likewise aim at the virtue of the wisdom. The special assessment is here the reason of the rational soul part. Platon writes that only philosophers should be rulers, there only it the necessary knowledge around the ideathe good one have. Besides Platon does not exclude the female sex as Herrscher/in, there not the Physiognomie or nature of the Mrs. von Belang is separates only the realization of the idea of the good one.
The second conditions, the Krieger (guards), mark themselveseverything by a strong emotional component of their character out. By training and moderation they are to attain courage, in order to implement the interests of the state both inward and outward to support and. This conditions become with the emotional sidethe soul of humans equated, who by nature a certain enragingness is inherent in, which is to be trained in analogy to the Kriegern, by education and moderation, as a courage-fulfilled soul part. The guard experiences however extended training and sits downeven with philosophical problems apart, then he can ascend after a possible realization of the idea of the good one to a ruler.
The third conditions (farmer and craftsman) are characterized by a high degree at desiring and thus longings. It appropriateVirtue is thereby the moderation. Something similar applies therefore also to those for humans of inherent impulses.
Important is above all still the hierarchical organization of the conditions (later, very much simplifiziert: “Lehr, military and feeding and”). Whereby the instruction power the philosopher and/or. that rationalSoul part is entitled, the penetration to the Kriegern and/or. , And in the long run the third part of the society has emotions and/or. to follow the soul these two above.
Humans are lucky only then, and a state also fairly only if his threeSoul parts and/or. Conditions in the equilibrium are, if thus each part takes over it being incumbent on task (“τὰ ἑαυτοῦ πράττειν” = “does that, what comes to everyone”). At the edge of its philosophy of the best state Platon mentions also the island Atlantis.
Platon accepts a change of the systems of government:To aristocracy as the best system of government and „conditions “Timokratie , oily archie , democracy as well as Tyrannis ( Lit degenerated.: Purge theory, book 7 and 8 the Politeia; see. Ottmann, S. 56ff.).
Platons state teachings becomesbut criticizes of many modern philosophers such as Karl Raimund Popper and even of its pupil Aristoteles. Popper means the “ideal state” Platons is a totalitarian regime, because he speaks himself in its” Politeia “clearly for selection and communismout. It is however to mention that Platon many of its exaggerated opinions in “the laws” took back.
- state and soul: The subject of the discussion is actually the human soul. The ideal state is a “increased image” the sameand one develops therefore in detail. The analogies can be represented schematically as follows:
“Being located” in the State of soul part special virtue “philosopher” (ruler) reason-talented soul part of wisdom “guard” (Krieger/policeman) courageful soul part of bravery “feeding and” (manufacturing) begehrlicher soul part of moderation/deliberation
- justice is onesuperordinate virtue. It is carried out, if each “conditions” and/or. each soul part the coming to it does (“τὰ ἑαυτοῦ πράττει”).
- Material states have to degenerate the tendency, here give it a certain succession of degeneration features. Platon held however from it conceivedHowever he sketched ideal state first for politically convertible, after a failed attempt in Sicilies in the work Nomoi a new, amended state conception. In place of a Philosophenkönigtums (basileam) it developed the draft of a law state, that also not in such a way - forthe time at that time unbelievable demands, how those was the basis for the equal rights between the sexes.
history of the impact
as highly gifted stylist is Platon - particularly with its early dialogues - until today again and again in the conditions, its readers forto inspire philosophy. Already in the antique one it was considered as a master of the urbanen dialogue; its writings more estimated than the exoterischen writings of the Aristoteles, which were probably similarly arranged, but remained (S. Corpus Aristotelicum).
Platons philosophy has effects into the today's time. Its most well-known pupil Aristoteles however to a large extent rejected his philosophy, sketched above all the idea teachings, and in its work Nikomachi ethics its own ethics. The Platonic school developed first onephilosophical Skeptizismus, found then however in the 1. / 2. Century to systematic teachings (Mittelplatonismus). In the 3. Century n. Chr. justified Plotin the world-descriptive system of the Neuplatonismus; central Platonic writing for this new stimulation of the Platonismus is the dialogue Timaios. Teachings Platons and its school are over the church fathers (S. Patristik) flowed into the Christian faith and ideas.
Platon succeeded it, one on that To state activity and structure of the human spirit creating theory of knowledge, which was developed further after it by Augustinus of Hippo and was not exceeded in this height also by the rational idealism of later centuries. There practically all topics, those in philosophy history oneRole, with Platon to already find are (even if the answers of the later philosophers differ from those Platons often strongly), noticed Alfreds North Whitehead play once pointed that all later drafts of European philosophy in the reason only footnotes tooPlaton are (Process and Reality. At essay on Cosmology 1929, 63). Also Sir Karl Raimund Popper (The open society and its enemies, Bd. 1, dt. The charm Platons 1944, 2. Edition 1970, 141) argued intensively with Platon andit - although critically (Totalitarismusverdacht) - as the largest philosopher of all times explains. Also who considers exaggerated, it will grant that Platon the Roman, the Christian, which Islamic and modern state thinking like no second antique philosopher inspired. LastFrancis Fukuyama (“the end of history” 1992, 444) explained, the liberal democracy of our time is therefore the best of all possible systems of government, because she carries out those principles, which Platon set up in the “Politeia”, and so the equilibrium of the threeSoul parts guarantee.
- process and death of the Sokrates
- Apologie the address for the defense of the Sokrates before the juror meeting, see. also for this the “Apologie” of Xenophon.
- Kriton futile attempt to persuade Sokrates after the death sentence to the escape.
- Phaidon overPhilosophy and death, as well as the immortality of the soul; Description of Sokrates' death.
- can teach Sophistendialoge Protagoras as virtue?
- Ion knowledge and abilities rhapsodies (a kind lecture artist).
- Hippias Maior the knowledge of the Hippias around beautiful, noble humanity.
- Hippias Minor The knowledge of the Hippias around virtue.
- Euthydemus over the wisdom of the Sokrates and those the Sophisten and the power of the Rhetorik.
- Person and/or. topic-referred, term-clarifying discussions
- Laches whereby sons quite efficient men to become to be able.
- Charmides deliberation and realization of the good one.
- Euthyphron over the nature of the Frömmigkeit. (see also: Euthyphron dilemma)
- Lysis over friendship and love.
- Theages clarifying career aspirations.
- Alkibiades I as and whereby does Alkibiades become a good statesman?
- Alkibiades II over the sense of praying.
- Amatores over philosophy.
- Politeia I over the justice and their use.
- Gorgias not Rhetorik, but philosophy teaches virtue.
- Kratylos over the meaning of the language.
- Menexenos Sokrates gives a speech by the pleasures.
- Idea dialogues
- Idea-critical dialogues
- Parmenides over its thatIdeas.
- Theaitetos over four aporetisch ending definitions of knowledge.
- Sophistes for the nature of the Sophisten and the philosopher reason of a Partizipationsmetaphysik.
- Politikos statesmanship and systems of government.
- Philebos over property and like it to reach is.
- 1. Letter return of the fareand admonishment at Dionysios
- 2. Letter over the desirable condition of the relationship between Platon and Dionysios
- 3. Letter defense against slandering
- 4. Letter of pieces of advice at Dion
- 5. Letter recommendation of the Euphraios to the Macedonian king Perdikkas III.
- 6. Letter requestto the friendship
- 7. Letter over the impossibility of the representation of philosophical realization
- 8. Letter of pieces of advice at Dions of friends in the sense Dions
- 9. Letter obligation to occupation with the community
- 10. Letter praise for friendship with Dion
- 11. Letter inefficacy of a bareList of laws
- 12. Letter thanks for received writings
- 13. Letter account over use of funds
notes: The allocation of the works into these groups is not of Platon themselves. Some dialogues and most letters are regarded as “false”, i.e.it is rather sure that Platon is not an author of these works.
1804-1810 a translation
of the Platondialoge created expenditures for work and translations Friedrich Schleiermacher. At this in particular the introduction to the dialogues, in addition, the linguistic quality are to emphasize.
Platons all works appeared on German 1994 with Rowohlt in an expenditure for PAPER baking. Title: Platon: All works. I-IV bound. Hamburg 1994.The individual writings therein in link up with again the headings emerging in the text as table of contents introduced. Translationafter Schleiermacher. The expenditure does not contain a register.
- Platon: Apologie of the Sokrates, Kriton, ion, Hippias II, Theages, Alkibiades I, Laches, Charmides, Euthyphron, Protagoras, Gorgias, Menon, Hippias I, Euthydemos, Menexemos. Rowohlt, Reinbek with Hamburg 1994 ISBN 3-49-955561-1
- Platon: Lysis, Symposion, Phaidon, Kleitophon,Politeia, Phaidros. Rowohlt, Reinbek with Hamburg 1994 ISBN 3-49-955562-X
- Platon: Kratylos, Parmenides, Theaitetos, Sophistes, Politikos, Philebos, letters. Rowohlt, Reinbek with Hamburg 1994 ISBN 3-49-955563-8
- Platon: Timaios, Kritias, Minos, Nomoi. Rowohlt, Reinbek with Hamburg 1994 ISBN 3-49-955564-6
oneGreek-German paperback total expenditure in ten volumes published 1991 the island publishing house. Title:Platon: All works. Volume IX. Frankfurt A. M. and Leipzig 1991.To Schleiermachers translations one fell back predominantly also here, in addition, to some other translators fewer well-known writings. At presentout of print; new edition in planning.
The works Platons are quoted generally after the so-called Stephanusbezifferung. This goes back on the expenditure for work from Henricus Stephanus, Platonis opera quae extant omnia in 3 volumes, Paris 1578, also as Editio Princeps(dt. about „first relevant printed expenditure “) admits. The Stephanusziffern indicates the side and section number of the quotation, then for example Politeia 514a refers to cave-equalsneezes (beginning 7. Chapter of the Politeia). The authenticity of some works of the Stephanusausgabe becomes todaydoubted, in addition among other things the 13 letters and the dialogues Alkibiades , Theages and Minos count.
it gives an abundance from literature to Platon. An useful overview for this supplies:
- Herwig Görgemanns: Platon. Heidelberger of study booklets toAntiquity science. Heidelberg 1994, ISBN 3-82-530203-2. (Bibliographic, information to the source situation, biography, philosophiegeschichtl. and. litre. Overview of the contents of D. most works.)
- Julia Anna: Plato. A very short introduction., Oxford 2003. (Introduction of a renowned Platonkennerin.)
- Michael Bordt: Platon,Freiburg 1999.
- Karl boron man: Platon, August 2003. (Former university professor, that the central areas of the Platonic teachings clearly arranged explains.)
- Michael Erler: Platon, Munich 2006, ISBN 3406541100.
- Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations herb (Hg.): The Cambridge Companion ton of Plato, Cambridge 1992.(Several individual essays, given change of one the most well-known modern Platonforschern.)
- Thomas's A. Szlezak: Platon read. Stuttgart bath CAN place 1993. (Leads v.a. the function of dialogue out; favored with it the unwritten teachings.)
- Barbara Zehnpfenning: Platon for introduction, Junius, Hamburg 1997, ISBN 3885069474
- Uwe Neumann: Platon, Rowohlt paperback publishing house, Reinbek 2001, ISBN 3-499-50533-9
to philosophy Platons:
- Franz of Kutschera: Platons philosophy, Paderborn 2002. 3 Bde. (Bd.1: early, Bd.2 mittl. and. Bd. 3 late works). (Represents briefly andinterpret everyone (!) platon. Writing and places it into the context of the complete work. Besides Bd contains. 3 general Chapter over unwritten teachings, idea teachings, dialectic, and state philosophy.)
- Hauptwerke, Kröner publishing house 1973 ISBN 3520069083 (Platons thought become on the basismore central, individually commentated passages from its most important dialogues represented)
- Gernot Böhme: Platons theoretical philosophy, Stuttgart (scientific book company) 2000. (With detailed representation of Platonic dialectic.)
- Friedrich branch: Lexicon Platonicum sive vocum Platonicarum index. Nachdr. WBG, Darmstadt 1956.
- ChristophHorn and Christof Rapp: Dictionary of antique philosophy. Munich 2002.
- Henning Ottmann: History of political thinking, Bd. 1, 2. Half, Stuttgart and Weimar 2001.
Web on the left of
|Commons: Platon - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wikiquote: Platon - quotations|
| | * Literature of and over Platon inCatalog of the DDB
- entry (English) in the Stanford Encyclopedia OF Philosophy (inclusive Literature data)
- of works of Platon as on-line texts in the project Gutenberg DE (with introduction)
- life and philosophy with philolex.de
- journal OF the internationally Plato Society (English)
- which Platon read? (CommentatedOverview of different expenditures for work)
|ALTERNATIVE NAME||Plato; Aristokles|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Greek philosopher|
|DATE OF BIRTH||428 or 427 v. Chr.|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Athens|
|DYING DATE||348 or 347 v. Chr.|