Politics

the term politics are derived from the Greek term Polis for city or community. Politics are the public: The purposeful actions and orders, which determine generally obligatory rules of social communities or one or several states. There is human conceptionsto the organization of social and national conditions, which each humans can develop and formulate by reason, religion, emotion and other sources of realization.

After Thomas's Meier politics are so defined: Politics as „whole of all activities for the preparation and production totalsocially more obligatorily and/ormore oriented at the public interest and the whole society too good of coming decisions “.

After a more modern model conception (political science) „the paradigms of the integration science and the democracy science become today increasing by the division of the discipline political science into the partial disciplines Polity, Politics andPolicy replaces “.

Generally politics designate a process with the goal of coming to generally obligatory decisions as several groups of interests, parties, organizations or persons purposefully in it take part. Political conceptions become by democratic legitimacy of the majority of the people obligatory rightthe state.

Politics are falsely referred often only to parties , politicians and decisions, which apply to a state or several States of (international policy). Politics determine however also the relations of individual social groups, enterprises and organizations to each other. Operate likewisealso groups with different interests within an organization by purposeful arguing and acting politics, in order to achieve their goals.

Politics have to do naturally with power influence. This influence can being used positively like negatively. Politics in the state are only possible,if the state has the substantial power function (power monopoly) and humans by the forced participation at the state binds. The success of this politics measures in accumulating power (for example votes).

Dedicates to the scientific occupation with politicsitself the political science.

Table of contents

history to thatPolitics

antiquity

early scholars were concerned with it, how politics have to look, were the questions: “Which is a good and fair state order?” and “as one really attains power in the state?” in the center of the discussion. Already in the antiquity compares for example Aristoteles (384 to 322 v. Chr.) and also today a much developed all it well-known conditions (political systems) quoted typology in its work “politics”. Beside the number in power took part (, few,) it differentiated all between a good non-profit order (monarchy, aristocracy, Politie) and a bad self-interested state State of (Tyrannis, oily archie, democracy). First written laws prove that politics itself not only with the dominant ones, butalso early already with social rules concerned, which were delivered until today. The Codex Hammurapi (Babylon, about 1700 v. Chr.) or the twelve-board law (Rome, about 450 v. Chr.) examples are safe of obligatory rules, thoseas result of politics to be rated can. If one is concerned with the politicians of the Roman republic and the Roman empire, one recognizes many elements of policy at that time also today still. It was written with chalk choice advertisement the Hauswände (aboutin Pompeji). There was a complex government machinery and a heated rivalry between the office-holders. Corruption was a topic of the legislation and Roman court hearings. Letters of Cicero at relatives occupy, how aimed the choice was also tactically prepared into a public office.

the Middle Ages

with the purge of the Roman realm lost politics in Europe complexity and the community became again more visiblly, conflicts smaller-scale. In the time of the people migration and the early Middle Ages politics were more martial power politics andless by institutions and generally accepted rules coined/shaped. The more strongly the remote trade, money and cities meaning won, the more importantly again firm centers of power used and the more importantly became institutions. For example the Hanse formed as interests andPower group more influential itself governing cities. Important relatively constant center of power was the catholic church. From social communities, to certain leaders the loyalty (person federation state) became slow hereditary monarchies with firm borders swore.

modern times

in Francedeveloped the Urtypus of the absolutist ruler, in England developed the constitutional monarchy bound at right and law. There soon also the wealthy citizens were officially involved in the policy. With the time then the census right to vote became uplarger parts of the population expanded. In the time of the clearing-up scholars new models of the statesmanship devised. Instead of Niccolò Machiavellis model of absolute power, which its book 'the prince '(IL Principe) drew, defined John curl the modelthe division of power. The civil liberties were demanded by different philosophers and with Thomas Jeffersons human right explanations and the American condition began the time of the modern condition states. The French revolution and the campaigns Napoleons rolled Europe over. With the code civilspecified in France the citizen rights, everywhere fell gradually the condition barriers. Politics became an affair of the whole people. Parties, first from the outside the opposition developed organized around even the government to place later. Some parties like those SPD or the Greens developed themselves later from social movements like the workers' movement or the anti-atomic and peace movement, other formed before a religious background (center). In 20. Century came it finally to the development of international organizations with increasingInfluence on the policy. The first attempt in the so-called Völkerbund a commonwealth of nations to form, failed with the Second World War. Today exist to sovereigns beside the United Nations as combination of all states within the range of the economy additionally the world trade organization World Trade Organization.In the transition between international organization and föderalen state is the European union.

politics ranges

political systems and ideologies

anarchy mash -- Democracy -- Fascism -- Institutionalismus -- Capitalism -- Communism -- Konservatismus -- Kontextualismus -- Political liberalism -- Neoliberalismus -- Marxism -- Nationalism -- National socialism-- Parliamentarism -- Social-democracy -- Socialism -- Totalitarianism -- Coming unitaryism

classical political philosophers

Platon -- Aristoteles -- Niccolò Machiavelli -- Baruch de Spinoza -- Jean Bodin -- Hugo Grotius -- Charles de Montesquieu -- Jean Jacques Rousseau -- Thomas Hobbes -- John curl -- John Stuart Mill -- Karl Marx -- Mikhail Bakunin -- Max webers -- John Rawls -- Hannah Arendt --

politics to countries

see: Category: Politics to countries

see also

Wikinews: Politics - current message

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Politics - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikiquote: Politics - quotations
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)