Political science

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political science (often also called political science or political science) is a discipline of the social sciences, which concerns itself with the scientific study of the policy.

Table of contents

the subject of the research

the political science is concerned with the living together of humans. It examines, how this living together is regulated. This contains thoseAnalysis of fundamental principles, connections and of a cause and damage mechanisms. It considers institutional, procedural and material-material criteria.

Originally the political science had a strongly normative coinage. It was occupied long time with how living together of humans arranges bestwill is. This root leaves itself up to the old-Greek philosophers - among other things on Platon - lead back and is also today still important. As such the political science became also after its establishment as academic discipline in the Federal Republic of Germany after1945 understood and conceives (“democracy science”). On the basis of the USA the political science was more strongly empirically aligned since the 1960er years (“behavioristische revolution “in the social sciences). Thus a reorientation went from normative to positivistic questions.

A goal of the modern political scienceit is to be identified relations between cause and effect, which explain the political living together of humans. A valuation is void. Thus it orients itself analytically and methodically at the natural sciences. This development is called “Verwissenschaftlichung”.

The modern political science becomes further substantially by US-American developmentsand innovations coined/shaped. This concerns above all the analytic Stringenz (employment of mathematical models, the so-called “rationally Choice “- beginning) as well as methodical Rigorosität (employment of statistic procedures).


the controversy over the name for this discipline is in Germanyas old as the discipline. While in English the designation was justified political science around 1880 and for a long time is established, one had trouble in postwar Germany after the experiences of the Nazi period with the term of a political science,because this caused associations with a politisierten science at some people. Today the designations political science and political science are common in the German-speaking countries, whereby most institutes use first officially.

Even if colloquially often of a politics policy or a like the speechis, are clearly to differentiate between the terms political science and politics. A politician makes politics, a politics policy (or Politologe) argues scientifically with political questions.

integration science

partial understands itself the political science as integration science thatPolitical sciences. The goal was here training of generalists, which had the necessary Sachverständnis in organizations and administration, in order to be able to lead their functions and offices.

It already continues beginnings, those since the early modern times of lawyer, theologianand philosophers as well as justified by historians are later.

Already in 18. Century taught Joseph of sun rock at the University of Vienna political sciences it was established in 19. Century fan like the coming ral science and the Policywissenschaft.

An own disciplinedeveloped in Germany under US-American influence however only after II. World war. Connecting factors were however given to the activities of the German university for politics, those in the early phase of the Weimar Republic 1920 in Berlin were based and tofor integration into the citizens of Berlin university 1940 existed. Political science was essentially understood in the Weimar Republic as democracy science.

After the Second World War their self understanding became as democracy science again popular, thus as science of the function mode of the democracy, in particularIntermediary such as teachers and journalists to enable should to obtain the democratic thoughts and to embody democratic thinking in the population. Therefore the early postwarGerman political science concerned itself mainly with institutions as for example parties, trade unions, the parliament or the Federal Government.Today one calls this article range Polity.

With the political and scientific success of the Federal Republic of Germany the study of the actual political processes moved into the foreground: One tried to understand, what passes which functions it within the institutions andin each case would fulfill, instead of describing, which tasks had it officially. Played in particular federations an important role, since them - does not embody although legally - an important portion of the political process have. One tried thus, the actual will education and decision-making processes(Politics) to analyze and understand.


, individual politics policies finally tried partial disciplines (like z. B. To examine public health policy). Here specialized authority is necessary for the analysis of the actual problems. This newer partial discipline of the political science, itself alsoFactual problems of individual politics policies, Policy argues - research or also politics field research is called.

This plays for the political counselling one ever more largely becoming role, with the help of those decision makers on scientifically founded consultation abandoned or a political decision to meet and secure wants. ThoseBorders of the scientificness of such consultation are however often unclear - often there is “complaisance appraisals”, thus appraisals motivated by special interests, which come to a result wished by the client.

The paradigms of the integration science and the democracy science become therefore today increasingly by the division thatDiscipline political science into the partial disciplines Polity, Politics and Policy replaces.

A further also partitioning of the political science in partial disciplines, common for the chair designations, is the partitioning into political system (related to individual states, for example Germany; in former times: Government teachings), political theoryand idea history, comparative political science (in former times: Comparative government teachings, also comparative analysis of political systems) and international relations.

To the most important articles belong to the political science the structure problems of the democracy, political parties and social movements, international relations, state interventions and Economics, political attitudes and consciousness forms, public opinion, mass media and voting patterns.

A popular mistake consists of the fact that political science is understood as scientific continuation (a party) of the policy. Rather the subject of the political science is the scientific analysis of politics.

Training as the politics policy

in the post-war period numerous institutes for political science were created, so z. B. at the Universities of Cologne, Mainz, Tübingen and Bonn. Besides also individual chairs and Professuren at some universities exist. Thus many universities offer a study to thatPolitical science on, in which one is trained as the politics policy.

Oldest and largest Institut for political science in Germany is the petrol Suhr institute of the free University of Berlin, which came out 1959 from the German university for politics.

In Austria political science can onthe universities in Innsbruck, Salzburg and Vienna to be studied. At the university Innsbruck gives it by a reorganisation to the university structure since 1. January 2005 an own faculty for political science and sociology.

Also in Switzerland political science at all leaves itselflarge universities study. So z. B. in Zurich, Berne, Geneva and pc. Gallen, whereby in pc. Gallen an interdisciplinary course of studies offered is combined, the political science with political economy, public marketing and management and right.


political science generally
politics scientist
which is Politics?
Politics bibliography
methodology of the political science
political theories and idea history
anarchy mash
double rule
choice monarchy
hereditary monarchy
Neofaschismus (right-wing extremism)
advice communism
reform communism
defiance gravel mash
conservativism (Christian democratism)
national socialism
neo-Nazism (right-wing extremism)
politics cycle
political liberalism
republic anise Republic of
link socialism
right socialism
topics and theories of political philosophy
nature right theories
contract theories
theory of the rational decision (rationally choice theory)
game theories
Systems of government
rule authentication
division of power
of human rights
state State of
democracy theory
political units, institutions and participants
State of
Land of the Federal Republic
political parties
political culture
right and condition
of switching systems
elections on the basis of proportional representation right
international relations
foreign policy
international law
international organizations
Europäische Union
Nichtstaatliche Organisationen (NGO's)
Amnesty International
Global 2000
NATO, WEU, Warschauer Pakt
Wirtschaftsbündnisse und -organisationen
EWR, EFTA, Europäische Gemeinschaft, COMECON, OEEC, OECD, G8, AKP-Staaten, OPEC, ECOWAS, CARICOM, Mercosur, and close A SHANk, CSN, NAFTA, ASEAN, World Trade Organization, HOLE, GATS, IWF, World Bank
theories of the international policy
political realism
Neoliberaler Institutionalismus
of politics-scientific constructionalism
dependency theories
modernization theories
conflict research
Peace research
topics of the international policy
UN and its organizations
Middle East conflict
geo politics
east west conflict
north south conflict
development policy
international commercial policy
global environmental policy
international nuclear politics


  • Dirk mountain fitter and Ferdinand Mueller Rommel: Comparative political sciences, 4. Edition 2003 ISBN 3-8252-1391-9
  • Dirk mountain fitters and Theo coming: Introduction to the political science, 7. Edition, Munich 2003 ISBN 3-406-50495-7.
  • Klaus von Beyme: The political system of the Federal Republic of Germany. An introduction, 10. Edition, West German publishing house, Wiesbaden 2004 ISBN 3-531-33426-3.
  • William Bleek: History of the political science in Germany. Beck, Munich 2001 ISBN 3-4064-9602-4
  • Matthias Catón, Julia Leininger, Philip Stöver and. Claudia Zilla (Hrsg.): Political science in the occupation. Perspectives for Politologinnen and Politologen. Lit, Münster 2005 ISBN 3-8258-8360-4
  • Jürgen W. Falter and. Felix W. Worm (Hrsg.): Political science in the Federal Republic of Germany. West German publishing house, Wiesbaden 2003 ISBN 3-531-13815-4
  • Gerhard Göhler and. Bodo Zeuner (Hrsg.): Continuities and breaks in the German political science. Nomos, Baden-Baden 1991
  • Hans Maier /refuge Denzer (Hrsg.): Classical author of political thinking, 2 Bde. 2. Tb-Aufl. (insg. 8 Aufl.) Beck, Munich 2004 ISBN 3-406-42161-X and ISBN 3-406-42162-8
  • Thomas Meyer: What are politics?, Stuttgart 2002 ISBN 3-8252-2135-0
  • Dieter Nohlen and Rainer OlafSchool TZE (Hrsg.):Encyclopedia of the political science. Theories, methods, terms. 2 volumes, 2. Edition., Beck, Munich 2004 ISBN 3-406-51126-0 and ISBN 3-406-51127-9
  • Werner J. Patzelt: Introduction to the political science. Sketch of the subject and study-accompanying orientation., 5. Edition. Rothe, Passau 2003 ISBN 3-927575-95-X
  • Wolfgang Rudzio: The political system of the Federal Republic of Germany, 6. Edition, Leske and Budrich, Opladen 2003 ISBN 3-8252-1280-7

Web on the left of

an overview of the politics policies to Wikipedia offers the portal: Politics.


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