the political Neorealismus is one of the most important paradigms in the range of the international relations. The theory develops on the bases of the classical realism of Edward Hallett Carr (The Twenty Years' Crisis, 1946) and Hans Morgenthau (Scientific one versus power Politics, 1947).
Two variants of the Neorealismus can be differentiated:
- The “hegemony (cycles) theory “, which like classical realism historically argued, however also the economic dimension regards and with quantitative data works.
- The ahistorische and strukturalistisch laid out “Struktuelle realism” after Kenneth Waltz, which also “economic realism” is called, if the economic dimension of power is the center of attention.
Table of contents
of the paradigm changes from classical realism to the Neorealismus happened due to the relative fall of the USA (“American DEK LINE”) starting from the 1960er years, which let attenuation of the American guide roller in world fear. After that 2. World war was America the clear hegemonial power and guaranteed the western world security (by their nuclear weapons) and economic stability (by the Bretton Woods system), as well as the entrance to oil. Due to this economic superiority the economic basis had not been brought up for discussion by political and military power in the prevailing political theory of classical realism. However the portion of the USA of world national product, world export and production sank starting from the 1960ern, while the deficits continued to rise in commercial balance sheet and household (due to the arms contest with the USSR) ever. The end of the Bretton Woods system (1973) led to a devaluation dollar in relation to Yen, DM and other currencies, the Jom Kippur war (1973) brought the first oil crisis with itself, when the OPEC demonstrated its power for the first time. In addition came still the military defeat into Viet Nam (1973), drawing even the USSR in the ranges armament and space research, as well as the disaster in Iran (1979). This crisis for America brought also a crisis for classical realism with itself and in such a way developed the Neorealismus as new theory, which considered also the economics. The goal of the Neorealisten was to be developed it thus a policy, which should work against the American fall.
the “Struktuelle realism” after Waltz
of the Neorealismus after Kenneth Waltz makes first some basic assumptions states and the international system:
- States are uniform, uniform, homogeneous and rational participants. That is not called it plays for the Neorealismus a role whether a democracy is present or a dictatorship.
- The only difference between the states is their power potential.
- States have a clear preference order: First they pursue the so-called. “high politics” (, independence, surviving, etc. =Sicherheit), then “low politics” (= everything else).
- The international system is anarchisch, i.e. there is no superordinate regulation and control instance (for instance in the sense of a world government).
- the system functioned according to the principle of power, it is the only one, which helps a state to implement its interests.
From the said Neorealisten derive a national self-help strategy and a permanent uncertainty about the intentions of the other one. Or in order to say it in the words Waltz':
- You have ton of DO it on your own; you COUNT on someone else can't. Maybe he does it, maybe he doesn't….
It comes therefore and due to the fact that power is the only effective means for interest penetration, only on the relative profits on. That is called the other one (state) may never more power gain bring in than one. Accordingly Neorealisten exclude the possibilities of co-operation practically. Also international organizations are not understood as cooperative structures. Because they reflect only the interests of the states. (This can be reconstructed by the example of NATO descriptive.) only under hegemony aluminum influence or for alliance formation against a supremacy co-operation comes off. From the latter it can be derived that Neorealisten suggest above all a balance OF power strategy (during other authors for example balance often error, balance OF interest or balance OF Threat strategies forecasts).
In the context the Neorealisten refers to the structure of the international system. Together with its anarchischen character it exhibits different polarities: It can be unipolar multi, bi or, depending upon that, as many great powers are present. That cold war was historical constellation of a bipolar system. Today can be spoken of a unipolar system (the USA). However Waltz closes from this that the world develops toward a new multi-polarity. It refers its for reason to the developments in Europe and Asia as well as to the danger “hegemonial overstrech” the USA.
The most important advancement within the neorealistischen camp is its allocation into offensive and defensive Neorealisten. Among first mentioned for example John Mearsheimer must be ranked, to the latters counts for example Kenneth Waltz. The offensive materialists sees the fight for power as a kind competition, since power is a scarce property. In contrast to this defensive materialists, power means is sufficient present and therefore would do states well to it to defend the status Quo (balance OF power).
criticism at the Neorealismus
criticism at the Neorealismus arose particularly after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the cold war. Because the theory means that bipolar systems (how in the east west conflict) are extremely stable (which also applied to nearly a half century). Representatives of the Neorealismus answer to this common objection that these unusual situations do not belong to the usual phenomena in the international relations. Continuities in the world happening are by far more important and more frequent than such radical and very rare pagings. In order to explain these, offer the Neorealismus however good beginnings.
The moreover one it remains questionable whether from the anarchy actually and logically a self-help system results. For this the constructionalist Wendt means that “Anarchy what is state make OF it”. Finally it can be doubted whether the internal writingness of a state is actual of subordinated importance. This objection is represented particularly by liberal philosophers (Andrew Moravcsik supplies for this a valuable contribution, just like various authors for the theorem of the democratic peace). In the present the Neorealismus is extended again by a interpretatorische component. Represent this concerns the neoclassical realism, of William Wohlforth and Glenn Snyder.
In German-speaking countries child man, Werner left, Alexander simmering impact, Benjamin of Twardowski, Carlo Masala and Christoph Rohde this beginning represent Gottfried Karl. The constellation analysis of child man already supplied important methodical innovations in the seventies.