The police is an executive body of a state. It has in mostStates of the tasks to ensure and determine as prosecution authority public security and order. In the first mentioned function you often come thereby the role to an emergency assistance with own emergency call .
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thosepolice structures exhibit strong differences from state to state. The demarcation of military and police as armed national executive bodies results from the department competence: The police is subordinate to the ministry of the Interior of the Land of the Federal Republic or the national state (in the USA also thatMunicipality or a seized authority such as z. B. a university) and represents usually the state inward, while the military is subordinate to the Ministry of Defense and the state outward and/or. at its borders militarily secures. This does not exclude thatthe police organization of a state military similar or militarily organized to be can (rank). Exemplarily for it the Italian Carabinieri stands or to 1976 the German Federal Border Police (today federal police). These police units partly belong also to the division of the Ministry of Defense, are partthe regular army or militarily trained, even if they notice in times of peace excluding tasks of police on behalf the Ministry of Justice and interior. Also they can be used in the Kriegsfall as Kombattanten, if they fulfill the international-law requirements. A current example for this is the employment of the Carabinieri after the Iraq war in the Iraq. However this Carabinieri does not have an international-law mandate.
The police is to be differentiated in Germany from the order authorities and the military to. Both demarcations exist only since establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany.The order authorities notice in particular the pursuit of local irregularities. The demarcation is however in the individual Lands of the Federal Republic differently strongly pronounced. In addition, the former German Federal Border Police possessed the police authorities of the German Lands of the Federal Republic to 1994 Kombattantenstatus, not however, although this articlepolitical arguments was. Police officers are abroad used also in the framework of missions of the European Union , UN and OSCE (for instance in the Kosovo).
To define the institution police is furthermore of private security agencies (awake protection/Security), those from the state not alsospecial rights, therefore no implementing organs of the national force monopoly are and therefore frequently only as implementing organs on private house right are equipped function. They notice representatively of the owners their rights. For large steps also they must the servicestake up to the police.
Most states are member of the international Kriminalpolizeilichen organization (IKPO Interpol), based for the improvement of international co-operation and co-ordination above all (however not only) in the range of the transnational criminality.
Etymologischthe term police of the old-Greek Polis leads itself (to German: “City”) off. It called outside of of Greece first mode word of the Romans the entire public administration (today still for instance in the word “build with the police” recognizably). Since the Middle Ages good Policey became asExpression for a good administration uses. In this meaning the word “police state “was originally used. Thus, both a fürsorgliche extending to all areas of life became (welfare state) and repressive activity of a “all too-constant” state understood.
Only alsoarising the liberalism the competence of the state for the well-being of the particular was denied and the repressive element into the foreground was moved. The state had to protect only against interferences in liberty and property, the citizen in all other respectsbut the responsible person development of its personality too leave (night watchman state). Since then by the term of the “police state” an excessively repressive state is understood.
The originally devaluing, today however generally colloquial designation “bull” has its origin in the Rotwelsch (Gauner) - language, therea policeman is called “Puhler”.
in some areas of Germany is used the term “police” in a umfasserenden sense (z. B. § 59 PolG Baden-Wuerttemberg) and then everything means within the range of the danger warning transactsState organs (see. “Fire police” or “Building Department”). The university-formed police is called then “Polizeivollzugsdienst”, which becomes remaining authorities as “police authorities” designation.
See major item police (Germany)
in Austria is arranged the executivesince that 1. July 2005 to a large extent into the awake body federal police as well as into the law guard. The term federal police designates the awake body federal police. It is subordinated to the ministry of the Interior and the other security authorities, the law guard the Ministry of Justice.
See also: Federal police (Austria)
in Switzerland is divided the police into the Federal Office for police, the canton police and the city/municipality police. A department of the canton police is the sea-police. The federal police ordersover no own university-formed organs. Only canton and municipalities possess its own police troop. In the further there is the police corps of the SBB, the course police, which are however (corporation) an organization under private law.
See: Police (Switzerland)
in France gives it to three kinds of police force: To the civil police authorities belong the national police (policy national one) of the ministry of the Interior and the local constabulary (policy Municipale), which is subordinate to the mayor. Besidesthere is the militarily organized Gendarmerie national one, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Defense.
The national police is divided again into the security police (policy administrative one) and the Kriminalpolizei (policy Judicaire).
The auxiliary police CRS, (Compagnies Républicainesde Sécurité) is quite comparable a special-purpose force of the national police, with the GIGN, the Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie national one of the Gendarmerie.
In the course of a general reform service ranks also the “civilian” police in France at the end became of theTwentieth century “militarized”, which in inter+official co-operation recognizing, who it facilitates whom transferred or subordinated it has to be.
in the united kingdom is historical the police like z. B. in France partially civilian and partially militarily grown. However different police structural reforms led to the fact thatone as outstanding one not to recognize can whether a policeman, whom one sees, defense or the ministry of the Interior is subordinated to who, since all are called „policy “, same uniforms carries and the colors of the employment vehicles itself only in the intended purpose (traffic police, protection of individuals for the diplomaticCorps of foreign nations in Great Britain, security police, etc.), not however in their administrative affiliation from each other differentiate. An only police-own aviation witness such as helicopters are differently painted from police to police.
The British Ministry of Defense, British ministry of the Interior as well as various cities and municipalities operate in each caseown Websites of their respective police. Reason is the fact that in nearly each county and in nearly each municipality the police from another history was created and is independent in each case of the police in a neighbour county/city.
Internationally probably the most well-knownPolice of Great Britain is the MET, London metropolitan policy (city police), those their headquarters since its removal in the year 1967 in the new Scotland yard has and scarcely 32,000 policemen in civilian services (like the Kriminalpolizeien) and university-formed services (like the security police)employed. It gives also small police in Great Britain with only approximately a dozen to coworkers. However each police is on an equal footing in Great Britain of every other police within the kingdom.
The fact however that the city police in London the oldest Kriminalpolizei in Great Britainplaces (based in the year 1829 in the building Scotland yard) - still to it in the largest city in the kingdom -, this police in the process of the time large archives and a very extensive experience in things and clearing-up have criminality fightfrom crimes provides. That led to the fact that already early Londoner (crime film aluminum) were asked police officer also by other police in Great Britain for legal assistance.
By the example London can be shown also well, as chaotically the British police seems to be organized, nevertheless givesit in London four authorities with valid Polizeigewalt: the city police, only the own town center OF London policy, British transport policy (course police) and the Harbour Authorithies ( port authorities), responsible in the town centre.
Under the impression of the terrorist attacks to 7. July 2005in London it was again once tried to reform on national level the British police and in the entire kingdom under a hat too gotten which at the influence of conservative, local-patriotic, political forces and after the reference to the fact that straight this event neverthelessshowed, how outstanding all these police co-operated, failed.
ranks the metropolitan policy London
- Chief Inspector
- Chief Superintendent
- COMM other
- Deputy Assistant Commissioner
- Deputy and Assistant Commissioner
of ranks of the CriminalInvestigation department CID
- Detective Constable (DC)
- Detective Sergeant (DS)
- Detective Inspector ()
- Detective Chief Inspector (DCI)
- Detective Superintendent (D Supt)
- Detective Chief Superintendent (DCS)
Italy does not have like France or Spainföderal arranged police system, but maintains several national police bodies with partially. itself overlapping competencies, also over concentrations of power in a hand and/or. to prevent in a Ministry. The civilian state police (Polizia di Stato) are subordinate to the ministry of the Interior, mainly in largerCities operates.
the Carabinieri are subordinate to police service as a fourth armed service to the Ministry of Defense and provide after instruction of the ministry of the Interior. They have above all in the country a close network of wax act ions.
a third national police troop is the Guardia di Finanza, a militarily organized financial police, which is subordinate to the Ministry for economics and finances and is responsible for the fight of the white-collar crime. It is above all also in the range tax and Customs investigation actively.
The ministry of the Interior is responsible for the coordination of all national police force. The boss of the state police is at the same time a general managerfor public security and as such national police co-ordinator.
Beyond that some special police authorities insist on national level. In addition belong to the Ministry of Justice being subordinate prison police (Polizia Penitenziaria), the Ministry Of Agriculture being subordinate forest police authority (Corpo Forestale dello Stato),as well as the militarily organized coast guard (Guardia Costiera), that belongs to the division of the traffic Ministry. The traffic police (Polizia Stradale) is particularly a relatively independent organisation area of the Polizia di Stato, those for the monitoring of the traffic on over-localand supraregional roads is responsible.
Meran/Merano during the Carabinieri the Ministry of Defense permanently subordinated are (and after instruction of the ministry of the Interior become active), can financial police and coast guard in the case of defense the Ministry of Defense and/or. the general staff tomilitary defense of the national borders to be subordinated.
on local level gives it the partial unarmed municipality police (Vigili Urbani or Polizia Municipale), which worries mainly about the regulation of the local traffic. The local constabulary of a place should more than 7 persons in their rows have, then of a corps of the local constabulary or also city police (if the local constabulary is settled in a city) one speaks. Kind of the Ital. Road traffic regulations plans the moreover that this “police body” also asHighway police (“polizia stradale”) functions and thus the whole range of traffic accidents in its field of application takes over. The moreover this police transfers also tasks of the court police, naturally however only in that measure like it for it from emergencies is absolute. They are subordinate thatrespective mayors, however the regional governments lead the highest supervision of service.
On province level there is still small province police (Polizia Provinciale), which provides for the adherence to of the hunt and Binnenfischereivorschriften of the respective province government.
until 1994 there was a zweigliedrige police organization in the Netherlands: All larger municipalities (altogether 148) had a local constabulary (Gemeentepolitie), which was subordinate to the mayor. The state police (Rijkspolitie) were for smaller municipalities and the whole national territorysafety tasks concerned responsibly and the Minister of Justice responsible. Since the entry into force of the new police regulation at the 1. April 1994 all civilian police formations are uniformly organized and university-formed. The country is now in 25 police regions (politieregios) divided, ever over inRegional corps (regiokorps) order. The line of the regional police is incumbent on a corps boss, who is supported by a regional executive committee, to which also representatives of the local city administrations and the law belong. Besides there is a land police corps (corps Landelijke Politie services -KLPD), which for traffic interests on over-local roads, which are responsible fight of the organized crime and other spreading tasks. The corps manager of the KLPD is subordinate to the Minister of the Interior since 2000 directly (before the Ministry of Justice). At the Landpolizei are various special units and placessettled like water protection, course and motorway police, interpole - connecting office, mounted police and a security agency for government mechanisms and messages. In the Netherlands about 55,000 civilian police officers are in the service.
The Netherlands Gendarmerie, Koninklijke Marechaussee mentioned, belongs organizational as an own armed serviceinto the scope of responsibility of the Ministry of Defense, is subordinate however with the practice of its police tasks also to different Ministries. In addition belong apart from the border control, to the guard of the airports and the strange-police activity also the protection of individuals for the king family.
To the support andExist to discharge of professional police force in such a way in many Netherlands cities towards. City guards (Stadswacht), whose member university-form, but are unarmed. The supervision over the city guards is usually noticed by the police.
the police system of Spain covers essentially four kinds of police bodies: those equally the ministry of the Interior and defense being subordinate and militarily organized Gendarmerie or “citizen guard” (Guardia civil), the national national police (Cuerpo Nacional de Policía - CNP) of theMinistry of the Interior, the police of the autonomous communities (Policía Autónomica), which so far in the Basque country, in Katalonien and in Navarra were set up, as well as the municipality and city police (Guardia Urbana, Policía local one or Policía Municipal mentioned). As special-purpose forces existwithin the CNP bspw.Auxiliary police units (Unidades de Intervención Policial - UIP) and so towards. “Special groups of safety employments” (Grupos Operativos Especiales de Seguridad - GOES), together with (in for instance the German GSG 9 comparable) the “group of special operations” (Grupo Especialde Operaciones - GEO) above all the terror defense serve.
The demarcation of the competencies between Guardia civil and national police is very complicated and not always easy to reconstruct. For example the Guardia is civil for the protection of the national borders, traffic on except-localRoads, prisoner transportation, the nature protection and the distribution of gun licenses, the national police against it responsibly for person control at the borders , passport - and affairs of foreigner, the monitoring of play casinos and the drug fight. In the autonomies, those over an own policeorder, become the tasks of the Guardia civil i. D. R. of the autonomy police perception (in all other respects majority of former members of the Guardia civil consists). The autonomy police of the Basque country is called Ertzaintza, those by Navarra Policía Foral (splinter) or Foruzaingoa(bask.) and of Katalonien the Mossos d'Esquadra.
Due to the complicated organization the police work in Spain is made more difficult quite often also by authority conflicts. At least since long therefore the call is after creation of a unit police (Policía Única) for thoseRegions, which do not possess autonomy police to hear.
the Polizeigewalt is
patrol before a government building in the USA on many different levels of the föderalen system.On federal level those is responsible FBI for the clearing-up of criminal offences, which were committed against Federals law. These concern mainly areas of international trade as well as organized crime, in addition, such criminal offences such as kidnappings. On state level there is the state police (State policy), which is frequently for the monitoring of the motorways as well as the protection of state institution responsible. On the level of the Counties and/or Districts the Sheriffs is responsible for everything, which occurs outside of cities and inkorporierten municipalities.
Howeverthere are also cities and municipalities with Sheriffs, which are in Districts and Counties, for which own Sheriff or police is responsible. The same gives it also in reverse. The Sheriff is selected directly by the population, thoseElectoral period is regionally different (12 months until 4 years). To the choice to place itself each US citizen can. The Sheriff is justified to delegate a part of its tasks to auxiliary workers (Deputies ).
Additionally to the circumstance that each municipality, each city (sometimes eveneach quarter), each district and each state in the USA its own police has, has also nearly each Ministry and nearly each authority its own department with the powers and possibilities of a police, of (quite armed) the fire determination teams of the occupation fire-brigadein Chicago, over the likewise armed investigators of the post office, the determination authorities of tariff, fiscal authorities, navy, army, Air Force, naval infantry, port authorities, transport ministry, Ministry of Trade etc. Altogether co-exist to a few thousand police in the USA.
Against the plate obtained by Hollywood co-operation functionsbetween these police however generally very well and became with the establishment of the so-called “preservation of regional tradition authority” in the consequence of the notice of the 11. September 2001 only improves.
The term “police” (policy) becomes however earliest for thosefrom the municipalities uses employees of police force. Occasionally universities or other authorities of a federal state parliament or of the congress got the authority to maintain own police services. Both the local police of the cities and the Sheriffs and the special police of onedetermined mechanism have only a strictly bound local jurisdiction (z. B. a university police may intervene only on the Campus of the appropriate university, the urban police only within the city boundaries etc.). These connections can be loosened by special agreement (if z.B. a city and a University of that in each case different Vertragspartnerin the right grant to become active in justified cases on that different area in each case).
the own in each case military police of the US armed services has federal level Polizeigewalt. It gives howeveralso military authorities, whose coworker has the status as federal agents (federal agents), this are police officers of US Army (Criminal Investigation division - CID) and US Navy and/or. US navy Corps (Naval Criminal Investigative service - NCIS). The moreover Kriminalpolizeien of the office for federal treasure exist, to the post office (US pos valley policy), the tariff, the immigration authority, the Ministry of Trade, the transport ministry and the fiscal investigation of the Treasury. In addition there is the Drug to the drug fight apart from the tariff (US Customs)Enforcement administration DEA. For the areas alcohol, tobacco, firearms and explosive means with country wide relevance the office OF is Alco-gets, Tobacco, Firearms and explosive (ATF) responsibly. Still the frontier control becomes apart from immigration and Naturalization service (IN) by USBorder Patrol perception.
The most important Kriminalpolizei on federal level is the Federal office OF Investigation (FBI). For certain criminal offences, against members of the government arrange themselves as well as for money and credit card falsifications is responsible the Secret service.
the only country-wide standardisation with the security police is the police emergency call, that911 reads and (as in Germany) by (nearly) each telephone box and from (nearly) each mobile telephone, free of charge to be called can.
Details to the police of the Federal States see in the major item
police organizations of further nations
- German one Democratic Republic
- George Seesslen: Copilot country: History and mythology of the police film. Stir up press publishing house, Marburg 1999
- Patrick Wagner, Volksgemeinschaft without criminals. Conceptions and practice of the Kriminalpolizei in the time of the Weimar Republic and the national socialism. Christians, Hamburg 1996
- Stefan Klemp: Does not determine. Police battalions and the postwar law. A manual. Plain language publishing house, Münster 2005, ISBN 3-89861-381-X
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