Polish language

Polish
spoken in: Poland, the USA, Canada, white Russia, Ukraine, Tschechien, Litauen, Western Europe - among other things Germany, Brazil, Australia
speaker: 46 million
linguistic
classification:
Polish
official status
Office language in: Poland, European union
language code
ISO 639 -1: pl
ISO 639 -2: pole -
SIL: POLE

the Polish language polarize (Polish. język pole ski) ranks among the lechitischen group of the westslawischen languages, a sub-group that indogermanischen language family. It is closely related to Kaschubi, the Czech one, Slowaki and Sorbi (of a minority living in Germany one speaks). The national language of Poland is Polish. To the 38 million Polish speakers inPoland come still approx. 8 million abroad. Important one Polish minorities gives it in Lithuania, white Russia, the Ukraine and to the USA, furthermore in Russia and the other succession states of the Soviet Union, in addition, in Canada, Germany and France.

Table of contents

history

the oldest, today admitted PolishWriting certifications are names and glosses in latin documents, in particular in the bull of Gnesen of the Pope Innozenz II. of 1136, in which nearly 400 individual Polish names of localities and persons emerge. One found the first written complete sentenceon the other hand in the chronicle of the Cistercian monastery in Henryków with Wrocław. Under the entries of the yearly 1270 a request of a man is to his grinding wife. “Daj, ać pobruszę, A ty poczywaj”, which reads in the translation: “Leaveme now grind, and you rest yourself. “

To the earliest monuments “the Bogurodzica belongs to the Polish language” - the first Polish hymn, “the holy cross lectures” and “the Gnesener lectures”. Later also religious texts from latin were transferred into the Polish,for example the Psałterz Floriański (“Florianer Psalter”) from that 14. Century. In 15. Century was back-pushed the influence of the Czech one existing first, and the writing-Polish emanzipierte itself of latin. After Polish up to 16. Century was written predominantly by clergyman,spread it in the future also at aristocracy and middle class.

The modern Polish literature language developed in 16. Century on the basis of dialects, which were spoken in the area of Poznań in the west of Poland. From this time originatethe eulenspiegel as well as the chronicle literature of Marcin Bielski and the Prosaschriften of Mikołaj Rej. Their high linguistic level leaves on a tradition of the Polish one on the king yard, in the national administration, spoken for a long time, as well as in the lay andchurch Rhetorik closes. In 16. Century achieved the Polish language conditions, which ascend it because of their wealth and its suppleness to the most important languages of Central Europe read. The education of the Renaissance fought for the further development of the Polish one and itsPenetration in relation to latin. “Said sei´s all peoples outside, the pool (of Lech, for Poland) no goose language, also it has has its own language! “the famous maxim of the Mikołaj Rej from that, valid as a father of the Polish literature, readYears 1562.

In the Polish one there is a set of leaning words from the oldCzech and medium high German (Jiddisch) as well as from latin; in recent time influences on the Polish language went in particular from the Byelorussian one, Ukrainian one, Russian one , High Germans, French and English out. Present a particularly large influence of the English is to be observed.

alphabet

Polish is written from the outset with latin alphabet (see. ) and that uses other slawische languages for the renditionPolish sound diacritical indications.

The Polish alphabet consists of 35 letters and reads completely:

A, Ą, B, C, Ć, D, E, Ę, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, Ł, M, N, Ń, O, Ó, P, Q, R, S, Ś, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z, Ź, Ż.

Ą, Ę, Ń and Y never occur at the word beginning, therefore the appropriate capital letters are very rare and are used only if the whole word is written in capital letters. Q, V and X becomeonly with foreign words uses, which were not polonisiert yet. Since beginning of the 90's they are however part of the modern, Polish alphabet.

phonology

see also: Discussion Polish

vowels

the Polish possesses 8 Monophthonge.

Monophthonge of the Polish
in front central in the back
orally nasal orally nasal
closed i u
means ɛ ɛ̃ ɨ ɔ ɔ̃
openly A

consonant and half vowels

the Polish has 27 konsonantische phonemes and 2 half vowels (Approximanten).

The consonant Polish one
bilabial lab IO
dental
alveolar alveolo
palatal
post office
alveolar
palatal velar
Plosive p b t D k g
Affrikaten ts dz
Nasale m n ɲ ŋ
Vibranten r
Frikative f v s z ɕ ʑ ʃ ʒ x
lateral one l
of half vowels w j

of dialects

to the Polish dialects belong smallPolish (southeast Poland with Krakau), to Schlesisch (in the southwest), Masowisch (northeast Poland with Warsaw) and largePolish (in the north and the west). Kaschubi (in the north) is oneindependent westslawische language to find but in particular in the Polish literature also as Polish dialect. Górali is a transition dialect from the Polish one to Slowaki, which is spoken in the extreme south of small Poland and in parts of the slowakischen area Orava.

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Grammar

the Polish has a very free word position, tended however slowly to the verb secondary position.

There are two numbers:

to approximately to 16. Century had Polish three numbers: Singularly, dual, Plural. Referring to the historicalBinarily it still gives until today in the vocabulary (for example with parts of the body, which occur in pairs). For example: Nominativ singular:ręka (hand), Nominativ Plural: ręce. The today's Plural is a historical dual. The actual Nominativ Plural became * ręki reads (andseveral single hands mark).

There are five Genera:

Polish had a well developed form system and retained the altslawische Kasussystem: six Kasus for Nomen, Pronomen and adjectives anda seventh Kasus, the Vokativ, for Nomen and Pronomen, which is used in the direct address.

Case (przypadek) question (pytanie)
Nominativ (Mianownik) who? what? acct? CO?
Genitive (Dopełniacz) whose? kogo? czego?
Dative (Celownik) whom? komu? czemu?
Accusative (beer NIC) whom? what? kogo? CO?
Instrument valley (Narzędnik) with whom? with what? z kim? (z) czym?
Lokativ (Miejscownik) over whom? about what? o kim? o czym?
Vokativ (Wołacz) (address form) --

In the Polish one nouns - contrary to the Germans - are in principle small written, exceptionsare names and starts of record. Perceptible and perceptible (abstract objects or characteristics) do not become as well as animated (personale) and dead (nichtpersonale) nouns differentiated. This is very important for the declination.

Nearly all adjectives are DEK-lined after a basic pattern. It givestwo kinds of adjectives:

  • weichstämmige, on soft consonants or on k and/or. g out-loud, have the maskuline Nominativendung - i
  • hartstämmige (all different) have the ending - y

verbs after person, number and Genus are inflected. Like the Russian andalso the Polish in such a way has other slawische languages a complicated aspect system. The tense system experienced a simplification, as three old tenses (Aorist, imperfect and Plusquamperfekt) were given up. The Präteritum is the only past form, inthe everyday life language one uses. Very rarely particularly in the writing language still Plusquamperfekt used - and already more or less became outdated.

Prepositions are constant and form together with a noun or a Pronomen a sense unit.

More over PolishGrammar gives it in the Wikibooks

to language change in the present

like each alive language is subject also Polish in the course of the time normal developments and changes, both in the grammar as well as in the vocabulary. Some changes becomedeeply into the language, other one verwurzelt again has hardly an influence or turned out in oblivion.

Dialect structure:The dialects of the Polish language standardize themselves in connection with the resettlement of the population after the Second World War, the urbanization, the influences of the mass mediaand the education, which generally dialect is accomplished, ever more. The dialects are hardly pronounced, from it excluded in the recent generation are however the góralische and the schlesische dialect, which at the moment becoming extinct does not threaten. The public speaksin the common dialect.

Grammar: A change which can be observed at present consists of the fact that the maskuline dead special form is replaced by the maskuline animated special form. Many words, which were regarded so far as clearly dead, become colloquially, particularly in the youth language,as animates outstandingly. It expresses itself by the fact that the accusative resembles the genitive, and not as before, the Nominativ. (Still in the colloquial language) forms which can be found are very often „mieć pomysł A “(have an idea) or „obejrzeć film A “(watch a film). But the most Neologismen and foreign words, which refer to not-material or not-perceptible terms, accept also in the official language the maskuline animated special form. Example: „dostać E-Mail A /SMS A” ( a E-Mail/a SMS gets).

Vocabulary: Become ever more words from the English entliehen. At the same time many French and Russian foreign words disappear. An interesting feature is the change of some French foreign words of the French into the English discussion, z. B. becomes image as in English imidż expressed and not as in the French imaż.

In the last years a great many vulgäre expressions flowed into the colloquial language inside (e.g. the adjective zajebisty, can be compared with the today's meaning of geil, meant originally however to somethingcompletely different one than the German meaning at that time). Many other words, which further vulgär are, lost their strength and in situations are often used, which were inconceivable in former times (the word kurwa, Polish for uses, e.g. becomes. of many Poland inthe colloquial language as Interjektion uses and corresponds thereby in approximately fuck in the English or “shits” in the German language).

On the other side in the context of the political correctness some words than are more strongly insulting felt than in former times.For example it is not right itself nowadays the word pedał (here: stifling) to use (except in the meaning pedal), the word gej (from the English. gay) or homoseksualista (homosexual ones) replaced it.

Phonology:There ever moreWords from the English with its different language structure entliehen become, spread in this connection ever more sound connections which can be found so far rarely. It appears z. B.i after alveolar sounds t, D, s, z, r (didżej, animal, ring).

foreign words from Polish

it are only relatively few Polish words from the Polish one transferred to German. Cucumber - centralGreek αγγούριον „cucumber “polarize (. ogórek), possibly of the old-Greek αωρος „green, unreif “comes. The Greek word was probably transferred from the Polish one to German. Sword polarize (.szabla) and whip polarize (. pejcz) came likewise from the Polish one into German. Also the word border polarize (. granica) as well as some kinds of bird (e.g. Stieglitz polarize. szczygieł) came from the Polish one into German. The German colloquial word “Penunze” is taken over from a Polish dialect, in which one pieniądze not [pʲɛ'nɔnʒɛ] expresses, but with u instead of ɔ. (And pieniądze has beyond that same originlike Pfennig and penny.) in east Austria every now and then the school note becomes 5 (“not sufficient”) as pintsch pl.pięć designates. For the diacritical indication, which is used in the Polish alphabet for the designation of the Nasale, becomes also in German texts sometimesthe Polish word ogonek uses.

Web on the left of

Wikipedia on Polish
Wikibooks: Polish - learning and teaching materials
Commons: Polish pronunciation - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: Polish - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikiquote: Polish proverbs - quotations
 

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