PP

PP
density 1150 kg/m 3
electrical conductivity (σ) 10,-12 (m · Ohm) of -1
heat transition coefficient 0.25 w (m · K)
Course elastic module 2300 N/mm 2
glass transition temperature of 60..75 °C

PP (abbreviation Pa) is thermoplastic plastics. They consist of organic macromolecules (polymers), whose are linked monomer - units by polycondensation between a group of carboxyls and an amino group. One calls the connection developing thereby Peptidbindung. It is hydrolytically again fissile.

PP were synthesized for the first time in the year 1937.

Table of contents

chemical constitution

it gives three families of the PP. First of all they can from x amino acids or their lactams to be manufactured and by the abbreviation Pa Z be marked. The polymers of these types have the form <math> [NH - (CH_2) _x - CO] _n< /math>.
Examples are the Polycaprolactam (Pa 6), Poly-11-aminoundecanamid (Pa 11) and the Polylaurinlactam (Pa 12). The number of Z gives here the positiontherefore for the group of CO in the carbon chain on, applies x=Z for -1, therefore 6 x =5 are with the Pa.

The second group are the aliphatic PP (Pa Z 1 Z 2) from normal diamines and dicarbonic acids. Their polymers have the form <math> [NH - (CH_2) _x- NCHO - (CH_2) _Y - CO] _N< /math>.
Examples for this are the Polytetramethylenadipinamid (Pa 4,6), the Polyhexamethylenadipinamid (Pa 6,6) and the Polyhexamethylensebacinamid (Pa 6,10). It applies x=Z for 1 and y=Z 2 -2.

The third group are the aromatic PP, which would era-avoid also Polyarylamide or (z. B. Kevlar) to be called. Their monomers are developed and contained more complex than common characteristic a benzene ring. Examples are the Pa 6I and the Pa 6T.

In the technology also copolymers from these groups are formed and used, z. B. PA6/6T.

Pa 6versus Pa 6,6

the two most frequently used PP are Pa 6 and Pa 6.6. Their manufacture process is fundamentally different:

  • PP 6 is manufactured out ε Caprolactam. It develops (- NH (CH 2) 5 - CO) for n
  • PP 6,6 becomes from HMD (Hexametylendiamin) and adipic acidmanufactured. It results from a polycondensation under Wasserabspaltung.
    H 2 N (CH 2) 6 - NH 2 + HOOC (CH 2) 4 - COOH ---> (- NH (CH 2) 6 - NH-CO (CH 2) 4 - CO) n

trade name

polyamide fibers

  • nylon (de Nemours duPont)
  • Perlon® (industrial union dye industry)
  • Dederon (registered trade mark federation for Kunststofferzeugnisse of the GDR registered association. Rudolstadt)
  • Grilon® (brand name Swiss PP producer EMS CHEMISTRY

further trade names were or are: Dralon; Kevlar; Polycaprolactam; Caprolan® (Honeywell); Kapron; Silon; Danamid; Nivion; Enka®; Hydraulicfell (Honeywell); Dorlon (late Bavarian perlon); Lamigamid (Schwartz); Anjamid (J&A plastic)

acquaintance synthetic representatives of the PP are under the names nylon (PA66), perlon (PA6) and kevlar in the trade. In the GDR this plastic was well-known as Dederon. Also proteins belong chemically to the PP, even if this designation is not usual.

Perlon, nylon and Dederon are registered trade marksfor chemically used artificial fiber products. Perlon (Pa 6) (also:Nylon 6) is manufactured by polymerization by Caprolactam. It is very similar to the nylon made of adipic acid (Pa 6,6), takes up however more easily coloring materials and has a lower melting point.

nylon

the name Nylon became from the E. I. duPont de Nemours for fibers from PP 66 with the goal coined/shaped of establishing it as synonym forsocks “. It was not protected however for firmpolitical reasons as registered trade mark. It became later particularly in the anglo-saxon linguistic areaas generic name for linear aliphatic PP uses. It became to 28. February 1935 of Dr. Wallace Hume Carothers with E. I. you Pont de Nemours in Wilmington (Delaware, the USA) patents. It was thereby the first synthetic fiber, completely out inorganic materials (carbon, water, air) one manufactured. Nylon was used first for toothbrushes and not for nylon socks. It is sold since 1938.

Darstellung eines Nylon-6,6-Fadens
Representation of a Nylon-6,6-Fadens

Etymologie
Against landläufiger opinion the name does not come „nylon “from „NY “(New York) and„Lon “(London), which first places, at which nylon was produced. 1940 said John W. Eckelberry (DuPont), „nyl “would be an indiscriminate syllable, and „on “would be a common ending for fibers (z. B. „Cotton “). Later (Context, volume. 7, No. ) DuPont explained 2, 1978,the name should originally „NO run “(an allusion on „no ladders “?) read, then however from fear before judicial arguments because of wrong statements one changed. Beyond that existed as explanation for the name nylon also the thesis, the inventor of the material, Wallace Carothers, would have over successthe fiber with the call „N ow Y ou L ousy O ld N ipponese “(or „N ow Y ou L ook O ld N ippon “) triumphiert - in damage joy finally even a fiber as competition to the Japanese Naturseide to have developed. ThatThe fiber received name nylon however only after Carothers' death, so that this is probably a legend, those probably during 2. World war developed, there it straight at this time for the allied ones particularly importantly was a silk replacement for the production from parachutes to to be had.

perlon

perlon is the registered trade mark 1938 of Dr. P. Clinker for the industrial union dye industry AG in Berlin, Germany, plastic fiber developed. It consisted of PP 6 and as German alternative to nylon (PP 6,6) fast as „the war-important material “was explained. During of the The Second World War perlon was used for the production of parachutes , bristles for the cleaning of weapons and in aircraft tires. It was marketed starting from 1939 under the designation perlon L. Only 1943 began the civilian use for stockings.

Dederon

Dederon (and/or. DEDERON)was a collective mark of the registered trade mark federation for Kunststofferzeugnisse of the GDR registered association. Rudolstadt, that as trade name for products out and/or. with polyamide fiber materials one used.

“Dederon” is a technical term coined/shaped after the model “perlon”, which consists of GDR and “on”.

Special admittingness attained Dederon by the famousSmock aprons and purchase bags.

compact PP

trade name for nichtfasrige PP are me amide, Durethan (Lanxess) and Ultramid (BASF). These materials can be strengthened again with fibers, usually glass fibers,

characteristics

of PP are part crystalline. Synthetic PP have onehigh firmness, rigidity and very good chemical stability. In addition they have a high wear resistance and good sliding qualities. This makes it interesting for the implant technology. By GRP components with glass or carbon fibers the mechanical characteristics can be adapted well and z. B. Hydrolysis features reduce.Also the otherwise relatively high water absorption of up to three mass per cent can be lowered in such a way.

From PP produced fibers are strongly, toughly, flexibly and high gloss (therefore it probably the name).

  • General formula: (C 6 H 11 NO) n,
  • abbreviation: Pa according to DIN 60,001Part 4
  • CAS NR.: 25038-54-4,
  • melting point: 215 °C (PA-6),
  • density (humid): kg/m ³ (PA-6 and PA-66), [
works on] water absorption

a characteristic of the PP compared with many other plastics it consists 1.140 of the fact that it approx. 3,5-4,5 Vol,% water to store can. The water is not chemically bound,separate permeiert between the molecule chains through. This is with a macroscopically noticeable volume increase (so-called. Swelling) connected. Thus clear changes of the mechanical characteristics result: So PP is relatively little impacttough in the absolutely dry condition after the processing (injection moulding, extruding) and thosefor PP typical high impact strength is only developed after water absorption.

There is additives on polyolefin - basis developed, in order to ensure also in the dry condition high impact strength. This effect is also responsible for the fact that nylon socks get ladders mostly in the condition fresh from the factory most easily, if themhowever got over the first laundry, are many more durable.

recognition

PP can be identified in a simple manner with few aids. The Brennprobe is simplest. A small section of the plastic part which can be examined is ignited. Pa burns with more yellowish, somewhat jerky flame,whereby the burning material foams somewhat and forms brown-black edges. If one blows the flame out, the smoke smells easily horn-like. Pa can be anlösen with formic acid and stuck concomitantly.

use

today finds PP predominantly for the production of fiber materials use:

in addition finds it to use for the production of shatterproof household effects and technical parts, which must be very resistant to friction (sliding bearings):

due to its stability against lubricating and fuels at temperatures until over150 °C it is used also in the construction of vehicles:

  • Fuel pipes
  • of air intake systems
  • engine covers

also in the weapon technology find PP use

a coloring of polyamide fibers

PA6 and PA6.6 are most frequent with distanceoccurring Pa types for textiles. The refinement of the used fibers are thereby very differently, e.g. for carpet commodity rougher fibers are used and for sport clothing finer. For this are in the last years (off approx. 1996) also Microfasern with titer on the market, reduced again, come. The fibersoccur either as spinnozzle-colored material or as rawwhite synthetic material. The rawwhite synthetic material can be dyed then, depending upon desire, in the different opening stages (flake, yarn, piece). To the use comes acid and/or. Metal complex coloring materials. Also PP with dispersion and direct coloring materials can the obtained genuinenesses be colored,are however usually clearly worse.

see also

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