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The Polygamie - of griech. πολύς (pollys) (= much) and γάμος (gamos) (= marriage) - a form of the Vielehe marks and from before-similar relations. With two marriages one speaks of Bigamie. Polygamie is understood generally as the opposite about Monogamie. Polygamie as social institution is to differentiate of Polyamorie, with which the partners can be received voluntarily against social standards several openly led dear relations, and which as subculture a part of the Queer - movement represents.
It distinctive between Polyandrie (Vielmännerei - with a person several malePartner has) and Polygynie (Vielweiberei - with the one person several female partners has) as well as the group marriage in such a way specified (Polygynandrie) and other marriage forms, with which several women and several men are involved.
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Rechtsdogmati reason for the punishability of the Polygamie
Polygamie is already much are enough punishable. The exact origin of the punishability cannot be determined. However the assumption lies close that the rulers wanted to reach a power restriction by the prohibition of the Polygamie. In former master companies a central Regierungsgewalt left itself only heavyintersperse. With the prohibition of the Vielehe the fall of the master companies accompanied, because a man with only one woman can have evenly only a limited number of children. An arbitrary goods shift for the death became simultaneous through by vomitsthe master leader prevented. The feudalen rulers of earlier times could secure their central power so durably.
This motivation for the prohibition of the Vielehe is not to be confounded with present dogma TIC in addition. Nowadays the prohibition serves the Vielehe straight of the prevention of oneVerdinglichung of the woman. If a man (and that is probably rule) marries several women, these get a certain value in the society. This can present be observed in the traditional master companies, like e.g. with the Kurds - there the payment oneBride price today still the rule -.
Polygamie in Germany
fundamental is loud the Polygamie in the Federal Republic of Germany § 1306 BGB (see. Double marriage) forbidden and is punished with imprisonment up to three years or fine (see§ 172 StGB). However it is no longer punishable that a person with several women or men in sex community lives together; one can die however only a only one nationally recognized marriage.
However the conjugal Polygamie is perhaps protect worth, ifshe abroad rightfully to conditions came. Thus the higher administrative court of Rhineland-Palatinate decided to 12. March 2004 under the file reference 10 A 11717/03. OVG that the foreigner authority of the city Ludwigshafen of the secondary woman of an Iraqi, since 1996 in the Federal Republiclived, a residence power to give had, since the marriage of the secondary woman was legally recognized like those the Erstfrau. Such judgements were however violently criticized by politicians and to unite media.
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In thirdRichly women were under the condition that not because of adultery punished, if they became except-conjugally more schwanger both partners were „arischen blood “. Besides women permitted, which believed in the national socialism, their men this Promiskuitäten.
Polygamie in Great Britain
Polygamie in the USA
the church Jesu Christi of the holy ones of the last days, also as Mormonen well-known, permittedand the Polygamie promoted between 1852 and 1890 officially; in the secret one it was already maintained before and still some years some years later. Only in early 20. Century under Joseph F. Smith has itself the church after a timeambivalence offensively against the Polygamie turned; well-known Polygamisten is exkommuniziert since then radical. The Polygamie teaching section 132 of their holy writing teachings and alliances maintained the church, was interpreted it however today only symbolic mystisch and becamearound an explanation supplements, which forbids the practical practice of the Polygamie. Most already before 1852 abgespaltenen mormonischen groups, under it the community Christi, reject the Polygamie strictly.
Today only some usually small fundamentalist fragment churches maintain themselves,usually after 1890 from the main church separated, the Polygamie. Many of these groups live in extremely remote locations, in which except them nobody settles; in this way they dominate also the there local politics. Is usually only the first womanlegally married with their married man, partly also at all no civil marriages are closed. Sometimes the pair can be let separate again to separate, so that the man can marry a further woman, around itself after a certain time again to and so on. In actand truth goes it only around the surname and legal reasons (e.g. frame. a Aufenthaltsbewillingung). Usually the whole extended family helps to satisfy the financial needs and educate the children.
Some these churches are totalitarian religious groups,again and again the negative headlines make - approximately by child abuse, Inzest, obligation marrying, rape in „the marriage “, social welfare assistance fraud, honour murders on Aussteigern, education hostileness, obligatory driving out „surplus “young men, Verweigerung of each co-operation with the Staatsmacht and generally extremely authoritarianBehavior and misuse of power of their „prophets “. Besides there is large number of individual fundamentalists, which maintain the Polygamie in their own family, without belonging to one of these fragment churches in the mormonischen surrounding field still another. Some keep this secret, around their membership in the main churchand above all their admission authorization for their temples to keep, others take the exclusion in purchase. It becomes estimated that today between 20.000 and 40.000 inhabitants of the USA in polygamistischen mormonischen groups or polygamistischen single families live, most of it inUtah and its neighbour states. To the comparison: the mormonische main church has today approx. 12 million members.
Some today's members of the main church maintain, which earlier Vielehen would not have sexual relations contained, but would have only the material supply of the Mrs., their men afterdeceased were served the removal to the west. However the fact that about Brigham Young, which had second chairmen of this church, nevertheless 57 children of 16 women (sources see there, contradicts that), even if it beside it actually still about 30such pure supplying marriages particularly with older widows had been received. This was also by no means concealed at that time or kept secret. Also today's church leaders conceal it not and regard the sexual relations at that time with several „rightfully angetrauten to “wives as before God justified,avoid the topic however after possibility. Aussereheliche sexual relations however led at that time like today with disciplinary actions up to the exclusion from the church.
Polygamie in Africa
in the South African Kingdom of Swaziland is not Polygamie anything unusual. The current king Mswati III. has only in May 2005 his 12. Woman married. His father king Sobhuza II., which died 1982, had nevertheless ten times so many women.
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Polygamie - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- information of the Ministers of Justice von Utah and Arizona concerning polygamistischer mormonischer groups (on English)
Uwe Wesel: The history of the right, ISBN: 3-406-47543-4