as the pictures to run learned… Eadweard Muybridge photo series of 1904
center in it instead of at the beginning of the popkulturellen development: The the Beatles 1964.
A part of the Popkultur: Wikipedia 2006

the term Popkultur as an agricultural engineering marks a current, those beginning with that 20. Century was responsible and for cultural and socio-political phenomenon stands, which is subsummiert as mass culture. Is by the totalsocial character Popkultur (short: Pop) thus not bare a cultural section under many, but marks a totalsocial development of western rating and moral conceptions, which eint almost all cultural sections under itself. Popkultur took its origin in the beginnings of the industrialization and the structural changes exerted by it.

Table of contents

word origin

“Popkultur” is a concentration of the expression “popular culture” and often emerges in its abbreviation „Pop “. Often Pop in its musical form is equated with the term Mainstream, in order to falsely define it approximately Independent culture so mentioned (B-Movie, Underground music, unkommerzielle photography). But also this adds itself due to its characteristics as a further kind of play to the Popkultur.

To any Tonfilm, any radio ending can be inferred, what together in the society as effect would not be to be attributed to particular, but everything. Inevitably each individual Manifestation of the culture industry reproduces humans as that, to which whole it made. - Max of Horkheimer, Theodor W. Adorno: 1969


the nature of Popkultur are Konformisti. It always develops for the logic of the market in a arbeitsteiligen society as goods form and follows therefore the same “laws” -. The different facets, those from the Popkultur come out are therefore in reality only apparently different things (“Fetischcharakter”). This characteristic is concretized by the designation a “zwieschlächtiger character”. By the aesthetic light of these goods, which each goods form distorts ideologically, Fetischcharakter of the commodity is doubled.

The light of the alleged difference makes an identification offer possible, which is not recognized as same and thus different effects unfolded. Since Popkultur do not out-subtract themselves however „from capitalism “can, last end conditions are confirmed in their social Multiziplität.

The job in factory and office is to evade only in the adjustment to it in the leisure. To it incurably all Amusement insults. - Max of Horkheimer, Theodor W. Adorno: 1969


starting from that 19. Century developed the specific sphere „culture “within the civil society. The popularized form was always thereby a side of the cultural development. Culture consists thus in a dialectic of high and mass culture. Toward end 19. Century discovered the civil society culture for itself, which fell also with the increasing prosperity and rising education together, which was made possible by the industrialization. Brought on a simple formula the representative central and lower layer at the beginning 20. Century each road artist to the cultural event highly. Thus the borders between the conventional spheres advanced culture and the everyday culture were continued to dissolve always. With the growing of the definition power of the Popkultur the dichotomy became “everyday culture | Advanced culture” also strength of the public opinion in question posed.

it has

to do myths the misunderstanding Pop „with the way, in which over Pop is written and reflected, thus in what respect Pop is apart from a crude cultural-economic reality a product of discourses. Talking about Pop is sometimes more Pop than that, on which it is arranged. “(Roger Behrens). Many myths adhere to the term Popkultur , which become however not fair the nature of the term.

Pop vs. Sub Pop

Pop is to be understood in its as popular culture, itself not limited to music. Also painting, literature, photography, etc. belong to. Popkultur cannot be defined also by Subgenres, there itself also to Punk hard core, Hip Hop, Techno or simply Underground and/or. Indie under the term to seize leave. In the general perception it comes conceptual however to all kinds of distortions, since the term is often purpose-alienated instrumentalisiert due to its commonness. The author Martin Büsser practices for example on the basis of the partitioning into category, which he marks as Independent and as Mainstream, his criticism. It equates Popkultur thereby also with Mainstream as mass culture. These again as subjectively badly felt mass culture it sets allegedly „good “Independent to that against. With other authors it is to be even read that subculture and subversion would be taken in by „mass culture “. They accuse the Popkultur superficialness, Effekthascherei and substance lacking. However subversion is a facet of the Popkultur themselves, which can be described more exactly than internationality, openness and tolerance, Grenzenlosigkeit, sexual release, self-determination from women, fun and defense of democratic values generally. From this one - particularly for Germany important - comes out release from civil traditional structures. „Elvis Presley was not in vain no German “is called it with the Popkulturtheoretikern Marvin Alster and Roger Behrens. There are nevertheless also critical beginnings, which will represent from Alster and Behrens. Apart from the beful character of the popkulturellen products many aspects in an ideological clammy one lose themselves. After that the category had arisen „German Pop “for example in Germany and Goethe Institut specifically German culture abroad to export had tried, raised the authors with the initiative „I Can´t Relax in Germany “the question whether it concerns with consciously nationalistic inspired music at all still Popkultur in the actual sense of the word. This traditionally arrested kind of play breaks basic principles for which Popkultur with liberal values such as tolerance, openness and liberty - always.

Popkultureller origin

Popkultur is subject to a dynamic development process from a mutual transformation between Soziokultur, state and national culture as well as restaurant economics. This process grew historically. Popkultur and mass culture could themselves develop from the beginning of the industrialization out. The Popkulturtheoretiker Diedrich Diederichsen undertook however the attempt to divide Popkultur in phases. It called the phase of the Pop of the 1980er years in demarcation of the 1960ern as Pop II and since 1990 Pop III. Also the WDR row “50 years Pop”, there the origin of the Popkultur is to be analyzed also in Germany in the early 20's already began and also during LV sat down covered to Swing and Rock´n roll through. It can general be noted that there is no specifically German Popkultur, since this western-American influence exhibits.

thesis of the oppositeness

Popkultur is characterized by ambivalence. Apparent contrasts are simply waived: Mass/elite culture, art/capitalism, Virtualität/reality, Prosumer, technology/emotion, etc., since Popkultur is subject to the logic of the market by its beful manifestation, where its common structural and ideological multiple lies hidden.

theories to the Popkultur

for the theory of the Popkultur can be differentiated essentially two beginnings. On the one hand the critical theory, which decreases/goes back particularly to Adorno and the Frankfurt school, on the other hand the Cultural Studies, which decrease/go back to the Birminghamer Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS). On the side of the critical theory above all the chapter “culture industry” is to be called in Adornos and Horkheimers “dialectic of the clearing-up”, on the side of the Cultural Studies has itself above all authors such as John Fiske, Stuart resounds, thickly out-done Hebdige and Lawrence large mountain.

The Cultural Studies examines culture in the actual sense, without seizing as with the critical theory on a common ideological core back. This scientific discipline developed itself further therefore in interdisciplinary and eint thus most diverse Lesarten. In the Cultural Studies become individual and local features on their connection with socialstructural characteristics, like z. B. Ethnie, class, layer, Gender and sexual orientation examine. Cultural Studies investigate the meaning of culture as everyday life practice. These meanings are understood as socially designed. In its most extreme form everything is understood as culture, what develops in connection with human language and thus a soziokulturellen and civilization origin has. The criticism at the Cultural Studies analyzes the realization gain by the results mentioned.

The thesis of the Totalitätstheorie of the culture industry Adornos and Horkheimers analyzes social conditions of the 1940er years. Their thesis is not culture-critical separates a society-critical theory. The form of the economic analysis of their theory enjoys today no more topicality. They present themselves to capitalism as a hopeless block consolidating in monopoly-capitalistic formation. Topicality is added however to the diagnosis of late capitalism. Adorno and Horkheimer assume capitalism developed to the pervasive system. Therein continual the idea of the niche dissolved. The authors brought this realization on the simple formula: „There is no good life in the bad one. “


  • Theodor W. Adorno, max of Horkheimer: “Culture industry, clearing-up as mass fraud” in: “Dialectic of the clearing-up”, Frankfurt/Main 1969
  • Roger Behrens: “The dictatorship of the adjustments: Texts for the critical theory of the Popkultur ". Bielefeld: transcript Verl., 2003. 296 S. ISBN 3-89942-115-9
  • Tom getting ore & Mark of Terkessidis (Hrsg.): “Mainstream of the minorities: Pop in the control company ". Edition ID archives 192 S. ISBN 3-89408-059-0
  • Hans Heino Ewers: “Vintages between new media and Pop culture: Child and youth literature in the age multimedia Entertainments ". Weinheim and others, Juventa Verl., 2002. 270 S. ISBN 3-7799-0451-9
  • David J. Jackson: “Entertainment & politics: the influence OF pop culture on young adult political socialization ". New York and others, long, 2002. 167 S. ISBN 0-8204-5746-9
  • Kaspar Maase, boundless pleasure. The ascent of the mass culture 1850 - 1970, Frankfurt/Main: Fischer (Tb.), 1997
  • Reinhold Wagnleitner, ““NO Commodity Is Quite so strand As This Thing Called Cultural Exchange”: The Foreign Politics OF American Pop Culture Hegemony " in: Amerikastudien/American Studies, 46,3 (2001)
  • which is Pop? Hg. from walter Grasskamp, Michaela Krützen, Stefan forge. Frankfurt A.M.: Fischer publishing house 2004

see also:

Pop, subculture, Pop kind, Cultural Studies, critical theory, Unterhaltungsindustrie, youth sociology

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