Popmusik is an abbreviation of „popular music “and designates maintenance music. The term designates on the one hand
- with the broad mass much liked and thus commercially very successful music
- a in-usual, harmoniously and melody eyes style, in demarcationto the skirt music with its raueren, wilder expression forms
Popmusik is characterized by simplicity and well-being sound:
- Harmonies into melodies in-usual as pleasantly
- felt successions, those on the Diatonik are often based
- simple, continuous rhythms
- simple, classical Songaufbau (Strophe/Refrain)
- more gently, more melodischer Singing
Popmusik as Mainstream
for that Mainstream produced Popmusik refers not only to its own original tradition from the Vaudeville, the Volkslied and the art song, but inkorporiert different straight current music styles. It takes usually the complexity to the original music forms, far away for thoseusual hearing habits unusual and irritating, in order to make it for a broad mass more accessible and more consumable. That meets both the collection of people music elements in the folk music to and modified, “gezähmte” loans with original afro American music styles how Jazz, in addition, RAP and Hip Hop.
Since the term “Popmusik” originates from the US-American culture, a majority of the music pieces is English-language. In addition, today now and then German hits are to it-counted and it give German-language Popinterpreten,refer in music to the US-American tradition.
Popmusik as part of the Popkultur
thoseA freedom of movement and well-being complaisance of Popmusik becomes also in the Popkultur as aesthetic means and/or. Style means uses. Here it concerns however only conditionally or not at all to achieve the broad mass by SE but humans with a certain life-style to respond. Already The the Beatles turned purposefully to the recent generation, which before only in the skirt music was usual. Beginning of the 1980er years by musicians of the new Wave critical texts were also transported in-flattering melodies, around a larger public tooreach. On the other hand also a need after beautiful melodies exists in niche cultures. These do not agree purposeful however necessarily with the feeling structure of a mass taste and a one for the light consumption manufactured musical commodity.
history of the Popmusik
The term “popular music” and its prehistory
the term can “popular” be proven in music history already substantially in former times as into the 1950ern and 1960er years 20. Century, as the term “Popmusik” in the context of the development that Popkultur admits became. The German term “Volkslied “, as translation of the English designation “popular song”, originates from 1773 a review appeared from Johann Gottfried Herder over 1765 a collection appeared in England from English and Scottish Balladen.
Popular music in the Middle Ages
already at times of feudaler rule systems had music two major tasks: For the regents and/or. Noble one was with yards played, as fastidious and completes valid music not only maintenance, but also status symbol, there at least in the Middle Agesonly wealthy noble ones and/or. Princes professional musicians and expensive instruments such as violins to afford knew, during with still mostly rather separated over the villages distribute living population the music at all more rarely and only to certain causes such as harvest thank celebrations o.A. by in music small qualified municipality members and only the function was played to fulfill had to be “dancable”. The separation between (musical) the layers was quite permeable, because around the strict label with yard to go around to be able, the aristocracy inventedthe famous mask balls, with which the distinguished society disguised itself as simple people and imitated uninhibited their omitted celebrations including the music.
The fast spreading of music pieces or the development from new music directions became however by several factorsobstructed: humans were isolated by the village settlement structure relatively, exchange took place rather rarely;driving musi edges came rarely and remained not for a long time enough, in order to learn by them new pieces by heart; most humans could not read and writeand thus their own songs do not note, the ability, to note tones in the form of notes were still many rarer. Into Germany still making more difficult that it gave to before few hundred years partially enormous language barriers, there persons, those was addedfrom far on came, some regional dialect to hardly understand could. Thus the spreading was additionally reduced by song texts in the form of text handbills also after the invention of printing.
the spreading of the music actually18 was up to the end. Century limited to copying note sheets, there the note system too complicates to type character - pressure was; (also in the absence of of to notes to read capable writer) only in the mechanical procedure of the note pass particulars could doCopies by note sheets to be manufactured. This changed only, when Alois Senefelder invented the procedure of the stone disk pressure ( the lithography). Thus it succeeded to lay a score on for the first time written on special paper in the year 1796 in Munich as negative and original-faithfullyto print. First only few copies were possible with this procedure, but the invention of the steam engine and the improvement of the technology made already for at the beginning possible 19. Century larger editions of note sheets. As a result of the industrialization of the note sheet pressure important consequences arosefor the development of the popular music: the music of the “simple” people could be reproduced now for the first time favorably in masses, which entailed a standardization of the versions of classical Volkslieder regarding text and clay/tone sequence, similarly the “standardisation” of the GermansFairy tale by the composition of the brothers Grimm; with the classical concert and opera music in addition a trend began, which is not dissimilar to the today's “covern “from Popsongs, then became z. B. whole operas for few or onlyan instrument umarrangiert - with partial strange results such as z. B.Mozart's “magic flute “as pure flute-solo. Thus also a completely new branch of profession developed: the “Arrangeur “, which “blows” quasi from long-known material of classical composers versions tinkered.
The important social circulations 19. Century had naturally also effects on the popular music. The urbanisation z. B. the function of cultural “pots” led, in those humans to an adjustment of the dialects within the large city communities, the cities transferred itselffrom different regions exchanged also in music. The small rural municipalities transformed in the Urbanen into the large occupation class of the industrial workers, who had to work still much, their occasional celebrations now however generally speaking frameworks celebrated (the Octoberfest in Municha well-known example might be). In addition, ever more the middle class attractive at influence and well-being credit found a common place and style of music in salons and Varietés. The increasing speed, with the persons and goods itself through completely Europeto move could, facilitated also the spreading of new styles, in the range of the dance music is here the tome as example aforementioned.
the development of the USA
that the USA in music history into the first half 19.Century practically hardly a role, have essentially two reasons played: First of all social conditions were differently than in Europe, before the establishment of the USA existed only individual colonies of European nations, which did not possess independent cultural identity, but simply thatCultural property and/or. the music of the nut/mother nations imported; secondly only the process of the development of the west had to be completed, so that stable social structure and its own cultural identity could develop.
the afroamerikanische music tradition
particularly importantly for thoseDevelopment of the popular music was however the difference between the races: While the europäischstämmige population remained arrested for her mostly European roots despite an American self-confident unity in cultural regard as far as possible, the Afroamerikaner was kidnapped as slaves from Africa and inthe USA often intentionally separated from humans of their own ethnical group. There the settlement structure in Africa was decentralized and/or. some trunks also nomadisch lived, were not only located the kidnapped ones in the USA before a language barrier (nearly everyone one spokeother language and/or. Dialect), but also before a cultural problem, since there was no “national” song property, which admits all was. Besides the practice of its cultural traditions, so also the music was, forbidden to them. So the slaves those did not only haveLanguage of their “owners” learn (speaking or singing in the homeland language often stood on the cotton plan days under punishment), but also on common contents to inform itself, which were affected mostly also still by Christian mission arene. On the other hand developed by this suppressionand separation by force of the homeland culture under the Afroamerikanern as first Americans such a thing like a common new culture, which was based from taken over elements of the European culture in connection with African traditions. This played 19 in the first half.Century due to their status and their social situation only once no special role.
After the US-American civil war, which at least formally brought the liberty of the occupation choice to the slaves, many of the former slaves of the Plantagen flowed in the south into thoseIndustrial centres in the north, in order to make their money there, a not insignificant part however seized also different “simple” occupations, which did not encounter with the white ones special interest, in addition counted z. B. also the occupation of the salon musician, the mostly differentpopular musical styles controlled. Thus mixed also ever more black one under the before purely white Minstrels. Some former plan day workers created in addition, right after the civil war own small of volume and bought and. A. the superseded instrument existence that quitenumerous military chapels up. From this a progressive dominance of black ones in the Berufsmusikertum developed in the first 20 years after the civil war, while the white musicians “make” primarily ranges as classical orchestras occupied. Of the centers like new Orleans,itself already due to comparatively larger liberties for Afroamerikaner in 19. Century to a musical center had developed, and out the black musicians so an important influence on the development of the popular music in the USA won Chicago. To recognizeis this z. B. at the increasing imitations of “black” compositions by white composers in the second half 19. Century. Finally developed toward end 19. Century the first music style coined/shaped by black ones, that quasi to the national “trend”became: the rising up time. The developing jazz - music is considered as the first independent US-American form of the popular music.
rising up time
of the rising up time (too German about “Fetzentakt”) developed into the 1890er year out, which European culture tradition took, on the ownKind interpreted, dances of the Afroamerikaner like the Cakewalk, which was Jig or the Strut and originally rather as dance music conceived, many early Ragtimes carry also the clock designation “march time”, are thus also related to the march originating from Europe- not least therefore first Ragtimes of white composers already developed around 1885. As the most important composer of the rising up time is considered Scott Joplin, whose first pieces appeared 1895. It generally succeeded to it, from a music of the brothels and taverns onerecognized to make concertable style not least by its with the genius abilities at the piano , the instrument of the rising up time and at all this time, compared by Mozart, Chopin and Brahms. A special milestone in music history succeeded to it 1899,as it its “Maple Leaf rise up “published, its “sheet OF music” (English. for “note sheet” - one called the popular music of this time therefore also “sheet music”) within shortest time millions times sold itself - up to thensuccess of a short piece of maintenance music never seen. Went to the rising up time finally off approx. 1916 in the Blues and/or. Jazz up.
the beginning of the Schallplattenaufnahmen and the development of the music industry
media and music publishing houses
in first the twoDecades 20. Century had so far developed the technology for the recording and reproduction of clay/tone photographs that it was fully commercially usable; apart from the clay/tone quality lacking the 1877 developed Phonograph was up to then still so expensive that itself onlyrich Americans such an equipment to carry out could. 1902 became the Caruso - airs to first world-wide records - “hit”.
The business with the music and/or. the note sheets by the so-called “Tin Pan Alley “was out steered in New York, wheremost large music publishing houses of this time resided. Their ascent began with the increasing demand for song sheets (note sheets) and/or. song books (song books) starting from the 1890ern, particularly by the popular “Rags”, the hits of the rising up time time, however in music onlyfew with the instrumentalen rising up time to do had.
The Tin Pan Alley contributed crucially to the intensified commercialization of the popular music in the USA: Here only that was brought out, which meet the mass taste of a possible large market with large securitybecame. If composers wanted to publish rather classical pieces, they were here usually rejected and had to take or in the self-publishing house publish the detour over Europe. Apart from the factors of the increasing spreading of Phonographen and the increasing popularity of the Broadway of musical into that1920ern was the introduction of the Tonfilms in the second half of the decade a particularly important turning point, since now the film and the music industry began to merge (z. B. became active the music publishing house Warner Brothers as Filmstudio).
As the “success producers” thatTin Pan Alley apply despite prominent competition such as Irving Berlin and George Gershwin the producers and composer smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Rodgers and OSCAR hammer stone, those not only with the commercial success of its musical “Oklahoma!“, houses sold off this very daybrings and as LP for the first time the million-paragraph mark jumped over (as well as score in few years world-wide two million time one sold), a milestone set, but also as first artists even with the inflation-adjusted comparison with today's fees only asannually achieved exorbitantly which can be designated income from 15 to 20 million dollar.
Blues and Country
off approx. 1920 left themselves also for the simple population affordable at that time records and those acceptable in the clay/tone quality for the timeappropriate playing devices manufacture. These records were sold in drugstores and general stores for some cent, the playing devices gave it with the furniture dealer. For the Landbevölkerung not attached to electricity mains crank record players, which became popular in this time, were particularly interesting.
Around thatto open, also photographs of minority music were taken to new market like soon in such a way designated Race music of the Afroamerikaner and the Hillbilly of the white, southnational Landbevölkerung. In February 1920 the first Blues appeared taken up - record, by Mamie Smith. Itit sold so well that the music industry suddenly got a large interest in the black Blues singers, who so far only in the so-called Vaudeville - theatres to hear were (one calls the Blues of the “Roaring Twenties” therefore also Vaudeville Blues). Like near also thatBlues still at the roots from the time of the slavery was, shows likewise the” Country Blues “very popular beside the “classical” Blues in this time, that text and in music clearly” work songs “and/or. “field hollers “the plan day worker resembled. Around the need of Blues records to cover special labels were created by the disk companies, which took at the beginning excluding black singers under contract - the most well-known might be Bessie Smith, with the male interpretersJohn Lee Hooker has probably the largest call.
Also (designated in such a way only later) the Country music, which had developed from different people-musical styles of the European immigrants, particularly the Irish and English, became off approx. 1923 as sales market discover. ThoseBusinessmen Polk Brookmann and particularly successfully Ralph Peer discovered the commercial potential of the music of the remote mountain regions of the Appalachen. Due to its popularity the music was partially also promoted, around the country-wide enthusiasm also many white for rising up time stopto order. While the large depression into the 1930er years became the Country, which was popular also with the black ones of the Southern States, when combining US-American music from national side popularizes.
Swing and skirt' n' roll
of the Swing, which had its bloom time (the so-called “Swing Craze”) approximately between 1935 and 1945, was the first style of the popular music, which the entire American society without differences between black and knows or reached poor and richly. This did not lielast at the character of this style aligned to dance barness instead of on “statement”. In the certain sense this music in addition a confession of the Americans are to size and expenditure, manifested by bend volume, out doubly or three times so manyMusicians exist as usual jazz formations. With bend volume with 14 or more members was practically impossible the jazz-typical collective improvisation, to its place stepped Soli of individual musicians, usually from well-known “star soloists”. The Swing contains well audibly elements the jazz, in addition,of “white” music styles, whereby the portion of the black music of the Swing is often underestimated, since many to the well-known bend volume also due to racistic restrictions were strongly white occupied. The most well-known black picking up vein might Duke Ellington be, more well-known names finditself with the white ones like e.g.Benny Goodman, Jimmy and Tommy Dorsey, Les Brown and naturally Glenn Miller. Not least under the Second World War the Swing remained an almost exclusively US-American phenomenon, that only in Great Britainstill as “import” certain spreading found.
The skirt' n' roll as music style is a synthesis from different, independently developed (regional) styles, the most important is the Rhythm and Blues and the Country Unterstile Western Swing and the Honky Tonk. ThatR&B is in principle a Blues style, which in addition, elements from special jazz and Swing styles contains and was coined/shaped by “Vocal Groups” with of only slight instrument valleys company (usually only guitar). The most important regional forms were the R&B from Chicago,the z. B.Chuck Berry affected, and the new Orleans variant, whose most well-known representative became Fats domino.
The Western Swing is a kind of play of the Country coined/shaped by the white Landbevölkerung of the US Southern States - music with elements of the Swing, which end of the 1930er well-knownbecame, special lift however only by the ASCAP - controversy 1944 got. It affected well-known interpreters such as Bing Crosby or Bill Haley.
Not least by the star cult around the “King “, ungekannten up to then in its extent, that becameSkirt' n' roll to the world-wide trend, also meanwhile of the Second World War the something recovered Europe and/or. Germany seized, where one longed oneself again for maintenance and (“innocent” ) Idolen. In addition it coined/shaped the youth cult in the Popmusik crucially also,since with the skirt' n' roll the interpreters were selected by the disk companies for the first time mainly according to the criterion of the age proximity to the target audience and often only amateur musician were. The emergence skirt' n' roll stands in close relationship with the substantial socialPagings of this time and together also the development beginning of the Popkultur marks with the Beats.
Among the skirt' n' roll ranked as short-lived trend the “Twist “at the beginning of the 1960er, and finally followed under the term splitting off “Skirt of “summarized music styles. Skirt' n' roll and following styles back-pushed since then preceding styles such as entertainers and hits in the popularity strongly and to determine the Popmusik hit parades. Since the commercialization skirt' n' roll (and thus also thatWeakening of its against-constant potential) into the late 1950er years trends of the Popmusik in Europe, in addition, the remaining world were not only coined/shaped for aesthetic, but also economic reasons from the USA.
the functions of the modernPopmusik and the future
in the last 50 years developed innumerable new styles and Unterstile of the Popmusik. The function of the styles exists particularly in the aspect of maintenance. Nevertheless it succeeded in addition, to musicians such as Bob Dylan a popular synthesisto create from music and political contents and/or. to be spread as for example John Lennon in its Song “Imagine” a philosophical idea.
examples of the commercialization of new trends
Popmusik was and also always is an expression means of one And serves itself generation or an environment for the switching of a joint life feeling and a common aesthetics, the z. B. in the form of the music and in the clothes expresses.
As example of an environment style here the RAP is mentioned,that only the music of the black young people in the US-American large city Ghettos was original and its roots up to the Rhythm & Blues go back. Only in the last 20 years the RAP of the medium companies always searching for new trends becameto the global popular music style “hochpromotet”, whereby this development remained not only limited to the music, because also the clothe style of the Hip Hop - movement became into the 1990ern the general mode trend and is today a nearly already firm component of our mode consciousness. As examplesfor generations seizing styles are here the flow he power - movement and the these CO music of the 1970er mentioned. However the music producers do not only support meanwhile mass movements, but also global, but contrary to the music of a Britney Spears or Madonna spread only ofa smaller target group in cultural niches music styles such as z, inquired. B. the Gothic skirt. This results to promising trend from the enormously hard competition under the producer, who almost forces these to it, everyone paragraph to use somehow or even new,to create “unspent” trends.
In contrast to it the individual cut is not at all in demand with another function, which covers the popular music since ever ago, but main the rhythm and the benefit satisfaction of the broad mass, Mainstream. A goal is here no differentiated aesthetic requirement, but the suggestion and company for dancing. The most well-known successors of the Swing as dance music would be allowed to do beside the Twist of the early 1960er above all the these CO music, since center of the 1970er to a large extent their Underground - a character had lost, and parts today popular Techno.
Beginning of the 1980er years experiences the German-language Popmusik in the course of the new Germans wave a large upswing in Germany. In Austria the Austropop , the large popularity existed itselfpleased.
in addition film and popular
music in connection with the these CO music the aspect of the interrelation between film and music becomes again interesting, there in the skirt' n' roll era the music films rather the consequence alreadypopular style were, while the these CO music began its world-wide triumphant advance due to the film “Saturday Night Fever “1978. Not least by this film and its successor was strengthened the trend to supply to the music also pictures (music and pertinentThere were pictures already since the Nickelodeons). The most important date in this connection is the 1. August 1981, when in the USA the first section television channel went only for music videos on transmission: MTV. Immediately a Popmusiker hardly becameto the star, to whose Songs there was not a video. Accordingly the largest Popstar and the largest video artist of the 1980er cause themselves mutually in each case - Michael Jackson. The videos are not by any means necessary components of the Popmusik - them comealso without it out separates rather such a thing like advertising spots, which are to make attentive with as intensive, unusual or spectacular a pictures on the artist and its product as possible.
even if one the impression win could,the Popmusik stagnates slowly however reliably in its development, then nevertheless in connection with important changes for the future initiate themselves progress of communication and computer technology. As the development of the electronic reinforcement and/or. Rework, the Synthesizers,the digital admission etc. the sound of the music changed, then surely also the new spreading possibilities will crucially change by Internet the present form of music production. For nearly hundred years Singles now already admitted and/or. late albums could soonHistory its, since nobody spends more moneys on a data medium, on which only the music of individual interpreters is stored and of only individual pieces interests, if one this piece simply free of charge over music exchange stock exchanges such as Peer ton Peer - networks or approximatelyPayment with commercial offerers from the Internet to download can.
Popmusik and their erotische component
the topics love, physicalness and Sexualität always already had a great importance in the Popmusik. The treatment of these topics is in the runthe time on the part of the musicians however extremely differently run. Stood for example at the beginning skirt “n” roll of the still feeling-stressed melancholische Balladen in the foreground, which treated the topic love expressed superficially and by the “rose-pink eyeglasses regarded”,the treatment of this topic changed nevertheless radically in the run the time.
have political contents into the Popmusik a long tradition. Apart from the topics love, Sex and partnership were always also social and political motivesrepresent already, although with different intensity, different artistic content as well as for most different reasons in the popular music. Generally however the efficiency of politically motivated music is gladly underestimated on the part of the media and the science.
Actually however the political Popmusik countsto one of the most important ranges in the context of the maintenance music, from which a clear aesthetic effect proceeds. One may confound not the term of the political aesthetics with the aesthetic effect politically not oriented Popmusik, although within both ranges often with something similarMeans one operates. Both in the political aesthetics as well as within the range of the aesthetics politically oriented Popmusik with the means of the advertisement technology and the Suggestion one works. Both aesthetic forms are considered on mass effect, with the goal an emotional identificationthe addressed masses with contents of the politicians and/or. To construct musician. Certainly the goals differ enormously. To arouse while the politicians trachten with the means of the aesthetics on the one hand the reverence of the citizens and/or. to strengthen and on the other hand a readinessfor the support of a party or a person to cause want, stands with the politically motivated Popmusik frequently the self-manifestation of the artists in the foreground.
The musicians announce a message, their contents are however mostly secondarily, crucially are from it the outgoingMyth. The Popmusik follows thereby accurately the structures of the myths of the everyday life, by always falling back to already existing, well-known. It is authentic thereby never, but plagiatorisch. The Popmusik always made therefore loans with other music styles.
“The Popmusik usesthe aura of authentic music forms, in order to code with them completely different statement. The same applies to the texts. They are latently poetic, but rarely authentically poetic, them are latently ideological, but rarely openly ideological, them are latently political, butnever really politically, they latently society-critically, however never are the thing going on the reason. “(after R.Flender/H.Rauhe - POPMUSIK Darmstadt 1989 S.85)
details this circumstance however are violently criticized by music scientists and journalists. The conditions for those become obviousEmergence of Popmusik forget. The musicians to wake, this can however only succeed to trachten with its music as large an interest of public as possible, as the public is not placed before completed facts. The music is to energize the Fantasie of the recipients, statements alsoa uneingeschräktem truth character soon would bore the public.
This procedure way does not mean that political contents must remain thereby on the distance, but only that the musicians trachten to grant to the public a clearance for the interpretation of the outgoing messages. The representatives of the Popmusikcan act very probably system-critically, they would act however system-destroying, then they would extract themselves their own (acquisition) basis.
The borders of the Popmusik within this range are thus clearly marked out; even if the musicians itself still so irreverently in relation to the establishmentheld back, then they know nevertheless that they are part of the same. Although this circumstance seems to restrict the artistic liberty, political Popgruppen acts very successfully in the international music scene.
Ideally the education of the public succeeds to the representatives of the Popmusik tooto have to present political consciousness without at the same time solutions of in music treated political topics. If the musicians would actually always present solutions, they would be already soon no more musicians to regain but rather within the field (a party) of the policy.
Bono, singer the Irish cult volume U2, transacted an utterance, which points like no different one the welfareless excessive demand out of the musicians at the exaggerated expectation attitude of the public like the media, in this connection: “It is condemned dangerous nonstop as language pipe of a generation to be put ifone nothing else to say has as a “assistance!” But we do not say more with our music. Does not ask us nonstop for answers, we can it to you give. Everything which we do can to place is the correct question! “(outthe biography - BONO von Dave Thompson do not restcorrode 1990 S.67)
the question is therefore the popular music is as political, but whether it is political, and whether it represents at all a suitable medium for the spreading of political contents. The latter can probablyclearly to be affirmed, nevertheless the strength of the Popsongs straight lies in their “Kommunikabilität”. “Songs CAN communicate even tons those who can't READ and write and, RK their best, CAN inspire, CONSOLE, dodge round censors and frontiers, summarize A political mood,or as that most political star OF the salsa world, CARROTS BLADES, PUT it, “tell people they acres emergency alone”.” (from Robin Denselow - WHEN THE MUSIC'S OVER London 1990 S.XVI)
the musicians recognized all right soon that her therebyto a privelegierten Bevölkerungschicht belonged; with their work they could achieve relatively simply a large number of humans, it were them due to their popularity therefore possible a large influence on political like social decisions to be exercised.
It is not surprising thatthe musicians in the beginnings of the Popmusik mainly with problems of their closer social surrounding field were occupied. Since the Popmusik was made frequent by young artists, the development of the political Popmusik accompanied also with the development of the political youth movements.
TheirOrigin had the political Popmusik therefore also in the 60's with the arising of the flow he power movement. But already before singers were relevant such as Woody Guthrie or Pete Seeger by their critical analysis of the modern company form at the emergence of the PoliticalPop takes part. Their most well-known Protagonist however was Bob Dylan, the Erneuerer of the Protestsongs.
With successes of singers such as Woody Guthrie, Bob Dylan and evenly Pete Seeger, itself apart from the topic the war also with questions thatHuman rights, the environmental policy, which nuclear energy and the racial segregation argued, were established political requests in the Popmusik appreciably. At this development it is interesting that the politically oriented musicians and volume and/or. their messages until today generally “link” political camps addedbecome.
Actually the political requests of the pioneers of the Polit Pop, as for instance the fight of unemployment and abolition Klassenschranken to today their meaning did not lose. Straight ones in Great Britain encounter these topics at the public still large approval. Volumelike simple Minds or U2, in addition, musician such as Sting and Peter Gabriel not least for this reason large approval at the public met with.
Despite the increasing number politically interested musician, became the efficiency, that the political Popmusik withPublic to reach could consistently underestimated. In politician circles one did not want to grant material-political effects to the engaged work of the musicians still into the 80's. There were already at that time indeed enough examples of political changes, which were caused by Popmusiker.
1982 about, put Stevie Wonder on the occasion of a political demonstration forwards over 50.000 humans in Washington, with its speech the foundation-stone for the mechanism of the so-called Martin Luther King holiday in America, when he meant: "... incoming goods need A day ton celebrate our workon on unfinished symphony, A day for A dress rehearsal for our solidarity. “Although this holiday, which was not first in the USA at all, which was dedicated to a black one, its idea, was it the popularity Stevie Wonders, the politicianas Reverend Jesse Jackson and John Conyers had to owe the penetration of this request.
The straight black US musicians gave a new meaning to the term of the political Pop. “The tradition had grown UP into the days OF slavery, when the bluesand gospel provided one uncontrollable outlet for black expression. NO one could stop the music into the fields or into the churches, and black America's preachers haven't forgotten what A power-fill medium A song CAN; .... “Songs”, said ReverendCecil Franklin, 'have the advantage OF being packaged and wrepped in universal appeal. Songs of acres emergency limited by natural or human boundaries. '“(from Robin Denselow - WHEN THE MUSIC'S OVER London 1990 S.XVI) this old tradition of political contents in thatMusic of black Americans finds today in the style direction RAP his continuation. RWS music represents today certainly the most important form of political articulation of the black population in the USA.
Another example, what tremendous effects the work of Popmusikern on political levelto have, is undoubted the life's work of Bob Marley can. Not only that it created itself with the person Bob Marley for the first time a musician from a country of the third world in the league the western superstar to establish,many its Songs became also the symbol of a promising political vision.
In Great Britain Bob Marley with its Reggae music inspired the skirt Against Racism (RSR) - movement, which acts until today as forum for political requests of music-interested young people very successfully. The style direction of the Reggae musicat all, not least due to its most well-known representative Bob Marley met with, in England large approval. Volume as for instance PRACTICE 40 or The policy concerned themselves in many its Songs with this style direction. Although also the Reggae in the “white” Popmusikever more from the style direction to the style means became, exists by the spreading of this music style by white musicians nevertheless hope that the original political character of this music does not come too fast into oblivion.
at the latest to 13. July 1985the whole world however impressively before eyes it was then led to which Popmusik was real in the conditions. It was the day of the up to then largest Popfestivals of history at all.Live Aid was meant as simple Benefizkonzert, but it became onethe beeindruckensten events of the Popgeschichte. The musician Bob Geldof (singer the volumes The Boomtown of advice) wanted to organize a small Benefizkonzert, after he had seen a television film over the hungernde population of Ethiopia, but from the small Event a gigantic becameDouble concert, which was held at the same time in London and Philadelphia.
After Bob Geldof could win the singer the volumes Ultravox, Midge Ure, for the idea, stated ever more music star its interest in this event. In the long run almost were all relevantPopmusiker of this time with live Aid represent. In favor of the assistance for humans all involved ones did without a fee.
To in the middle of 1987 the event had brought in about 60 million English Pound. For the first time could with numbers and facts occupiedbecome, which Popmusik exerts tremendous influence on its public.
1988 came it however with the holding until today largest live-event of all times, the “A of tributes tons of Nelson Mandela” - concert, to one of the most important political Manifestationen in the history of the Popmusik.“The Nelson Mandela Seventieth Birthday of tributes which like A more political version OF live Aid, with the aim OF raising awareness than just money.” Songs like “Mandela Day” of the simple Minds, “Brothers in arm” of the Dire Straits, Tracy Chapmans “Talking About revolution” or Peter Gabriels “Biko” became the symbol of the new political understanding among the juvenile listeners.
September '77 Haven Elizabeth, more weather fine It which business as usualin policeroom 619
Oh Biko, Biko, because BikoOh Biko, Biko, because Biko YiWa Moja, YiWa Moja - the one is DEAD
When I trie ton sleep RK night I CAN only dream in talks The outside world is black and white with only one colour DEAD -Ref.
You CAN blow out A candle but you can't blow out A fire once the Fleming begins tons catch the wind wants blow it more higher - Ref.
and the eyes OF the world acres watching now watching now
(“Biko”by Peter Gabriel; © Peter Gabriel Ltd. 1980)
To successes of live Aid and A of tributes tons of Nelson Mandela it came in the consequence to an almost inflationary number of similar events, so that itself soon a large number well-known of staragainst a straining of this idea it made strong over to avoid that the political message of such meetings could come in favor of individual interests of graduation of some rising talents into the background.
Not least also the industry had discovered the advertising effectiveness of these large meetings, what endthe 80's many well-known music sizes before it far heedlessly in everyone this Benefizkonzerte deterred to participate. As indication of political resistance the Popkonzert kept however its serious meaning, in case of the “A of tributes tons of Nelson Mandela” - concert was it perhaps even still more,because twenty months after the concert Nelson Mandela became from the detention to dismiss and the concert had on this decision without a doubt a not insignificant influence. This concert signaled unmistakably the abhorrence of the entire (Pop) world before that to the government of South AfricaInhumanity of the Aphartheid politics.
Usually the politically motivated Popmusik pursues thus hehre goals, goals those the conceptions more highly more morally, how become fair ethical requirements. It must be held however here that it very probably different currentsin the Popmusik gives. One may not conceal in this connection the existence of Popmusik oriented towards the right, to a music, which is summarized in the media meanwhile under the term Nazi skirt. This phenomenon, that particularly in Germany for negative headlines in thatPress ensures, puts the responsible persons representatives of the music industry to the test. That in times of economic recession with all their negative sociopolitical effects, as for instance unemployment or stranger hate, also current music currents are affected are comprehensibly that however volume as for instance those[[|Böhse Onkelz|Böhsen Onkelz]], which in many their Songs clear Nazi slogans of itself gives, disk companies find, which also publish this music, are correct extremely thoughtfully. This circumstance puts the assumption close that itself the industry also over the barriers more generallymoral Wertvortstellungen jumps over, if although a small market with potential customers is located.
After more exact view one will however state that this conclusion would be probably hasty, particularly since the extent adheres to prospective customers of this music very within limits. Importantlythe mention of the existence of this musical edge feature is however always, this already alone for the reason, since also the music oriented towards the right of the kommunikativen advantages of the Popmusik avails itself. Also the Nazi skirt plays naturally virtuos on all communication levels of the Popmusik andworks besides with the means of the Populismus. The representatives of this music try to diminish thereby not accumulated aggressions to stir up but rather aggressions. The request of the juvenile public for identification figures can become in this connection an additional danger.
Givesthe modest success of this music no cause for rushed into panic reactions on the part of the culture politicians, on the other hand one it does not apply to underestimate also the danger potential of this musical edge feature. The solution of this problem lies therefore probably also not in the equipment of the censorship, but ratherin the sense of responsibility of all involved ones. In this connection above all farsightedness will be in demand the listener shank of age, because only the consistent boycott can prevent a further spreading of this musical modification of the Popmusik. In addition it requires naturally also a prudent policy,it prevents the representatives of the music oriented towards the right still more juvenile trailers into the hands to play. To be taken in this case the politicians are the necessary precautions demanded the indications of the time in time to be recognized and. Becomes this musicindeed the contentwise basis extracted, disappears it as fast into the Bedeutungslosigkeit as it emerged.
Atomic power plant politics, environmental degradation as well as the rising drug problem are the newer topics of the political Pops. Topics, as for instance the drug problem, employ the musicians today probably outtwo different reasons particularly. On the one hand because straight their industry is particularly confronted with it, on the other hand because its juvenile listener shank from circles concerned recruits itself. The lyric component of the music, this can be only useful, as can be shown on the basis two text excerpts:
… Yougot if ton cry without weeping, talc without speakin', scream without raisin' your voice, you know I took the poison from the poison stream, I then floaded out OF here
(from “Running ton stood quietly”, for U2 1988)
… I've been feeling in such a waycrimp inside, Got ton of GET better lord before I those. Some doctors couldn't help my head, they said, you'd more better quit soon, before you're acres DEAD. - With the needle and the spoon and A trip ton the moon, took MEaway. -
3rd of verses:
I've lakes A plumb bob OF people who thought they were cool But then again, lord, I've lakes A plumb bob OF fools. I hope you people CAN hear what I say You'll have your chance into this someday. - Don't measuring with A needle, or A spoon, or A trip ton the moon Or they'll take you away. -
(“The needle and the spoon”, of A. Collins and. R. van Zant Lynyrd Skynyrd 1974)
in the course of the development of thepolitical Pop came it in addition, again and again to misunderstandings and collection of the musicians on the part of some political representatives. A good example of it is only all too often brought U2 with the Irish republican army (Irish Republican Army) in connection the Irish volume,became. This not too lastly due to the fact that representatives of the Irish Republican Army referred to always the mental proximity of some U2-Texte to the ideas of the organization of terror. Concrete cause for such speculations was the Song “Sunday Bloody Sunday”, its textthe Irish Republican Army members as call to the resistance against the English Besatzer in Northern Ireland misunderstood.
The members that volume denied this, when the rumors did not want to grow silent however, kept Bono several times public during a concert in the USA, quasi as introductionto the Song firmly: “People come UP tons of ME and talc about the resistence, the revolution, the glory OF the revolution and the glory OF dying for the revolution bakes home. Nobody of talc about the glory OF killing for therevolution. Where is the glory parade and leave them dying and state in bombing members OF A krippled for would run, where is the glory in that? “With it those made clear to volume finally that her not for the armed resistance, butrather against each violent conflict resolution were.
Also Bruce Springsteen did not remain spared by such a collection. Its hit, “fount in The the USA”, which should actually take a critical position concerning the role of Americas in the Viet Nam conflict, became simple from the peopleto an American hymn high-stylizes.Springsteen felt completely misunderstood, when its Song was made the musical symbol of the Reagan era, particularly since he nevertheless the text as clearly judged. After the general reasons for the political commitment of Popmusikern asked, meant Jim Kerr singer the Scottish volume simple Minds: “We musicians have a quantity clearance for the articulation of our thoughts, it by our popularity would be a dishonor such an opportunity not to be used.” (Source: Robin Denselow - WHEN THE MUSIC'SOVER London 1990 S.277)
of terms from the Popmusik
from the following music category gives it songs,those the Popmusik to add are:
- applied music: March music, dance music
- maintenance music: Bar music blowing music, Beat, Blues, Country music, electronic music, Folk, Soul, jazz, Drum'n'Bass, Hip Hop (music), „popular classical period”, Reggae, skirt, salon music
- maintaining concert hall: Operette, musical
- category combinations: Revue, Vaudeville, Varieté, Kabarett
- independent song forms become: Couplet, chanson, hit
- popular songs of the 19. Century: Gassenhauer, Bänkellieder, Moritaten
- political songs: Protestsongs, Political song
- film music
music, which avails itself from purely commercial criteria from of category the popular music eklektisch (above all blowing music, popular classical period and musical) and this with popular one hits enriches, one calls folk music.
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