of these articles is occupied itself with the country Portugal. For the composer of the same name see Marcos António Portugal.
República Portuguesa
Portuguese Republic of
Die Flagge Portugals Wappen Portugals
(detail) (detail)
office language Portuguese
capital Lisbon
system of government parliamentary democracy
president Aníbal Cavaco Silva
Prime Minister José Sócrates
surface 92,345 km ²
number of inhabitants 10.524.145 (July 2004)
population density of 112 inhabitants/km ²
currency euro (€)
time belt UTC
national anthem A Portuguesa
Kfz characteristic P
internet TLD .pt
preselection +351
Lage von Portugal in Europa
Karte von Portugal

Portugal (amtl. República Portuguesa), is a European state in the southwestthe iberischen peninsula. In the west and the south it is limited by the Atlantic ocean, in the east and the north by Spain. To the Portuguese national territory the islands of the Azores and larva Irish Republican Army belong (with postage Santo). West is appropriate for the capital Lisbon Cabo there Roca, the westernmost point of the European mainland.

The name Portugal comes of the name to the settlement Cale in the delta of the river Rio Douro. Cale could be a Greek word (Kalles = beautifully) and itself upthe beauty of nature in the north today's Portugal refer, which the Greeks in the antique one colonized. Other historians mean that Cale of phönizischen origin is, since the Phönizier already settled Portugal before the Greeks. As today's Portugal to the Roman one Imperium belonged, became Cale an important port, on Latin Portus Cale. In the Middle Ages Portus Cale became Portucale, late Portugale, whereby this word in 7. and 8. Century only the northern parts of the country designated, thus thoseRegion between the rivers Rio Douro and Rio Minho. On the other hand the name Portus Cale shortened to postage, the secondarymost important city, which therefore full pride calls itself as a name giver of the country.

Table of contents

a relatively cool and


Klimadiagramm Porto
climate has
Klimadiagramm Lissabon
media of 8,8
Klimadiagramm Faro
holidays 9

further topics 10 literature 11 Web on the left of [work on] Geografie and consists of two traditional provinces or landscapes: The Minhoin the northwest belongs to the most closely settled areas of the country. The largest cities of the Minho are Braga and Viana DO Castelo. The Minho is called because of its climate and the comparatively sumptuous vegetation the green garden of Portugal.On the slopes of the numerous river valleys above all wine is cultivated, which are processed to the famous haven wine and the Vinho Verde. Besides prosper many to vegetable places. The natural vegetation is a mixture from the Flora the moderate climate zone and the subtropicalFlora, depending upon altitude gives it to oaks or Kastanien and/or. Pinien and Olivenbäume.

In the northeast Trás OS Montes lies (behind the mountains). This is those the sea turned away page of north Portugal, those is very gebirgig and therefore very cold wintersand very hot summers has. The vegetation is importantly less sumptuously than in the Minho and it precipitates the more meagerly, the more one the border to Spain approaches. Both provinces it is common that their mountain massifs, like z. B.Marão or Peneda Gerês by numerous rivers, like the Rio Minho (border river to Spain) or the Rio Douro, to be cut through. In the north of Portugal the national park Peneda Gerês, the most important protected area of the country lies. There still residues of nature-left forests exist, in thosein particular the evergreen stone oak is. Important cities of the north are postage, Vila new facts de Gaia, Matosinhos, Braga, Vila material and Bragança.

Central Portugal is to a large extent hilly to gebirgig and has with the Serra there Estrelaimportant mountains with skiing area. The most important landscapes are the Beira, the Ribatejo (the Tejo level with surname garden of Lisbon), the Estremadura as well as the delta of the Tejo into the Atlantic. The entire region is very fruitful and has infor the cultivation of wine optimal climate, so that the tradition of the viticulture goes back here to the Romans. Besides grain, rice, sunflowers and vegetables are cultivated. The region becomes split by the Tejo. Inundations, which afflicted in former times the Ribatejo regularly, comesince the building of numerous dams no longer forwards. The most important cities of central Portugal are Lisbon, Aveiro, Sintra, Coimbra, Viseu, Leiria, Castelo Branco as well as Santarém.

Typische Landschaft des Alentejo bei Monsaraz
Typical landscape of the Alentejo with Monsaraz

the south of Portugal setsitself from the three landscapes Terras DO Sado, Alentejo and Algarve together. The surface of the entire region is even to hilly and has a dry and hot climate. The Alentejo, which is earlier grain chamber of Portugal, today only thinly settledand characterized by drift, extensive Getreidefelder by Olivenhainen and cork oaks dominate the landscape. To the grain cultivation of wine and increasingly also sunflowers come as Hauptprodukte. The meadows are scattered in spring with flowers, which serve as pastures for sheep. Tolast also ever longer becoming dry periods do not contribute economic fall, which one tries to meet with the building from dams to. Not native to find but ever more frequently planting of Eukalyptus, however because of the high fire risk, are ofthese trees goes out, are not undisputed. The southern coastal regions are in addition frequently from Kiefernwäldern bewachsen. Besides are numerous kinds of palm, from which however only the dwarf palm is native.

The Algarve marks the entire south coast of the country and is alsotheir pretty cities, which Steilküsten and sand beaches become a popular holidays domicile, which brought the usual negative accompaniments of the mass tourism with itself. The largest cities of south Portugal are Portalegre, Évora, Beja as well as Faro and Lagos. The most importantRiver is the Rio Guadiana, which marks the border twice on longer distances also to Spain. Numerous sukkulente plants are adapted to the large summer heat.

To Portugal further the two Inselgruppen larva Irish Republican Army ( wood island) belong and The Azores (Habichtsinsel) in the Atlantic; they are volcanic origin. The Inselgruppe larva Irish Republican Army has a partly tropical, partly subtropical vegetation due to its situation before the African coast. The highest mountain of Portugal is on the Azores (Monte pico, 2.351m).

The most important river of Portugal is the Tejo, which in Spain under the name Tajo rises and flows with Lisbon into the Atlantic ocean.

See also: List of the cities in Portugal

the animal world of Portugal differs only insignificantly fromthat of Spain. Isolated here still wolves live; only the Pardelluchs spread on the iberischen peninsula became extinct against it in Portugal almost, single animals was found only rarely, which probably immigrated over the border with Spain. Otherwise are Game cats, foxes, wild pigs, deer, wild goats as well as game rabbits. Since Portugal is on the migratory bird route to Africa, numerous birds let themselves be observed, among them in particular in the south also flamingos; Stone eagles live and hunt in the coastal regions.In the interior also different queues and scorpios occur .

Sculpture of the discovery (navigator) in Lisbon, Portugal


see also: Portuguese

Portugal is, anyhow related to the old-established population, in linguistic, ethnical and religious regarda very homogeneous country. The Portuguese language is spoken generally speaking country, and only in the villages of Miranda DO Douro is spoken Asturi assigned dialect (Mirandes), which is recognized as minority language. The large majority thatPortuguese professes itself to the Roman-catholic faith.

Ausländer in Portugal mit ihren Herkunftsländern. Alle portugiesischsprachigen Länder sind in grünen Farbtönen gehalten. Datenquelle:  INE
Foreigner in Portugal with their countries of origin. All portugiesischsprachigen countries are held in green colours.
Data source: INE

for long time was Portugal an emigration country; there are important centers of the Portuguese culture particularly in France, where alone 600,000 Portuguese live, in addition, in many other states. On the other hand Portugal was already during the wars of independence of its colonies Zielland for immigrants from the colonized regions. Since the entry of Portugal to the European union and thereby the connectedpolitical and economic change Portugal became strengthened an immigration country, whereby the countries of origin of the immigrants lie particularly in Africa (Angola , cape Verde), South America (Brazil) as well as Eastern Europe (Russia , Ukraine , Moldavia).

About 250,000 foreign citizens in Portugal lived end of 2003. These originate to more than half from other portugiesischsprachigen countries, are usually catholic faith and have also a similar cultural background. About a quarter of the foreigners, who live in Portugal,are Europeans - partly they are continuous holiday-makers, who spend their pension in Portugal. A weighty portion are also Rückkehrer, thus Portuguese, who had emigrated from Portugal and with strange nationality returned. Thus Portugal knows the phenomenon, immigrant with completeto have to integrate different language and culture, as for example Germany, not. On ten Portuguese statistically seen a citizen of non-Portuguese origin (many of it meanwhile with Portuguese passport) comes.

The foreign population lives to more than half in Lisbon, on itforeseen it concentrates on the cities at the coast. In the hinterland the portion lies with under 0,5%.

Closest settling exhibits a coastal strip of the Spanish border in the north into the area around Lisbon. During inthis strip 70% of the population, are very thinly populated the hinterland and the south of Portugal live. More than 10% of the population are allotted to two cities (Lisbon and postage), during more than half in places under2,000 inhabitants lives. The trend goes into Portugal toward urbanization.

Within Portugal there are strong migration movements, whereby the migration movements from the regions of the hinterland toward the centers of industry (Lisbon, postage) and tourism (Algarve, larva Irish Republican Army and the Azores) go.


about 97% of the Portuguese are Roman-catholic faith, whereby in Portugal faith liberty prevails. The place of pilgrimage Fátima lies in Portugal and is dedicated to the nut/mother Jesu , Maria. Mariaby the Portuguese it is very much admired, nearly like a goddess which for some a reference to the fact is that the ancestors of the Portuguese anbeteten before the Christianisierung with priority female divinities.


major item: History of Portugal

early historyto antique ones

the Roman province Lusitania in the southwest of the iberischen peninsula

the pre and early history of the country corresponds to a large extent to the development in the other regions of the iberischen peninsula. Starting from 2000 v. Chr. probably immigrates the Iberer from North Africa.Starting from 1200 v. Chr. become from the Phöniziern and starting from 700 v. Chr. by the Greeks Kolonien based. Starting from 600 v. Chr. immigrate Celts , which mix themselves with the Iberern (so-called. Keltiberer). To these also the trunk belongsthe Lusitaner, (Viriato) in latin named-giving for the country will is.

Starting from 450 v. Chr. the area is conquered from Karthago and surrendered in the result of the second Puni war to Rome. From the Romans it becomesunder the name Lusitania (Portugal) partially as independent province administers. The Roman rule ends in the people migration time, Sueben (starting from 409) and above all Westgoten (starting from 416) create their realms on the area of later Portugal.

Mauri rule to colonial power Portugal

in the year 711 conquers the Mauren the country, Portugal becomes part of the Kalifats of Córdoba, rule of the Almoraviden. From Asturien the Gotenherzog Pelagius ( Don Pelayo) takes in the year 722 the Christian Reconquista up, which become Mauren until 1492 gradually driven out by the iberischen peninsula. Portugal becomes as independent county already in the 11. Century based (“Condado Portucalense”, county of Portucale); this falls 1093 at Heinrich of Burgund, the master fatherthe first Portuguese king dynasty.

Under Heinrichs son and successor Alfons I. attains the country 1143 its independence, Alfons accepts the king title. The Burgunder prevails until 1383 in Portugal, 1211 the first condition parliament (Cortes) will call up, 1250 is the Reconquista in Portugal with the conquest of the Algarve finally, 1256 is shifted the capital to Lisbon.

Die Festung von Guimarães, das Hauptsymbol für Portugals Unabhängigkeit. (Quelle: IPPAR)
The fortress of Guimarães, the main symbol for Portugal independence. (Source: IPPAR)

1383 becomes extinct the house Burgund in Portugal, more not-conjugallyDescendant, Johann of advice proclaims itself to the king, can kastilische requirements on the Portuguese throne in the battle of Aljubarrota (1385) repel and creates the second Portuguese dynasty, the house advice. The advice kings (particularly under Emanuel I. - it prevailed from 1495 to 1521) led the country to highest bloom, Portugal ascends to the prominent handels and sea power, acquires colonies in Brazil, Africa, Arabia, India and China, the country is World power and richest nation of Europe (see also Heinrich of the sailors). Also culturally it comes to a bloom time (Luís de Camões).

1580 become extinct the house advice, Portugal fall for dynastischen reasons to the having citizen rulers of Spain. To 1640 prevails the Spaniards, Portugal loses its independence, sinks to the Spanish province down, loses parts of its colonial empire. 1640 state the duke of Braganza an aristocracy revolt against the Spanish rule and call themselves as Johann IV.to the king out. Itcreates the next to last Portuguese dynasty, the house Braganza. The country comes to outside and politicoly-economic into ever larger dependence on England (Methuenvertrag, 1703). an earthquake large parts of the capital Lisbon, for which Marquês de Pombal builds, destroys 1755the city and transforms the country with partially drastic methods to one cleared up absolutist state. 1807 occupies napoleonische troops the country, the royal family flees to Brazil. After the Frenchmen with British assistance were driven out,it comes to the liberal revolution, the country receives for the first time in its history a condition (1821). The following fight between trailers of the absolutism and proponents of a constitutional monarchy becomes only by the victory of the lattersin the Miguelistenkrieg decided. To 7. September 1822 attains Brazil among emperors Peter I. its independence.

final phase of the monarchy to Estado Novo

the time after end of the Miguelistenkrieges becomes from the argument between on the right of and link liberal (Cartisten and Setembristen) coined/shaped. 1853 die with queen Maria II. the house Braganza in direct line out, over the marriage of the queen with Ferdinand II. from Saxonia Coburg Gotha the Portuguese branch of this German aristocracy house takes over the throne (until 1910). ThoseFinal phase of the monarchy is coined/shaped by general weakness of the country, economic problems ( national bankruptcy 1891) and increasing republican rebellions. 1908 becomes the king Karl I. and the successor to the throne with an assassination attempt killed, 1910 is proclaimed the republic.

In March 1916 occurs the country on sides of the Entente the First World War . Portugal mobilizes up to 100.000 soldiers, from those approx. 7.000 up to the end of the war falls. The so-called. first republic (until 1926) is through anarchischchaotic conditions drawn, monarchistic and communist rebellions, Putschversuche (and. A. the Sidónio Pais, 1917), weak, frequently changing governments without parliamentary majority and a general political instability marks the situation.

1926 putscht the military and terminate the first republic.Under military ascends a civilian, António de Oliveira Salazar, starting from 1928 Ministers of Finance, starting from 1932 Prime Minister, to highest power. It creates the Estado Novo starting from 1933 “, the new State of, an authoritarian thing with fascist tendencies, completelywith a unit party (national union), state youth and secret police (PIDE). In the Second World War the country remains neutral, permitted however and joins the allied one the mechanism of Militärbasen on the Azores after end of the war of NATO . Off 1960 begin the colonial war, which is particularly led in Africa (Angola , Mozambique , Guinea-Bissau) with large hardness. 1968 must Salazar because of health problems withdraw, its successor, Marcello Caetano, cannot not to fundamental reforms decide.By the colonial war Portugal is increasingly with regard to foreign policy isolated, the costs of the war leads rising national indebtedness and inflation. Prominent one of military recognize that the colonial war is not to be won militarily for Portugal; because of the inability of the government, a political solutionto find the problem, putschen it finally 1974. A general discontent of the population with the dictatorship still, by which using economic crisis (caused by the first oil crisis 1973) strengthens, leads to the fact that itself the population in great quantities with the putschendenOfficers solidiarisiert, comes to a general rising of the people, the carnation revolution, which terminates the Estado Novo. The new ruling powers dismiss the Portuguese colonies, up to Macau, into independence (1974/1975).

carnation revolution to European Union entry

panorama viewby Vila new facts de Gaia (foreground) on the old port and the city center of postage, name giver of Portugal. Right in the picture the Ponte cathedral Luis I

the first phase after the revolution is coined/shaped by the argument between onerather conservative current (general Spínola) and a socialist wing (captain Otelo), within the MFA (Movimento the Forças Armadas - movement of the armed forces), the combination putschenden officers. First it looked in such a way, as if the socialistCurrent obsiegen, it came to nationalizations and Landreform, the new condition of 1976 defines the transition to socialism as a state goal.

As itself with the first presidency elections after the new condition 1976 the more moderate general Eanes surprisingly clearly approximatelyCaptain Otelo to intersperse knows, is the switches for a return of the country to a parliamentary democracy of Western European cut posed. Eanes and the chairman of the socialist party Mário Soares (head of the government from 1976 to 1978 and 1983 to 1985, president of 1986 to 1996) finally lead the country into the European community (entry 1986).

A road in of Lisbon old part of town.

from the European Union entry to today

1979 for the first time again a political grouping won, right since the carnation revolutionfrom the center stood, the parliamentary elections (governments Francisco de Sá Carneiro and Francisco Pinto Balsemão), the government can agree with the socialist opposition on a constitutional amendment, by the socialist remnants, those after the carnation revolution into the condition writtenbecame, to be removed. The 1982 into force stepped constitutional amendment eliminated among other things the revolutionary council meaning up to then and created a constitutional court after the model of other democratic states. 1985 become Aníbal Cavaco Silva Prime Minister, its conservative Partido Social Democrata (PSD) succeedwith the elections 1987 a landslide victory, with which a party can achieve for the first time an absolute majority. Cavaco Silva remains until 1995 Prime Minister, whereby he leads a neoliberale economic policy and from the time of the carnation revolution takes the nationalizations back. Ofthe socialists with António Guterres place 1995 to 2002 again the government.

With the parliamentary elections of 17. March 2002 comes it to a recent right slide. During an election turnout of 62,3% the conservative PSD under José Manuel Durão Barroso reachesa relative majority of votes of 40,1%, followed of the socialist Partido Socialista and the right-conservative people's party Partido popular (PP) with 37,9 and/or. 8,8 %. With the latter Barroso educates a coalition government, whereby the populist chairman of the PP, Paulo Portas,the office of the Secretary of Defense takes over and also the ranges law as well as work and social to the PP goes. The socialists place the presidents of the country however continuously, since successor of Soares 1996 becomes the socialist Jorge Sampaio.

In the year 2004Barroso is nominated from the European advice to the successor of Romano Prodi as a president of the commission of the European union. Its successor as an Prime Minister becomes Pedro Santana Lopes, which can govern however only short time, there the president already in Novemberthe parliament dissolves prematurely and for February 2005 new elections out writes, with which the Partido Socialista achieves an absolute majority for the first time in history. Its leading candidate José Sócrates is since 12. March 2005 new Prime Minister.

To 22. January 2006selected approx. 8,8 million Portuguese a new president. The past president, the socialist Jorge Sampaio, may place itself after two terms of office to no more to the choice. Against 5 candidates that linking sits down already in the first ballot the center right candidate andformer head of the government Aníbal Cavaco Silva (PSD) with an absolute majority of 50,6% during an election turnout of 62,6% through. It is supported by an alliance from PSD and PP-CDS. As an architect of the Portuguese economic recovery in the years 1985to 1995 valid 66-jährige restaurant economics becomes thereby a first civil president in Portugal since the carnation revolution von1974. It becomes to 9. March 2006 for 5 years inserted into its office.

With 20,7% reached against the will of his party leadershipbegun 69-jährige vice-president of the national assembly, Manuel Alegre (HP) the second place and was appropriate thereby still before „the official “candidate of the socialist party (HP), for the former socialist head of state Mário Soares with 14,34%.

The further places occupy with 8,6% the Secretary-GeneralJerónimo de Sousa , followed the communist party (PCP) of Francisco Louçã, Bloco de Esquerda, with 5,3% as well as of PCTP/MRPP left fragment candidate García Pereira with 0,4% supported.


political system

Since the carnation revolution of the yearly 1974 Portugal developed to a stable parliamentary republic. The four most important organs of the policy in Portugal are the president, the prime minister and its Council of Ministers, the parliament as well as the law.

The president, which is determined every five years directly in general elections, is also Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. He appoints a prime minister and the Council of Ministers, whereby he has to orient himself at the result of the parliamentary elections. The Council of State is a committee, that thatPresidents advises, and consists of the president and all this his predecessors, the prime minister, the president of the constitutional court, which citizen-assigned, the regional presidents (larva Irish Republican Army and the Azores) as well as five of the president and five persons selected by the parliament.

The government becomes from the prime ministerstated, which arranges itself a Council of Ministers. Each new government must submit a program, which one debates to the parliament. If it is not rejected, this means that the government of the parliament is accepted.

The parliament becomes as Assembleia República there (Meeting of the republic) designates and consists of a chamber with up to 230 delegates. The delegates are selected for four years, whereby the elections on the basis of proportional representation right is used. The president has the right to dissolve the parliament and set new elections.

The highest court is the highest instance of the Portuguese law, whereby there are special highest courts for military, administrative and according to tax law questions. The constitutional court of Portugal has nine members and supervises would condition-in accordance with-eat interpretation of the right.

There are two large parties, which oriented social-democratically a socialist party (HP) and the civil-conservatively oriented social-democratic party (PSD). Besides there is the right-populist people's party (CDS/PP) on the right side still and on the left side the steeped in tradition A communist party (PCP) and that a few years ago as storage tank intellectual linking created link block (Bloco de Esquerda, ). These five parties are represented to time everything in the parliament. The Greens (Partido Ecologista “OS Verde”, PEV) always begin in Portugal in list union with the communists and normally get over it a parliament mandate.

See also: List of the political parties of Portugal

international relations

Portugal is member of the European union and had that Advice presidency in the first half-year 2000 . In this time Portugal pursued above all the goal of forcing the dialogue with Africa and of giving impulses for the stabilization of the competitive ability of the European economy.

Portugal was initial member of NATO and takes partwith troops at the peacekeaping measures on the Balkans. Together with Spain Portugal is involved in the Ibero American summits, their goal the dialogue v. A. with the countries of Latin America is. The country was responsible also at the establishment of the communitythe Portugiesischsprachigen of countries (CPLP) takes part to deepen with the goal, the co-operation of these countries. Portugal supported Timor Leste, an earlier colony, in its independence fight financially and militarily and cooperates now in this recent state with asiatic countries, the United Statesas well as the UN.

Portugal has a territorial controversy with Spain over Olivenza (and/or. Olivença), which belongs to Spain, however by Portugal is stressed. Olivença is since 1801 under Spanish administration: Spain explained itself on the Viennese congress of 1815ready to return the area at Portugal. This did not happen until today, and it requires Portugal regularly that the return is carried out.

education system

up to the carnation revolution 1974 education culpably neglected and also to the revolution went to thatStructure of the education system only slowly in front. This becomes today apparent until: In the year 2000 for example only about a tenth of the dreissigjährigen ones had a university conclusion. Thus Portugal among the European Union members before the extension to the East had with large distance the lowestWorth. In addition Portugal has the highest illiterate ratio of Europe today with nearly 15 per cent.

This is a large obstacle during the economic development, contributes particularly to the Ineffizienz of the agriculture, since above all the Landbevölkerung is affected by illiteratism. In addition,the central layer of Portugal is formed below average, since the entrance to universities became simpler only in the last years. Thus it is missing to foreign competition for example at well trained entrepreneurs, the traditional firm owners often did not grow, because it by inheritance,by training into their line position did not come.

The educational system consists of a four years old primary school and a five-year high school. There is a legally specified compulsory schooling of nine years for all children starting from the sixth Lebensjahr. The obligation school teaching is free at national schoolsand for instruction at one of the comparatively numerous private institutions needy families can receive support.

Who completes the three-year Escola Secundária to the high school still, the university-ripe gets and can select between several possibilities of the higher education: University formation becomes inPortugal offered by national and private universities (universidades) as well as national and private professional schools (escolas politécnicas). For the promotion of the more remote areas also in many middle cities universities were furnished; the change from one to the other institution is relatively easily. In each case an entrance examination is to be completed and it is study fees to be paid, those with the private schools is higher than with the national, and also depending upon field vary; on state institutions up to 850 €annually. Nevertheless for instance a third of the students is written with a private institution. To the enrollment fees propinas, that are additional fees for the assignment of certifications and diplomas are to be paid. About 20 per cent of the students come into the benefita income-dependent national supporting.

administrative arrangement

major item: Administrative arrangement of Portugal

relatively small Portugal has a very complex administrative arrangement. There are five regions, 18 districts and the two autonomous regions of the Azores and larva Irish Republican Army, besides exist28 so-called statistic Unterregionen. One level under it about 300 circles and 4,200 municipalities follow. This arrangement is rather inefficient and expensive, why a reform is in work, which is to abolish the districts and decentralize authority.


Airbus A310 der TAP Air Portugal
airbusA310s of the TAP air Portugal

the three most important airports of Portugal, postage, Lisbon and Faro, are served by several airlines, whereby the two Portuguese lines TAP air Portugal, SATA air Azores and Portugália most connections to offer. Itgives also inland flights, this are not particularly attractively and relatively expensive due to the small size of the country.

Also the Atlantic islands of Portugal, larva Irish Republican Army and the Azores, are approached by the TAP air Portugal. On the Azores Angra DO Heroísmo up Terceira, Horta on Faial and Ponta Delgada on São Miguel. On larva Irish Republican Army Funchal and postage Santo. Portugália approaches only Funchal.

The road system is developed not least owing to European Union - means from the various promotion funds well; since that 1980er years moved much. The most important routes become of obligations to pay Autoestradas or Itinerários free of charge Principais (IP) and/or. Itinerários Complementares (IC) taken off. In more remote areas one can discover still frequently roads with Kopfsteinpflaster. The self driving, particularly into thatCities, Central Europeans should consider themselves well; everyone was not up to to the chaos for the peak hour as well as the generous interpretation of the traffic rules. The fact that the traffic of Portugal belongs to the most uncertain showed European accident statistics repeated. Taxis are relatively favorably, particularly within thatCities.

The Eisenbahnnetz of Portugal is not close particularly, on the main traffic routes is however efficient and fast the connections, if the course employees do not strike straight. The tickets are relatively favorable. Into the secondary lines in the last decades nothing more was investedand many are meanwhile shut down. International courses connect Portugal with several cities in Spain, besides there is a connection after Irún at the Spanish-French border with direct TGV - connection to Paris, which is interesting for Interrailer particularly. Bicycle taking alongis no longer possible in railway trains (conditions 2002).

On the other hand there is a very close bus network, which serves nearly each locality at likewise favourable prices. International penalty connect Central Europe with Portugal, these become because of the long travel time almost exclusively from immigrant workersused. Drives off the penalty in Portugal of the Rodoviária , where one gets also the tickets.



since the entry of Portugal to the EEC in the year 1986 has itself Portugal more and more tooa diversified, particularly economics aligned to services develops. Services are meanwhile responsible to GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT for approximately two thirds . As also in other states of Europe was reduced in the last years extensive privatisations were accomplished and the public expenditures. In the year 1998Portugal qualified itself for the entry to the European monetary union and led like also eleven other states at the 1. January 2002 the euro as currencies.

The new indebtedness of Portugal exceeds momentarily the 3% specified in the Maastricht contract, whereby the countryso that alone does not stand there.

The economic growth usually exceeded the poorest old member of the European Union with approximately 3.3% annually in the past of that one of the European Union average, nevertheless is still Portugal: The pro head gros domestic product (in purchasing power parities)lies with approximately 78% of the average of the European Union countries before the extension to the East, whereby it was in the year 1985 still for instance about 50%. As obstacle for stronger growth of productivity and occupation above all structural problems are seen, howz. B. the still bad education system and the high Analphabetismusrate, the partly bad infrastructure, and the inefficient administration. For this reason Portugal comes ever more into a competition with low wage countries from central and Eastern Europe, Asia and North Africaand is not particularly attractive for foreign direct investments; the average wages are very low in Portugal at very long work times. Foreign investments come particularly from Great Britain and Spain; the largest investment of all times was the establishment of autoEurope,an autofactory.


unemployment is low with approximately 4% in the comparison with the European Union average, whereby one must consider that there is a large informal sector in Portugal economics, which a certain portion of the unemployed persons busily,otherwise into the unemployed person statistics would fall.

foreign trade

Herkunftsländer der Importe Portugals
of countries of origin of the imported goods of Portugal
Zielländer der Exporte Portugals
of Zielländer of the exports of Portugal

the foreign trade is completed to approximately 80% with the European Union partners; above all clothing and shoes, machines, chemistry products, cork are exportedas well as cellulose and paper. Are imported machines, vehicles, oil and petroleum products as well as agriculture products. Portugal has a very large commercial balance sheet deficit and also a balance of payments defict, which are not as high by high incomes from the tourism as the commercial balance sheet deficit.


Portugal possess important raw material occurrences, under it coal, copper, tin, gold, iron ores such as pyrite and Chalcopyrit, clay/tone minerals such as Kaolinit as well as Wolframit and uranium INIT; it belongs thereby to the world-prominent nations in that to tungsten- and uranium production. During the Second World War Germany supplied itself with Portuguese tungsten for weapon production, while the atom bomb of Hiroshima contained Portuguese uranium.


the agriculture of Portugal is one the most inefficient in Europe; the portionbecause of the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT is to the agriculture with approximately 5%, however more than 15% of the workers are in the agriculture busy. This led to the fact that many enterprises gave up and meanwhile nearly half of the food is imported. Cork oak plan days in Alentejo and the cultivation of almonds are likewise in a deep crisis. On the other hand large surfaces also fast growing Eukalyptus are aufgeforstet and supplied with so to the pulp industry - an important restaurant factor of Portugal - raw materials. This is for environmentalpolitical reasons muchprecariously, because Eukalyptus leaches out the soil, which displaces original forest and thus the animal world and burns even very easily, which leads to the frequent catastrophic Waldbränden in the summer.

Similarly as the agriculture also the fishery with productivity problems fights; the PortugueseFischereiflotte is far opposite the Spanish in the Hintertreffen. Most fish is imported.


for approximately 8% GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, with rising tendency, is responsible the tourism, whereby most visitors come from Spain and Great Britain. ThoseAlgarve is thereby unquestioned the center.

characteristic data

  • gross national product (billion US$): 109,86 (1998), 109.99 (1999), 110.6 (2000),
  • gross national product/inhabitant (US$): 11.020 (1998), 11,010 (1999), 11,060 (2000)
  • gross national product/km ² (US$): 1.073.759 (1997), 1.150.873 (1998)

International trade relations

public expenditures

between 1992 and 2000 was the portion of the public expenditures for

work on []



major item: sometimes Portuguese

literature Luís de

Camões Portugal is called also country of the poets. In the Portuguese literature the poetry had always a stronger influence than the Prosa. In the Middle Ages, asthe Portuguese nation developed, was common in the northwest of the iberischen peninsula the poetry very much and brought exzellente epische out like lyric works. While the most well-known classical poets are Luís de Camões and Fernando Pessoa, then there is a row further,less well-known artist, who has also important influence on the modern Portuguese literature anyhow.

The Prosa developed later than the poetry and was only impressed in 14. Century in the form of chronicles or the description of the life ofHoly one out. Here Fernão Lopes is a most famous representative; he wrote a chronicle of the regencies of three kings of his time. For it accuracy of the representation was most important as well as a lively description. The Portuguese modern literature at most is internationaladmits, particularly with the works of José Maria Eça de Queiroz and the Nobelpreisträger for literature 1998, José Saramago.

catering trade

the Portuguese kitchen is very diverse, because the Portuguese took up many things to their cook traditions,they on their discovery travels became acquainted with. In each region of Portugal there are own specialities, with different meat and fish places or sea fruits. The national court is stick fish (Bacalhau), from which there is to be 365 different kinds of preparing. Further well-known courts are Caldo Verde, a Kohl soup, and grilled Sardinen. In addition are small fritierte pies (Pasteis) with meat, shells or crabs much like. Portuguese sweet foods are very sweet by the maurischen influence. As example here Arroz doce (milk rice) are, Pudim flam(Caramel pudding) to call and Mousse outer Chocolate. From sheet paste a kind Puddingtörtchen named Pasteis de Nata gezaubert over Macao in the meantime also a further spreading in China finds. Also for its wine Portugal is well-known, already since the Roman timeif Portugal with the God of the Weines and the celebrations, Bacchus, becomes associates. Also today belong some from Portugal wines to the best world. Admits is above all the Vinho Verde and Rotweine. The sweet Vinho DO postage(Haven wine) with at least 16.5% alcohol content is out round a mixture ¼ neutral alcohol from Weintrauben and teilvergorenem wine.

See also: Portuguese pot: Caldeira de carne


the most important music form of Portugal is the Fado,that to be very melancholisch can and therefore partly for the plate of the melancholischen Portuguese (opposite the temperful Spaniards) responsible is. This music accompanies closely with saudade (about: Longing), and is probable by the mixture of the songs of PortugueseDeveloped for sailors with the rhythms of African slaves. Here one differentiates two style forms, i.e. the Fado from Lisbon and that one of Coimbra. Amália Rodrigues was a most important Fado artist, after its death several new artists from their shade stepped andbring out new forms of the Fado, which has partly only the saudade with the original Fado in common. In the earlier colonies of Portugal the Fado likewise spread and itself to the Cape Verdian Morna of a Cesária Évora and to the Brazilian Choro develops further. The Fadogruppe today most well-known in the German-speaking countries is Madredeus with the singer Teresa Salgueiro.

From the time of the fascist Estado Novo under Salazar a singer-songwriter tradition originates. Most well-known representatives of this protest movement are José Afonso (frequently Zeca called) and Sérgio Godinho. From José Afonso comes the interpretation of the song Grândola, Vila Morena, which gave the start signal for carnation revolution.

In the Popmusik - category developed in Portugal of the Hip Hop Tuga, the one at Portugal adapted version of the Hip Hop is and among the young people is very popular.

Each region of Portugal possesses its own folklore style (Ranchos Folclóricos). The Portuguese music and dance tradition have themselves in Brazil with the traditions of the slaves from today's Angola to Samba mixed and is very popular also in Portugal. Among Angolan immigrants also Kuduro , a kind hard, is very sinnlicher Samba with fast rhythm, much likes, Kizomba is a similar dance rhythm among Cape Verdian immigrants of the popularity enjoys.

Examples thatPortuguese music (Fado):

of people celebrations

in June take place in completely Portugal of celebrations in honours of the three people-holy (Santos popular). These three holy ones are Antonius, Johannes and Petrus. Is celebrated with wine, água pé (Most), traditional bread with Sardinen, road removals and - dances, weddings, fire and fireworks as well as much in a good mood.

Santo António becomes at the night of 12. on the 13. June celebrated, forwardseverything in Lisbon (where this holy one was born and lived), where a kind Strassenkarneval (Marchas popular) takes place. Also weddings, the Casamentos de Santo António, take place. The most popular holy one is São João (hl. Johannes), for thatat the Johannistag particularly in postage and Braga is celebrated, whereby there is Sardinen and Caldo Verde (a traditional soup) and one with plastic hammers mutually on the head strikes itself, which is to bring luck. Honours of São Pedro becomesto 28. and 29. June celebrated, particularly in Póvoa de Varzim and Barcelos, whereby these celebrations are dedicated to the sea and one takes place used at it much fire (fogeiras) and again a kind Strassenkarneval.


football is the most well-known, most popular and at most exercised sport in Portugal. The Portuguese football has world class players such as Eusébio , Nené, Paulo Sousa, Rui Costa, Ricardo Sousa, Cristiano Ronaldo, Vítor Baía, Deco , Fernando Meira or Luís Figo brought out. In the year 2004 the football European championship in Portugal was delivered, with which the Portuguese national team became to Greece vice-European champion. Beside football are still Futsal and beach football like, where Portugal has to register also successes.

BesideFootball are internationally in the marathon race, Beachvolleyball and Rollhockey successful Portuguese sportsmen.

There is traditional kind of sport with the name Jogo DO in Portugal still another pau

library nature

Portugal ordered over a long historical library tradition, on the basis of medievaland klösterlichen collections. Thus university libraries, public libraries, libraries of the central administration and special libraries developed to today various library types, like scientific libraries. The exact number of libraries and total stocks at media are not well-known. (The LIB2-Studie of 1986 determined556 Portuguese libraries.)

systematic and methodical work for the promotion of the public library nature and the library science began 19 at the end. Century.

In the time of the Estado Novo (1928-1974) the meaning of the libraries and the library work were by censorship andRestrictions strongly reduced. Thus it gives to today deficits in the development of the education and library system.

Universitätsbibliothek Aveiro von Álvaro Siza
University library Aveiro from Álvaro Siza

after the carnation revolution 1974 came it to the democratization into the education and culture range. A result of the dictatorship for many decades was onenational education lacking and the problem of the illiteratism, which made also a systematic adult education and read promotion necessary. The just as causing concern situation of the public libraries entailed numerous initiatives and reorganizations within the library nature, z. B. 1983 „the communist manifesto of the publicReading “. 1986 were supported this by a legislation for the creation and coordination of a net of public reading. At the same time it came to only of the library work beginning relatively the automation late in Portugal and the employment of modern information technology.

Here the university libraries had andthe national library a role of the pioneer. The today's national library „Biblioteca Nacional de Lisboa “ [1] was the first public library, which was created 1796 as royal-public yard library. It operates z. B. the national bibliographic data base PORBASE. This contains over 1 million title entries, 800.000Author entries of approx. 134 libraries and Dokumentationszentren and the Portuguese national bibliography. The national library and probably also nearly all other libraries work with the library system CDS/ISIS and the data exchange format UNIVERSITY MARK.

An archivist and librarian training are over a study to thatnational Universities of Coimbra, Lisbon and postage possible. Some partially national institutions take over tasks of coordination and support the promotion of the Portuguese book and co-operation and support of libraries.

By extensive innovative work of the last years the Portuguese library nature has to a large extentthe connection to European and international standards production. Still existing deficits are to be diminished in the future, by further promotion of reading and the libraries and by international cooperation, further.


the national Portuguese broadcast Rádio e Televisãode Portugal (RTP) operates two television stations, RTP 1 and RTP 2. Since private television is permitted 1992 in Portugal, since still the SIC and TVI ( Televisão Independente exist, operated by the catholic church). The program becomes with all fourTransmitters of Brazilian and Portuguese Telenovelas and act ion series dominates; the messages are to a considerable degree aligned to Portugal. Features are frequently not shown synchronized with sub-titles. The foreign transmitter RTP Internacional can be received also in Central Europe and shows the best outall four programs.

In Portugal there are about 150 radio stations, whereby the transmitters of the RTP and the catholic transmitter are to be received radio Renascença country-wide. The RTP is to be heard over short wave also in Central Europe, however only on Portuguese.

Underthe numerous newspapers, which are printed in Portugal, momentarily a consolidation process takes place, with which many of the small sheets on the distance will probably remain. The most important newspapers are the conservative liberal Diário de Notícias, the left liberal Público (both outLisbon) as well as Jornal de Notícias from postage. Very large editions have sport newspapers, which appear daily and almost exclusively with football are occupied - the most important are O Jogo and A Bola. As the best weekly paper Expresso is considered. Within the rangethe gossip press are the appearing weekly magazines Maria and Nova Gente the present-strongest publications.


Date designation Portuguese name note
1. January New Year's Day Ano Novo
- Karneval Carnaval (no more officially, but in fact holiday), Tuesday 40 daysbefore Easter
- Karfreitag Sexta Feira Santa Friday before Easter
- Easter Páscoa Ostersonntag
25. April day of the liberty dia. there Liberdade carnation revolution 1974
1. May day of the work dia. DO trabalhador
10. June Portugal day dia. de Portugal death of Camões in the year 1580
- Fronleichnam Corpo de Deus Thursday, 40 days after Easter
15. August Maria Ascension Day Assunção
5. October establishment of the Republic of Implementação there República in the year 1910
1. November all-holy Todos OS santos
1. December re-establishment of independence Restauração there Independência in the year 1640
8. December Unbefleckte receipt-sneeze Imaculada Conceição Schutzheilige of Portugal
25. December Christmas Natal

note: Each circle has its own religious holiday, often for the holy Antonius to 13. June, the holy Johannes to 24. June or the holy Petrus to 29. June. If the circle does not have so a holiday, then the Karneval is a legal holiday. The Karneval actually like a normal holiday treated, in particular officials of state to have on this daynormally freely. The unsuccessful attempt to abolish in the year 1995 this regulation cost the Prime Ministers at that time Cavaco Silva much popularity. Besides becomes the 24. June as holiday discusses (independence of Portugal in the year 1128).

further topics


beside the numerous travel guides offers itself the following:

  • Dietrich Briesemeister, Axel Schönberger (Hrsg.): Portugal today. Politics, economics, culture. Vervuert, Frankfurt/Main 1997, ISBN 3-89354-564-6 (that is quite expensively, arduous an essay collection, butvery informatively and low-digging.)
  • Gilberto Freyre: Manor-house and slave hut. Klett Cotta, Munich 1990, ISBN 3-423-04554-X (the most important work of the important Brazilian sociologist and Anthropologen a picture of the society of Brazil, about a third of the book gives is howeverthe Portuguese Kolonisatoren and particularly their cultural origin and restaurant history dedicated.)
  • António Henrique R. de Oliveira Marques: History of Portugal and the Portuguese world realm. Kröner, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-520-38501-5
  • Henry Thorau (Hrsg.): Portuguese literature. Suhrkamp publishing house, Frankfurt/Main 1997, ISBN 3-518-39270-0

Web on the left of

Wikibooks: Portugal - learning and teaching materials
Wiktionary: Portugal - word origin, synonyms and translations
Commons: Portugal - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wikiquote: Portuguese proverbs - quotations

This article was taken up to the list of exzellenter articles.

Coordinates: 37°-42° N, 6°-10°W


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