the postmodernism designates a mental cultural movement, which with difficulty to be defined is, but can be differentiated according to an opinion to a large extent by its rejection of the modern trend - according to other opinion their completion represents. The postmodernism is a reaction to the modern trend. Jean François Lyotard designated itin a much-considered essay as end of the large narrations. There are temporally different classifications, from first beginnings to the 1960er years, up to the beginning of the 1980er years, where itself the postmodernism in all possible everyday life phenomena (z. B. Mode, Popkultur, art, postmodernism architecture) openly to show began.
origins of the term
already 1917 dips the term „postmodernism “with Rudolf Pannwitz as philosophically more coined/shaped „culture term “on (Pannwitz, the Krisis of the European culture, Nuremberg 1917, S. 64). Pannwitz leans with its train of thought to the postmodernism Nietz analysis of the modern trend in their prognosticated terminator points of the Dekadenz and the Nihilismus on. The overcoming of the modern trend brings thereafter new „post office-modern humans out “.
1947 become the term „post office-modern “by Arnold J. Toynbee in its work A Study OF History as already for thoseYears starting from 1875 diagnosed cultural feature uses; the postmodernism is characterized in this sense by an early policy of thinking in global connections and differs from the previous politics policy in the overcoming of the only national perspective. After Toynbee the late phase becomes with the postmodernismthe abendländischen culture introduced (A. Toynbee, A Study OF History, 1947, S. 39).
Is only literarily the term 1934 by the literature scientist Frederico de Oniz used and designation here one intermediate period of the hispanisch American seal in the years between 1905 to 1914, coined/shaped ofa brief backwards-turned prevention of the modern trend.
In the crucial North American literature debate of the yearly 1959 Irving Howe in “measure of Society and designates post office-modern Fiction” the present presence of the postmodernism as purge phenomenon of the modern trend and coined/shaped by innovation will lacking (Howe, measure of Society and post office-modern Fiction, partisan Review1959, S. 420-436). A revaluation takes place in the 60's already via Irvin Howe and via Harry Levin, above all in addition, via Susan Sontag and Leslie fiddler (fiddler, CROSS the Border - CLOSE the Gap, 1969).
A summary of the conceptual development findsin the book chapter “the genealogy of the expression “postmodernism”” and in the subsequent chapter, S.12ff, in Wolfgang Welsch, our postmodernism modern trend, Weinheim 1987)
during in the modern trend the avant-garde perspective dominated, stands itself in the postmodernism not the innovation in the center (artistic)Interest, but a recombination or a new application of existing ideas. The world is regarded not on a progress goal, but regarded rather as pluralistisch , coincidentally , chaotic and in its void moments. Likewise the human identity applies as unstable and by many, partly this-ready, culturalFactors coined/shaped.Media and technology play an important role as carriers such as mediators of culture (see also medium theory).
The postmodernism art draws among other things out by the extended art term and quotationful references to past styles, which are set partly ironically in scene. Where those Irony fails or is not present, can the whole direction with the “Eklektizismus “be compared.
Andy be-get represents an early example of a post office-modern artist.
Certain one, exclusive and also not exhaustive characteristics of post office-modern thinking and Urteilens are not:
- Refusal to since that Clearing-up stressed Primat of the reason (ratio) and the Zweckrationalität (in the modern trend were already shaken)
- loss of the autonomous subject as rationally acting unit
- new turn to aspects of the human Affektivität and Emotionalität
- refusal or critical analysis of universal requirement for truth within the range more philosophicallyand religious views and systems (so-called. Metaerzählungen or myths such as law, history, God, ideology, utopia or religion)
- loss of traditional connections, of solidarity and a general community feeling
- Sektoralisierung of the social life into a multiplicity of groups and individuals with each other contradictingThinking and behaviors
- tolerance, liberty and Pluralismus in society, art and culture
- Dekonstruktion, Sampling, Mixing of codes as (new) agricultural engineerings
- increasing Zeichenhaftigkeit of the world (see also semiotic triangle, and. Building twisting pool of broadcasting corporations)
- Toolism and multi-cult Uralsism
The postmodernism turns against fixing in particular more ideologically, in addition, cultural kind. Postmodernism philosopher such as Derrida not least straight saw themselves therefore to violent attacks suspended.
Lyotard: The end of the Meta narrations
after Lyotard gives it to three large Meta narrations:
and goal orientation form clearing-up idealism historicism this in the postmodernism. The emancipation of the individual, the self-confident its of theSpirit, which flows in the sense Hegels into an entireness ideology and which is idea of a senseful progress of history to a utopia the large narrations, to which one cannot believe no more. Therefore there can be also no project of the modern trend more, no large idea of Liberty and socialism, which are to be provided general validity and to which all social acting has to subordinate oneself.
There is no superordinate language, no generally binding truth, which legitimizes without contradiction the whole of a formal system. Scientific Rationalität, moral acting and political justice conceptions play ever its ownPlay and cannot be set to the coincide.
“In extreme simplification one can say: “Postmodernism” means that one gives no more faith to the Meta narrations.” (Lyotard, postmodernism the knowledge, 1986, 7/14)
Lyotard attaches in its train of thought to the concept of joke gene stone of the “language plays “and to the heterogeneity of Kant's critical writings. Kant states likewise that the human reason does not have a direct entrance on the whole and the “things actually”. It divides the human reason into theoretical reason, practical reason and judgement. In his philosophy becomesthus the “pure reason” only a regulativer character in the access to the reality awarded.
already in 19. Century develops a form of the symphony, which does not investigate no more the development process of original topics, but already existing musical indications and spherescombined. As logical consequence dekonstruktivistische techniques step in addition. Milestone Gustav of meals called the symphony in E major (1878) of the Bruckner - pupil Hans rot. Mahlers symphonies develop their own universe from quotationful components from the military, people and church music, as well as resorts to past styles. At the same timedevelops the American Charles Ives a Collagetechnik, which uses primarily American people melodies. Further important postmodernism composer were Bernd Alois Carpenter and Luciano Berio. As typical representatives of a musical postmodernism of the present become despite very different styles among other things John anger and Philip Glass called.
to screen end artist
- Klaus baking mouth
- Simon dryly
- Gilbert and George
- Wang Guangyi
- Res Ingold
- Donald Judd
- Agnieska Olivia Juszczyk
- Ilya Kabakov
- Jeff Koons
- Bruce Nauman
- Sigmar Polke
- Gerhard judge
- Cindy Sherman
- Andy be-get
philosopher and theoretician
- Roland Barthes
- Jean Baudrillard
- Helen Cixous
- Gilles Deleuze
- Jacques Derrida
- Michel Foucault
- Luce Irigaray
- Fredric Jameson
- Charles Jencks
- Dietmar come by
- Thomas's S. Boldly (science historian)
- Jean François Lyotard
- Gianni Vattimo
- Wolfgang Welsch
- Slavoj Zizek
writer, their work (at least partly) as post office-modern to designate leaves itself
- Peter Dietze
- Paul Auster
- Julian Barnes
- John Barth
- Jorge Luis Borges
- Italo Calvino
- Angela Carter
- Robert Coover
- Don DeLillo
- Umberto Eco
- Raymond Federman
- William Gaddis
- John Hawkes
- walter Moers
- Heiner Mueller
- Michael Ondaatje
- Thomas Pynchon
- Christoph Ransmayr
- W.G. Sebald
- Philippe of Sollers
- Vladimir Sorokin
- Patrick Süskind
- Antonio Tabucchi
- Urs Widmer
- Jeanette Winterson
- Thomas Bernhard
- Ludwig joke gene stone
reflections to the postmodernism:
opposite standpoints - rescue of the modern trend:
- walter T. Anderson one Reality isn´t what it used tons San Francisco, Calif. : HarperSanFrancisco, 2003.
- Zygmunt Bauman, Intimations OF Postmodernity (London: Routledge, 1992)
- Jonathan Bignell, post office-modern Media Culture (Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2000)
- Damien Broderick, Reading by Starlight - post office-modern Science Fiction (London andNew York: Routledge, 1995)
- Gary K. Browning, Lyotard and the end to OF Grand Narratives (Cardiff: University OF Wales press, 2000)
- Christopher Butler, Postmodernism - A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002)
- Thomas Carmichael & Alison Lee (eds.), post office-modern of Time - A critical Guide tonthe Con temporary (DeKalb: Northern Illinois UP, 2000)
- Guy Debord: The society of the Spektakels, edition Tiamat, Berlin 1996.
- Gilles Deleuze & Félix Guattari, capitalism and schizophrenia 2 - thousand plateaus, OD. G. Rösch; trans. The Gabriele Ricke & Ronald Voullié (1980; Berlin: Merve, 1997)
- Cristina Delgi Esposti (OD. & intro.), Postmodernism into the Cinema (New York: Mountain cock Books, 1998)
- Thomas Docherty (OD. & intro.), Postmodernism - A reader (New York, et al.: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1993)
- Terry Eagle clay/tone, The illusion OF Postmodernism (Oxford: Blackwell, 1996)
- Peter Engelmann (OD. & intro.), Postmodernism and Dekonstruktion - texts of French philosophers of the present (1990; Stuttgart: Reclam, 1997)
- flag, Inge-borrow, cutter, Ramona: Revision of the postmodernism - post office modernism revisited, Hamburg Junius 2004 ISBN 3885065460
- David Harvey, The condition OF Postmodernity (Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers, 1995)
- Ihab Hassan, The post office-modern turn. essays inpost office-modern theory and culture. Ohio State University press, 1987.ISBN 0814204287
- Lutz Hieber/Stephan Moebius/Karl Siegbert deer mountain (Hg.): Art in the culture fight. To the criticism of the German museum culture. Contributions to the Exklusion of post office-modern art, art from the GDR among other things Autumn appears 2005, Bielefeld: transcript.
- Andreas Huyssen/Klaus R. Scherpe(Hrsg.):Postmodernism. Indication of a cultural change, Rowohlt paperback publishing house, Reinbek 1986, ISBN 3-499-55427-5
- Frederic Jameson, postmodernism. To the logic of the culture in late capitalism. In: Postmodernism. Indication of a cultural change, hrsg. Andreas Huyssen, Klaus R. Scherpe, (Rowohlt: Reinbek 1986), S. 103-127. ISBN 3499554275
- Charles Jencks, The LANGUAGE OF post office-modern Architecture, London 1977. German: The language of post office-modern architecture. The emergence of an alternative tradition, Stuttgart 1978.
- Kiel, Martin: Nexus. Postmodernism of myth pictures. Vexierbilder between play and realization. With a comment on Christoph Ransmayrs “the last world”, Frankfurt1996, ISBN 3631300557
- Heinrich block, art in 20. Century (modern trend - postmodernism - second modern trend), Munich 1994, ISBN 3406382037
- Jean Francois Lyotard, postmodernism the knowledge, Vienna 1999 (passages publishing house)
- Stephan Moebius: Postmodernism ethics and Sozialität. Contribution to a sociological theory of the moral. 2001,Stuttgart: Ibidem publishing house, 157 S., ISBN 3-89821-155-X (to the sociology of Zygmunt Bauman, to the debate around coming unitaryism and liberalism, to Heideggers “with its”, to the ethics of Lévinas, Derrida among other things).
- Thiesen, Stefan: RABENWELT - a postmodernism novella to the globalisierten world crisis, Selm, 2000, ISBN 3934195040
- Welsch, Wolfgang: Ways outthe modern trend. Cryptotexts of the postmodernism discussion. Berlin: Academy publishing house 1994.
- Zima, Peter V., modern trend/postmodernism. Society, philosophy, literature, Tübingen/Basel: A. To Francke 1997
- modern trend, Poststrukturalismus, Dekonstruktion, Viennese postmodernism, post office politics, post office Fordism, post office materialism, post office-modern novel
Web on the left of
- revision of the postmodernism. Detailed overview 
- entry (English) in the Stanford Encyclopedia OF Philosophy (inclusive Literature data)
-  postmodernism between Affirmation and resistance
- Jean François Lyotard, The post office-modern condition - A report on Knowledge (1979; Roofridge 5 Chapters OF Main body OF work)
- post office decaying sneezing mash generator,provide English-language coincidence essays
- philosophical aspects of the postmodernism (culture server of Land Berlin)
- a philosophical overview to the post office modernity (the WORTH - Internet magazine)
- the achievements of the postmodernism as theory - a philosophical criticism