President

of these articles is concerned with the head of state. For functions in the administration, which are connected with the title president, see president (administration)

a president is a head of state of a republic. Depending upon state system the office becomes by a general Choice, by a choice committee, by which or by other procedures assign legislation. Partially also in dictatorships presidents are appointed. The word president from latin praesidere is called “the presidency to have”, derived. The presidency designates the term of officeto be a president or the situation president.

Some few modern republics do not know a head of state. In addition Switzerland and San Marino count. Switzerland knows however a president of the Konföderation, which is a member of the Upper House of Parliament. Swiss national councila member of the Upper House of Parliament selects to the president for one year. However the president is only primus inter of pares (first under resembling); only on international level it is treated as a head of state.

Also the former German Lands of the Federal Republic Württemberg Hohenzollern and bathing had onePresident, who was head of state and a head of the government at the same time in a person. To Bavaria one wanted to introduce at the beginning of the 50's a president, decided however the role of the head of state the Prime Minister to leave.

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the president in the democracy

the position and the powers of the president by a written condition are usually specified. It is merged ina system of the division of power or at least into a system of strict power control.

Präsidentielle democracy

combines here the president the function head of state and those head of the government. It possesses large powers. The president becomes then usually directof the people selected, which legitimizes its strong position.

Typical präsidentielle systems of government are those of the USA, South Africa and Latin American states.

See also: Präsidentielles system of government

parliamentary democracy

here is a president only head of state. It does not become usually directfrom the people main representative functions separate by the legislation selected and have. The actual guidance of the executive (government) is the task one depending upon country (prime minister, Prime Minister, Federal Chancellor, head of the provincial government (Spain)) or similarly specifiedHead of the government, its government of the confidence of the parliament is dependent

typical parliamentary systems of government are those of Germany and Italy.

See also: Parliamentary system of government

Semipräsidentielle democracy

president and Prime Minister compete here around power. Becomes the president by thoseMajority in parliament supported, he has extensive authority. To hearing majority in parliament and president different parties on, Kohabitation prevails (frz. cohabitation) and the power of the president is reduced.

Typical semipräsidentielle systems of government are those of France, Poland and Russia, whereby Russia itself apparentin the transition to the präsidentiellen system of government rules.

See also: Semipräsidentielles system of government

other systems

in dictatorships is accepted the title of a president frequently by appointed leaders - an example of it is Uganda Expräsident Idi amine. Some state-socialist statesknow or knew likewise presidents, however power is at the central committee of the party.

see also

Wiktionary: President - word origin, synonyms and translations
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