Presidency elections in the Ukraine 2004

colors of the Ukraine
in the autumn 2004 took place presidency elections in the Ukraine . The president Leonid Kutschma officiating since 1994 was not allowed to begin no more according to condition after two terms of office to this choice, which was generally regarded as group selection for a west or an east adjustment of the country. The events around the ballot to 21. 26 flowed to November into the orange revolution in such a way specified, a peaceful protest of several weeks against election frauds, into its consequence after a resolution of the highest court to. December 2004 the ballot was repeated.

Table of contents


in the first ballot to 31. October 2004 could not achieve of the 24 candidates the absolute majority of 50%. The two bestplatzierten candidates were Wiktor Juschtschenko with 39,87% and Wiktor Janukowytsch with 39,32% (data of the electoral committee, which was not regarded of all observers as convincing). The four candidates of the socialist and communist parties received together about 13%. International observers criticized in the first ballot above all the election campaign run undemocratically and isolate arisen manipulations during the selection process.

To 21. November 2004 should decide a ballot between the two bestplatzierten presidency candidates: Wiktor Janukowytsch, the acting prime minister, and Wiktor Juschtschenko, the chairman of the opposition block our Ukraine.

Already in the choice night and in the morning after, as which central electoral committee (Центральнавиборчакомісія) published the first official counting results, by opposition side and the observers of the organization for security and co-operation in Europe (Organization for Security and Cooperation in Euro) and a part of the other international choice observers manipulation and falsification reproaches were announced. Inquiries of the polling stations had announced a clear majority for Juschtschenko.

In the following days and weeks it gave everywhere in the country, above all however to Kiew, demonstrations and protests of the opposition. There were likewise some smaller demonstrations of government supporters for the victory of Janukowytsch.

To 24. November published the center electoral committee the official final result of the ballot, 49.42% of the voices to Wiktor Janukowitsch and 46.69% to Wiktor Juschtschenko was therefore allotted. The Ukrainian opposition, the European union and the USA as well as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Euro did not recognize the election result. Democratic standards were used ignored and national resources to favour by Prime Minister Janukowitsch, communicated for instance the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Euro in Kiew. The Russian president Putin recognized the election results on and congratulated already to Wiktor Janukowytsch. It also the presidents followed Usbekistans, Kazakhstan and Armenia .

After fünftägigen continuous mass protests, which received an international medium echo, international mediators switched themselves on and reached that itself the two presidency candidates on Friday, that 26. November for the first time together to the negotiating table set. To 27. November explained the Ukrainian parliament in a special meeting the invalidity of the election results, which had only symbolic effect due to missing law power of the parliament.

To 28. November at 22.00 o'clock 10,000 men of the military units of the ministry of the Interior was mobilized in the evening under the direction of Serhyj Popkov, in order to strike down the protest at the independence place. This action knew Ihor P in the last moment by the boss of the espionage service SBU (successor of the KGB ). Smeschko, to be prevented, which Popkov threatened, troops of the SBU would protect in case of an attack as well as army units of the Ministry of Defense the demonstrators.

The highest court of the Ukraine was concerned upon the request of the opposition likewise with the reproach of the election frauds and explained at the 3. December the ballot for invalid and arranged its repetition up to 26. December on. The parliament created for this to 8. December by the change of the electoral law the conditions.

To 26. December 2004 was repeated the ballot. To 28. December communicated the electoral committee the provisional official final result, according to which Wiktor Juschtschenko was explained as the winner. It obtained 51.99% and Wiktor Janukowytsch 44.19% of the delivered voices.

the candidates

original had begun 26 persons as candidates for the presidency. Two of them, under it the candidate of the Greens a party, withdrew about one month before the first ballot of the candidacy, so that finally 24 persons were available. Serious chances on a victory were granted from the beginning only Wiktor Janukowytsch and Wiktor Juschtschenko.

Wiktor Janukowytsch

Wiktor Janukowytsch

Wiktor Janukowytsch is for November a 2002 prime minister of the Ukraine. 2004, in the second year of its reign, grew the gross national product of the Ukraine by 13,4% in relation to previous years. It became of president Kutschma, which stands as a candidate after two terms of office no longer, than successor nominates suggested and in April 2004 of the parliament as a candidate. The candidate is considered as Russia course-bent and particularly of voters in the east and the south of the Ukraine is supported.

By its function in the government and by the support Kutschmas had Janukowytsch for its election campaign access to financial means from the national budget. It a to a large extent coordinated medium landscape benefitted likewise.

Wiktor Juschtschenko

Wiktor Juschtschenko during a large meeting

of beginning of the election campaign was considered on the former chairman of the Ukrainian central bank and former prime ministers of the Ukraine Wiktor Juschtschenko as an only promising rival candidate to Wiktor Janukowytsch. The descent Ukrainian as western valid orients with an American married politician finds particularly in the west of the country voter support.

Juschtschenko became financial in the election campaign of the Soros - donation supports, which in the US-American election campaign also at the democratic presidency candidates John Kerry money donated.

After the first ballot some its rival candidates choice recommendations for Juschtschenko expressed, among them the socialist party of the Ukraine with their candidate Olexander Moros, as well as the candidate Anatolij Kinach. To the choice Juschtschenkos called also the Klitschko brothers Witali and Vladimir. Also the singer Ruslana Lyschytschko, winner Eurovision of the Song Contest 2004, supported him.

the election campaign

the election campaign was among other things characterized by an imbalance in the medium operational readiness level in favor of the government candidate Wiktor Janukowytsch. Restrictions of the freedom of reunion, raids with oppositionals groupings and persons, partyness in national institutions and universities were criticized. In Oblasten with governmentnear guidance an election campaign operational readiness level of opposition candidates in the public was hardly to be determined.

To 28. October 2004 published the European parliament in a resolution to the forthcoming presidency elections numerous points of criticism for the past process of the elections and set up a catalog of demands, in order to make really free and fair elections possible. (Original text of the resolution: [1])

the chairman of the communist party of Russia, Gennadi Sjuganow, criticized the west because of the interference into the situation before the first ballot to 31. October 2004: „I was in Kiew and saw that different actions of the local opposition carry the characteristics of those groupings, which had tried at different times for Prague, to destabilize Budapest and Bucharest - the characteristics of the US secret services.” (Out: [2])

on the large demonstration under the slogan „against election frauds” to 23. October requested Juschtschenko its trailers to look in the polling stations exactly: „The main thing is public. Bandits shrink from - exactly like a scraping - the light.” (see to original quotation [3]). Trailers Juschtschenkos were attacked by persons, who carried Milizausweise with itself.

first ballot

Candidate % voices
Wiktor Juschtschenko 39,87 11.125.395
Wiktor Janukowytsch 39,32 10.969.579
Olexander Moros 5,81 1.621.154
Petro Symonenko 4,97 1.388.045
Natalja Witrenko 1,53 426,897
Anatolij Kinach 0,93 260,890
Olexander Jakowenko 0,78 218,214
Oleksander Omeltschenko 0,48 136,502
Leonid Tschernowezkyj 0,45 128,037
Dmytro Kortschinskyj 0,17 49,641
Andrij Tschornowil 0,12 36,086
Mykola Grabar 0,07 19,550
Michaijlo Brodskyj 0,05 16,400
Yuriy Sbitnew 0,05 16,249
Serhiy Komisarenko 0,04 13,692
Wassyk Wolha 0,04 12,874
Bohdan Boiko 0,04 12,717
Oleksander Rschawskyj 0,03 10,664
Mykola Rohoschynskyj 0,03 10,242
Wladislaw Krywobokow 0,03 9,280
Oleksander Bazyljuk 0,03 8,917
Igor Duschin 0,03 8,598
novel Kosak 0,02 8,360
Wolodymyr Netschyporuk 0,02 6,141
entire: 27.897.559
1,98% the voter tuned for none of the candidates

the first ballot found to 31. October 2004 instead of. As expects, Wiktor Janukowytsch and Wiktor Juschtschenko supplied themselves a head on head running around the first place. Surprisingly for many Juschtschenko with approximately a half per cent lay in front at the time of the conclusion of the counting. After counting of all voices delivered of 100% the center gave the voice distribution to electoral committee [ 4] admits (see table and diagram).

If one regards the geographical distribution of the votes, then will that the by the majority ukrainischsprachige national west and the Zentralukraine selected Juschtschenko predominantly it was tuned clearly, during in the industrially coined/shaped, strongly russischsprachigen and of a large Russian minority inhabited east and on the Krim for Janukowytsch.

Result after the first ballot after Oblasten

more than 600 Organization for Security and Cooperation in Euro - observers reported of heavy offences against the electoral law: Wahlzettel were thrown in, voting cards already filled out were still additional, signatures were falsified and entries of dead humans and repeated entries of the same voter been noticeable. In over 40 per cent of all polling stations incorrect Wählerlisten were used.

ballot to 21. November 2004

to 21. November 2004 was accomplished a ballot between Wiktor Juschtschenko and Wiktor Janukowytsch, which should decide on the new president of the Ukraine. Public opinion polls and inquiries at the polling stations of different organizations showed Wiktor Juschtschenko with several per cent in front. However such inquiries are subject always to a certain inaccuracy.

choice day and renewed manipulation reproaches

graphic evaluation after the ballot after Oblasten

after the TV-transmitter Nadia (hope) on alleged choice manipulations reported, is around 07:30 clock the river of its transmission mechanisms switched off, reported for instance the Ukrainian press agency Media context ([5]). To trailers of the opposition report that they were stopped and requested by the police to remove orange scarves and volumes the choice color Juschtschenkos. Coworkers in enterprises were threatened with the loss of the job, should not select them not Janukowytsch. (See here course also: Development inland - Monday, 29. November). Enterprises would have organized penalty to stop in order to make for their coworkers possible the repeated tuning in different polling stations - television pictures, which were radiated in the Ukraine and in western countries, would show young demonstrators, who tried the penalty, by putting before the wheels.

Roundabout (ukr: Карусель) designation into the Ukraine a falsification procedure, with which voters with already Wahlzetteln prepared for the “correct” candidate enter the polling stations, there these into the urns throw, and their, fresh Wahlzettel also after outside, received there, take and then in other polling stations the procedure repeat. This is possible, because there are, permit Wahlscheine in another than selecting the own polling station.
Variant: Before the polling station voters are addressed and receive a voting card already filled out. After leaving the polling station the exchange of the fresh voting card takes place against a money.

In the polling station 114 it was observed that the ink of the ball-point pens which are laid out there in the choice cabs disappears after some time. (Source: [6] safety coworkers

reporters and choice observers would have removed message portal) in the Oblast Luhansk and in Donezk from the polling stations. In different polling stations voting cards were stolen, in others its voting card already filled out for Janukowytsch emerged. In Tschernihiw the polling station 73 is closed because of an alleged bomb threat for the observers. To locking of the polling stations it came in the country to notices on the Wahlurnen, which were often set in fire. The center electoral committee reported that from the choice station 109 the Wählerlisten and Wahlzettel were stolen.

Coworkers of Juschtschenkos election campaign team would have reported everywhere in the country of attacks, of some bodily injuries and Vandalismus against their vehicles. A bus was by force stopped and the disks was smashed. On the dwelling of an election campaign leader an arson attack was committed.

Following the choice by the opposition a list with 11.000 offences against the electoral law was handed over to the central electoral committee.

On the part of the government candidate offences against the electoral law were likewise announced registered (about 500) and to the electoral committee. This reported the representative by Wiktor Janukowytsch in the electoral committee, Stepan Hawrysch, the agency interfax. Most of these offences were registered in Iwano Frankiwsk , Lwiw , Winnyzja , Ternopil , Chmelnyzkyj , Schytomyr and in the Oblast Saporischja. Among them are many centers of the opposition. The entrance and the observation of the there choice act ions were not permitted to the choice observers of Wiktor Janukowytsch. In addition that individual persons would have selected several times for different persons, among them a woman in Lwiw with 20 different passports, which was at present examined, was reported. In the west of the Ukraine voices of persons are delivered, who were not at the time within the Ukraine. More than 100 of such cases is registered in the region of Iwano Frankiwsk, a center of the opposition.

From Janukowytsch partly was not permitted to observers to collect reports over choice offences and voters would have refused signing these reports. Also in Kiews electoral district No. 221 it came to irregularities: The head of one of the electoral committees would have read out and would have tried a speech of Juschtschenko there to affect the voters. Observers of Janukowytsch provided a report over it and filmed the actions of the there present director/conductor of the electoral committee.

All these and further materials were handed over to the Kiewer office of the public prosecutor's office, reported the Russian Website of interfax.

choice night

Kiew stood in the night of Sunday on Monday in the indication of the elections - at the place of independence Juschtschenko trailers celebrated, as if they would have won; approximately around the center electoral committee took place a marching-up of strong security forceses, water throwers and armoured vehicles.

the first counting results

a limited projection/lead for Wiktor Janukowytsch announced process of the counting against the results of choice inquiries. This solidified itself in the course of the next days, and to 24. November was communicated the final result: 49.46% for Wiktor Janukowytsch and 46.61% for Wiktor Juschtschenko.

From that 15 Unterschreibern of the official election result refused the signature and further to two withdrew their signature. Only nine of the 15 commissioners stand to the official election result.

after the choice in Kiew

Monday, 22. November

in the morning after the choice, 22. November 2004, about 9 o'clock. Place of independence, Kiew

at the place of independence demonstrated on Monday to the 22. November more than 100,000 humans and skandierten against the electoral fraud obvious for it by the administration. (Source e.g. [7]) Rallies from the Ukraine brought additional demonstrators after Kiew. The drivers Kiews drove past since 9:30 clock from protest honking at the centers electoral committee. „Remains, where you are “, called Juschtschenko humans at the place of independence too. „From all parts of the Ukraine ten thousands humans with airplanes, courses, cars and on trucks come here. Our protest catches straight only on “. The Ukrainian poet and signer of the declaration of independence Dmytro Pawlytschko said: „We will not leave this place, until we won. “

After rumors had arisen, the government want at three o'clock the place of independence to vacate at night and close, remaining about 2000 humans, under it members of the student organization Pora!, the whole night at temperatures under the freezing point in a provisional Zeltstadt. Since the early morning hours the quantity on approx. grew. 250,000 humans on, who had traveled to a large extent from all parts of the Ukraine and by the Kiewer population were supplied, in order to demonstrate against the election frauds.

Road scene in Lemberg to 26. November 2004

the city councils of Lwiw, Iwano Frankiwsk, Luzk, Winnyzja and Chmelnyzkyj) rejected the election result and explained, it regarded Juschtschenko as legal presidents of the Ukraine. The city council of Kiew called the official election result falsified and requested the highest advice (the parliament of the Ukraine) to cancel the choice. The opposition politician Julija Tymoschenko called on Monday to the general strike: „If the parliament power not actually takes, only the people the only legitimized authority in the country will be. “You blockades of roads and should airports, the delegates announced to nothing undertake.

Several of the candidates around the presidency from the first ballot followed Juschtschenko, among them Petro Symonenko (a communist party), Olexander Moros (a socialist party of the Ukraine). Janukowytsch however supported of the candidates Natalja Witrenko (a party of the progressive socialists) and Oleksander Jakowenko (communist worker and farmer a party).

Tuesday, 23. November: Special meeting of the parliament

after on Tuesday early again approx. 250,000 humans in Kiew were met, explained themselves Juschtschenko as the winner of the elections and asked themselves for international acknowledgment: „We appeal at the parliaments and nations of the world to support the will of the Ukrainian people and its striving for a return to the democracy! “Juschtschenko called its trailers to a march on parliament building. Here the Werchowna Rada ( ВерховнаРада) should, which advise Ukrainian parliament, on Tuesday tomorrow in an extraordinary meeting over the result of the ballot. A Petition of the Kiewer of city council, which was supported by the opposition, demanded, to cancel the second ballot. The delegates of the government parties boycotted however the meeting, so that from 450 delegates only 191 was present. The city council was not resolutionable thus.


The meeting was transferred to screens on the road. Parliament president Wolodymyr Lytwyn demanded in his speech, which had parliament until Wednesday a decision pleases has, since otherwise the people will decide. Ihor Juchnowskyj, delegate of Juschtschenkos choice block “our Ukraine” (Nascha Ukraina), requested Wiktor Juschtschenko during its speech to be able to be sworn in as a president of the Ukraine. Parliament president Wolodymyr Lytwyn closed thereupon the meeting; with switched off cameras and microphones Juschtschenko carried the office oath out on the Bible before the present delegates of the opposition parties, which anstimmten afterwards the national anthem. Juschtschenko announced, the oath achievement, which was called now „symbolically “to repeat before the quantity at the independence place. In German media such as Phoenix and the news of the day on the oath achievement rather sceptically one reported.

After the TV-transmission of the sitting of parliament had been broken off, the independent, but per Juschtschenko showed adjusted television stations „fifth channel of “pictures of soldiers and Miliztruppen, who stand by in the environment of Kiew. German journalists reported in their live-circuits in the evening messages of penalties with trailers Janukowytschs on the way after Kiew, which want to protect their candidate, even if necessarily by force. In television interviews they express: „We do not want that Kiew becomes American “.

On Tuesday evening the demonstrators drew into two up to three kilometers to long courses to the president palace, in order to change this over and to wait for force-free a giving of the government up. The march was stopped by safety forces, it became however no incidents admits.

While „the fifth channel reported “of the events, journalists of the nationally controlled television stations had refused continuing working. They explained, the people was a right to information, but under the dominant conditions of work an objective information transfer is impossible. In particular they criticized the so-called. „Temnyky “, instructions for direction from the Ministry, in which one prescribes for them, on which topics it as to be reported might.

Wednesday, 24. November

on early Wednesday evening communicated the center electoral committee the final election result and explained Janukowytsch as the winner. At the place of independence Wiktor Juschtschenko communicated later in the evening the composition one „to national rescue committees for the defense of the condition “.

The German CDU politician Claudia Nolte (MdB) traveled after Kiew and spoke to the demonstrators: „Choice counterfeiters cannot hold themselves, that history showed. The liberty cannot be stopped. “Also Vladimir Klitschko appeared in Kiew, in order to encourage the demonstrators. It stated its hope for a peaceful solution.

Thursday, 25. November: Highest court forbids the publication of the election results

Wiktor Juschtschenko

in the afternoon 25. November switched itself the highest court on of the Ukraine on request Juschtschenkos and forbade first the publication of the official result. The highest court communicated that the result up to the official publication was not valid and therefore also no new president be proclaimed could.

Friday, 26. November

Demonstranten in Donetsk halten das Porträt ihres Kandidaten Wiktor Janukowytsch (Aufnahme vom 24.11.2004)
demonstrator in Donetsk haven-guess/advise their candidate Wiktor Janukowytsch (admission of 24.11.2004) hold

with the attempt of demonstrators to break through and government buildings block shut-off positions of the police, came it in the morning 26. November in Kiew to Rangeleien. Increasingly pictures of along-demonstrating police officers in uniform in the newscasts emerged.

Since the early morning hours thousands opposition trailers blocked the approach roads to the parliament by penalty transverseposed and by people chains. Neither the Prime Minister, nor its coworkers, employees or officials came through.

Also for the acknowledgment of the elections and for Janukowytsch demonstrations took place, as at the Kiewer Woksalnaja place, in which about 20,000 humans participated. In the east of the Ukraine ten thousands for national independence and autonomy of the east of the Ukraine demonstrate.

In the evening Juschtschenko and Janukowytsch agreed under switching by of Poland president Kwaśniewski, president Kutschma, the litauischen president Adamkus, European Union-externalassigned Javier Solana on the formation of a working group for the peaceful solution of the conflict. Juschtschenko and Janukowytsch excluded to seize to force. Still in the night of Sunday on Monday the negotiations for failed are explained.

Saturday, 27. November: Special meeting of the parliament

the Ukrainian parliament agreed with majority of 255 of the 429 present delegates of a resolution, in which heavy offences against the right to vote are determined. The result determined by the electoral committee does not correspond to the will of the voters. The parliament demands the abolition of the ballot and the joggle of the electoral committee, which earns no more confidence after the occurrences. The electoral committee missed it to fulfill their obligations according to the Ukrainian condition and laws. The parliament does not have however the law powers to cancel the Präsidentenwahl.

Sunday, 28. November

Julija Tymoschenko requested president Kutschma in the evening before approximately 100,000 demonstrators to dismiss the prime minister Janukowytsch until Monday evening. Otherwise the opposition movement the freedom of movement of the president everywhere in the Ukraine to limit and Kutschma than „criminal “legally one pursue. Wiktor Juschtschenko reminded of the successful revolution in Georgien, with which after demonstrations lasting for weeks the fall of president Eduard Shevardnadze followed. He called the demonstrator too: „I request you: Remains up to the conclusion “. (Sources: [8]/[9]).

The national security council under presidency of Kutschma demanded the demonstrators in Kiew in an urgency meeting up to make the entrances to administration buildings free. Janukowytsch announced otherwise „measures “.

In the Ukrainian black sea city Odessa demanded more than 30000 demonstrators national independence and the right of self-determination of the region of the Ukraine, if Wiktor Juschtschenko should take over power. On the town hall square of the city an appropriate „resolution was decided “. (Out: [10])

at 22.00 o'clock 10,000 men of the military units of the ministry of the Interior was mobilized in the evening under the direction of Sergyj Popkov, in order to strike down the protest at the independence place. The US-American minister of foreign affairs Colin Powell, which was informed by American Ambassador John the autumn about the forthcoming action, intervened by telephone with president Leonid Kutschma and tried to prevent the employment. (Source: Lecture of the US Ambassador with Konrad Adenauer donation in Kiew).

Many more crucially however the measures were, the Ihor P. Smeschko, boss of the Ukrainian espionage service SBU (Ukrainian successor organization of the KGB) met. This informed by an agent of the SBU the demonstrators in the Zeltstadt on the independence place and the Chreschtschatik that troops of the ministry of the Interior at the advance are. Further Smeschko left over the director/conductor of the military counter-espionage department, major general Witaly Romanchenko, which commander of the advancing troops, Serhyj Popov align, that the employment of force is illegal against the peaceful demonstrations and prosecution could have as a consequence. Further in case of an attack of the troops of the ministry of the Interior units of the army and the SBUs would defend the Protestanten. Also Oleksander Halaka, leader the military clearing-up service used itself actively to stop the troops of the ministry of the Interior. In view of the Drohkolisse developed by SBU and units of the Ministry of Defense the ministry of the Interior terminated the action. Hereby a bloody striking down could be prevented. (Sources:[11]; Lecture of the US Ambassador with Konrad Adenauer donation in Kiew)

Monday, 29. November


the opposition demanded a further extraordinary meeting of the parliament for Monday, with which the government of Janukowytsch was to place itself to a vote of no confidence, and which dismissal of prosecutor general Hennadij Wassiljew.

In Kiew the highest court began with the consultation over the disputed Präsidentenwahl and the complaint of the candidate Wiktor Juschtschenko officially who was subject against the center electoral committee. Surprisingly also president Kutschma the demands agreed after new elections.

Tuesday 30. November

European Union chief diplomat Javier Solana arrived in Kiew, in order to meet with the acting president Kutschma. The Ukrainian central bank limited the height of the removals by private individuals, in order to prevent a flight of capital. The opposition announced in the afternoon to break the negotiations off with the government.

Wednesday 1. December

in the morning approved of the parliament with limited majority a modified vote of no confidence against the government. The the day before brought in vote of no confidence had failed. In the evening after negotiations at rounding table under participation was obtained by Javier Solana , Aleksander Kwaśniewski and Valdas Adamkus as well as Ján Kubiš a first negotiation progress. Wiktor Janukowytsch, Wiktor Juschtschenko and Leonid Kutschma signed a compromise paper with a plan of point of filter, in which among other things the reorganization of the government as well as political reforms were agreed upon. The opposition assured to terminate starting from Thursday the FE storage of the institutions for government.

Thursday 2. December

president Leonid Kutschma traveled to Moscow, in order to meet with Vladimir Putin, the Kutschma to its demand supported to repeat the complete choice. Opposition leader Juschtschenko remained meanwhile with his demand to repeat only the ballot.

The highest court busy itself with the election results of some western electoral districts, after Janukowytsch had submitted complaint against choice manipulations on the part of the opposition. Janukowytsch wanted to obtain thereby a repetition of the complete choice, the opposition however wanted only a repetition of the ballot. For both sides the factor time was enormously important.

Ruslan Knjasewytsch, member of the centers electoral committee, stated on Thursday before the highest court that with the ballot after locking of the polling stations to 21. November one million voices into the Wahlurnen thrown are additional.

Friday 3. December

the highest court of the Ukraine explained at the 3. December the ballot because of systematic falsifications for invalid and arranged in its judgement a repetition of the ballot for the 26. December on. Source: both candidates had explained already before to accept the decision.

Saturday, 4. December

Wiktor Janukowytsch announced to bend themselves and to a second ballot place themselves the decision of the highest court.

Thus the repetition of the choice to 26. December, like by the highest court to be arranged, accomplished could be changed, had the electoral law of the Ukraine. On a sitting of parliament on Saturday the government side demanded to couple the tuning of the law change directly with the constitutional amendment which limits the power of the president in favor of of parliament and government. The opposition rejected this, whereupon president accused Kutschma of the opposition word break. The constitutional amendment was agreed upon firmly during the switching discussions in the apron.

Tuesday, 7. Decembers

at the night to Tuesday were broken off again the negotiations at rounding table without progress. Neither the demand of the opposition after dismissal of prime minister Janukowytsch still the constitutional amendments demanded by president Kutschma and the government could be interspersed.

In the course of Tuesday a compromise appeared, when Leonid Kutschma Wiktor Janukowytsch for the period of the election campaign gave time off. The office business was taken over by its first deputy, Mykola Asarow.

Wednesday, 8. December

after negotiations of several days adopted the parliament on Wednesday, that 8. December a compromise package, which planned condition and changes of right to vote. In addition was decided to occupy the central electoral committee partly again among other things its leader Serhij Kiwalow was replaced. Thus the legal basis for the repetition of the ballot became to 26. December 2004 production. The separating president Kutschma still signed in the parliament hall the bill.

The intended constitutional amendments limit the power of the future president in favor of the parliament, especially the president will not be allowed to appoint any longer the government. The changes are to step at expiration of the next legislative period 2006 into force.

reactions from the foreign country

demonstration in Brussels
demonstration in Frankfurt, 27. November 2004

the European union condemned the procedures clearly around the elections and requested the responsible persons in Kiew to examine both the selection process as well as the result since the ballot international standard is not sufficient. The European Union parliament took to 2. December a resolution request on, in which the Ukraine was requested to accomplish a repetition of the ballots. Separatist efforts were seriously condemned.

The USA accused to the Ukrainian government a “concentrated program for the electoral fraud” to have converted.

Russia accused to the European Union and the USA to want to draw with its attitude a new dividing line by Europe.

The German Bundestag stated that also the second round of the Ukrainian presidency elections did not fulfill the standards for democratic elections. Again the election results substantial were falsified. The Bundestag it hold it for an encouraging indication that the Ukrainian civil company with Furchtlosigkeit and large commitment supported the practice of its fundamental right on free expression of opinion and free elections.

Into Berlin, Frankfurt, Vienna and Brussels it came to demonstrations, on which native and abroad living Ukrainer stated solidarity with the democracy movement in the Ukraine.

Repetition choice 26. December 2004

polling station in Dnipropetrowsk to 26. December
on Sunday, that 26. December 2004, took place under presence of approximately 12,000 international choice observers the repetition of the ballot. After locking of the polling stations three institutes published the results of by-election questionings, after which Wiktor Juschtschenko lay in front between 10 and 15 per cent. One of the institutes is financed by the Ukrainian government, a further among other things by different western states as well as the UN and third among other things by the republican party of the USA. (Source: German wave).

President Leonid Kutschma called both candidates with his casting of votes to accept the result: „In my opinion should that, which loses, which winners call, congratulate to him and an end for this extended election campaign prepare. “

After medium reports there were some manipulation attempts, which did not accept however the extents of the first ballot.

graphic evaluation of the 2. Ballot after Oblasten

the choice observers spoke of a choice run fair. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Euro choice observer mission stated, the choice had approached „substantially more near at Organization for Security and Cooperation in Euro standards “(text of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Euro report). EU-commission president José Manuel Durão Barroso praised the repetition elections as „the further step on the way to a friedvollen and democratic society “; also US Secretaries of State Colin Powell and the assigned one for outside and security politics of the European Union, Javier Solana, praised the Ukraine for the expiration of the elections. The German politician Winfried Nachtwei, which was as a choice observer in Odessa, reported in interviews, it had determined no irregularities.

The speaker of the choice observer mission from the Eastern European countries and the GUS, Emil Schleimowitsch, communicated on a press conference on Monday that he as legal regard the choice. It did not give „irregularities in an extent that one can regard the elections as illegitim “. Its mission recommends to recognize the decision of the Ukrainian people.

Wiktor Janukowytsch announced on Monday evening, it the election results will judicially contest. Altogether three million voices went to Janukowytsch through manipulations lost, said a coworker of its staff. The center electoral committee received about 550 complaints of Janukowytsch trailers, which it all wanted to examine individually.

On Tuesday the Russian guidance expressed itself by Secretary of Defense Sergei Iwanow, that in pc. Petersburg communicated that it by the choice victory Juschtschenkos do not see impairment in the mutual safety relations of the Ukraine and Russia.

In the course of Tuesday the electoral committee communicated the provisional official final result, according to which Wiktor Juschtschenko was explained as the winner. It reached 51.99% and Wiktor Janukowytsch 44.19% of the delivered voices.

After report of the electoral committee 537,481 (1.85%) Ukrainer used the possibility of selecting at home: Donezk 88,482 (2.8%), Luhansk 49,185 (3%), Krim 25,281 (2.2%), Dnipropetrowsk 26,106 (1.3%) and Lemberg 29,629 (1.7%). 12,522 voters selected outside of their residence: City Kiew: 1.490, Odessa: 1.210.

The Wiktor Janukowytsch given time off before the repetition choice of its office as prime ministers announced to take up on the following Wednesday again its Regierungsgeschäfte. Choice winner Juschtschenko demanded thereupon its trailers at the place of independence up to block in the morning the government building in order to prevent this. The parliament had Janukowytsch at the 1. December the distrust expressed. The planned cabinet meeting found thereupon not.

Choice loser Janukowytsch inserted briefly before end of the period officially complaint against the election result. It was considered as probable that the electoral committee would reject the complaint. In addition it submitted four electoral fraud complaints at the highest court, of those the latter to 30. December for formal reasons was rejected. Neither the reproach nor the demands are legally clearly enough calm, and two of the complaints were not within the prescribed period, were called it on the part of the court.

The winner of the ballot, Wiktor Juschtschenko, planned in the meantime the composition of a new government; as a Prime Minister minister Julija Tymoschenko, Petro Poroschenko, in addition, Olexander Moros were in the discussion.

In the evening 31. December announced its resignation to Janukowytsch as an Prime Minister. It sets no more hope into a decision of the electoral committee positive for him. This had rejected a short while before its complaints. President Kutschma took the request for resignation to 5. January 2005 on and intended vice-head of the government Mykola Asarow for its successor.

In his last New Year speech, which was radiated at the New Year's Eve 2004 on the television, the separating president Kutschma - to call without names - requested “all regions and each individual citizen” to accept the democratic choice since the new president will need the support of the people. (Complete text of the speech, English: [12])

a further complaint, the Wiktor Janukowytsch to 5. January with the highest court had submitted, white this to 6. January after five-hour meeting off. Janukowytsch announced to raise after the Verkündigung of the official final result which can be expected now by the center electoral committee again complaint.

In the evening 10. January 2005 explained the center electoral committee officially to Wiktor Juschtschenko as the winner of the repetition choice. The staff Wiktor Janukowytschs announced the contestation of the election result before the highest court. The repetition choice is not a valid expression of will of the people, said Taras Tschornowil, director/conductor of the Janukowytsch staff and referred to “500 volumes with proofs for offences against the electoral law”, which one gathered. The highest court forbade Janukowytschs in the evening of the 11 on request. January the prescribed official publication of the final result of the presidency election. First the complaint must be examined against the victory Juschtschenkos, was called it for reason. The Klageschrift should be submitted according to instructions Tschornowils on Wednesday.

The negotiation before the highest court lasted more than one week; the plaintiffs became among other things represent lawyer Peter Charles Schifferli from Swiss. A request to take off and the civil jurisdiction hand over the case from the highest court, was rejected. On Wednesday, that 19. January 2005 rejected the court in addition a further adjournment of the negotiation on the subsequent week and permitted the two Officials Journal Urjadowyj Kurjer (government courier) and Holos Ukrajiny (voice of the Ukraine), the election results to 20. To publish January and to explain thus Wiktor Juschtschenko officially as the selected president.

Still at on it following the night to 20. January, at 2.40 o'clock, announced the highest court its final judgement; all complaints on the part of Wiktor Janukowytsch were rejected. In the morning 20. January at the night the printed Officials Journal with the election result appeared, with whose publication the choice cannot be waived now finally any longer.

To 23. January 2005 took place in the Werchowna Rada, the Ukrainian parliament, the office introduction of president Wiktor Juschtschenko. Numerous international guests were present, among them the separating American minister of foreign affairs Colin Powell, the Polish president Alexander Kwaśniewski, for the European Union Benita Ferrero Waldner, and for Germany the president of the German federal daily, Wolfgang Thierse.

model function

the events during the presidency elections in the Ukraine are seen in the media gladly as comparison basis and also as model for the events, which occurred in March 2006 in the context of the presidency elections in white Russia. Likewise the protesting in the Orangenen revolution see a model, after whose sample they accomplish now the protests in white Russia 2006. They did not have however due to the other starting situation (less international attention, no independent media, no genuine opposition structures and the majority of the population stood despite election frauds behind president Aljaksandr Lukaschenka) a success and the protests of the Oposition by government troops were by force dissolved.


  • Florian Strasser: Civilsocial influences on the orange revolution. The forceless mass movement and the Ukrainian choice crisis 2004; ibidem 2006; ISBN 3898216489
  • Ingmar Bredies (Hrsg.): To the anatomy of the orange revolution in the Ukraine. Change of the elite regime or triumph of the parliamentarism? with contributions of Wolodymir Jewtuch, Kyrylo Haluschko, Sarah Whitmore, Ingmar Bredies; ibidem 2005; ISBN 3898215245
  • German society for Eastern Europe customer: Eastern Europe 1/2005, 55. Class, January 2005, citizen of Berlin science publishing house
    • Mykola Rjabtschuk: The Ukraine at the crossroad. Is a blackmailer state reformable?
    • Gerhard Simon: New beginning in the Ukraine. From varying to the revolution in orange
    • Kerstin room: The coal, the clan and power. To the political situation of the area Donec'k
    • Winfried cutter Deters: The pallilative Ukrainepolitik of the European Union. A final speech for new thinking
    • Sabine Fischer: Russia and the Ukraine. Miscalculation or neoimperialer impulse?

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