|of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see Prague (term clarifying).|
|Coat of arms||map|
|Wahlspruch:||Praga Caput Rei Publicae|
|geographical situation:|| |
Coordinates: 50° 5 ′ 19 " N, 14° 25 ′ 17 " O 50° 5 ′ 19 "N, 14° 25 ′ 17 " O
|height:||between 177 and 399 m and. NN|
|surface:||496 km ²|
|inhabitants:||1.181.610 (31. December 2005)|
|Population density:||2,382 inhabitants for each km ²|
|postal zip codes:||100 00 - 110 00|
|ISO 3166-2:|| |
|KFZ characteristic:|| |
Prague west (Praha západ):
Prague east (Praha východ):
|city arrangement:|| 57 quarters and |
22 administrative districts
|Website:|| praha.cz and |
|of governing mayors (Primator):||MUDr. Pavel Bém (ODS)|
Prague (Czech: Praha) is the capital of the Czech republic and the Mittelböhmi region (Středočeský kraj). Prague (Hlavní město Praha) is simultaneous independent administrative unit (Hlavní město Praha).
Table of contents
a majority of the city lies in a far valley of the Moldau.The remainder distributes itself on nine hill surrounding the valley:Letná, Vítkov, Opyš, Větrov, Skalka, Emauzy, Vyšehrad, Karlov and the highest of them Petřín. The Prager section of the Moldau is 30 km long with an average depth of 2,75m; the largest depth amounts to 10.5 M. It makes a large loop in the city and flows around nine islands. The Moldau takes up five and on the right bank four brooks on the left bank.
in thatCapital Prague 1.181.610 humans, that live are a far over tenth of the total population of the country. The majority distributes itself however on the numerous outlying districts and on the development areas at the outskirts of a town. The historical city center has only about 40,000 inhabitants.
ThoseUnemployment ratio lies already for years with approximately 3.4% the Prager population, corresponds to about 20,000 unemployed persons.
as one of the oldest, largest and most beautiful cities in Central Europe, which remained to a large extent exempted from the destruction in the Second World Wars, is it today a routistic goal of all first rank.
The architectural styles in Prague are very various. One finds Roman, gothical, Renaissance, baroque, Rococo, klassizistische, Empire, art nouveau and cubist buildings, churches, towers or other buildings and artifacts.
The buyer Ibrahim ibn Jaqubcalled Prague “the city built from stone and lime” or “stone Prague”. Further names for Prague were Praga totius Bohemiae domina (Prague, the lady of completely Böhmen) and Praga mould urbium (Prague, the nut/mother of all cities). In the Middle Ages becamePrague as Praga caput regni (Prague, the head of the kingdom) designates. By Karl IV. Prague also the “golden city” was called. Since beginning 19. Century it also the “city of the hundred towers” was called.
tomost well-known are reliably the Prager castle with the Veitsdom, the Karl bridge and the Altstädter ring with Teynkirche, Ungelt, city hall and astronomical clock (Orloj). In addition, the second medieval castle, the Vyšehrad with the pc. Peter and Pauls church, is worth an attendance. Those Prager old part of town is particularly coined/shaped by its old houses, which often go back into the Romanesque and gothic, its numerous churches and romantic lanes. On the small side and in the Hradschin - against it magnificent palaces from the Renaissance dominate city and the baroque, under it also the palace Lobkowicz with the German message, which wrote 1989 as place of refuge of refugees from the GDR all-German history. Nearby the two quarters the monastery Strahov lies.
Would not be against it in the new cityand monasteries from the gothic and the baroque received, one would hardly assume the Neustädter city hall at the Karl place and many churches that also her already in the center 14. Century one based. This particularly applies to the most animated placein Prague, the Wenzelsplatz, which as from mondänen purchase passages gesäumter boulevard reminds hardly still of its medieval origin. Only the church pc. Maria Schnee gives still another certification to his great importance already in earlier time. Famous is Prague likewisefor its numerous buildings of art nouveau. In Prague the Kubismus could unfold also in architecture.
Also modern architecture is represented with some exzeptionellen buildings such as franc Gehrys “Ginger and Fred” or the TV tower. A further remarkable prospect andTransmitting tower is that the Eiffelturm shared Petřínská rozhledna. The 60 m high tower was established 1891. The city Prague particularly coined/shaped by the Moldau, which is spanned by 13 large bridges from different times.
alsooutside of the city center there are numerous further routistic visited places like famous the white mountain become by the battle of the same name 1620 (Bílá Hora) with the Renaissance hunting seat lock star, that nearby convenient Benediktinerkloster Břevnov, the baroque Lock Troja with its beautiful cover paintings and the Prager zoo in the same quarter as well as many other more.
major item: History of Prague
the settlement of the area goes back in the Paläolithikum. The Prager basinbelonged during the entire Ur and early history to most closely and the almost constantly settled landscapes Böhmens. First slawische groups pushed approximately starting from the second half 6. Century into the area forwards. In 9. Century became the Prager castlewith below in the range of the today's small side lying the Suburbium and in 10. Century a second castle on the Vyšehrad as seat of the Přemysliden put on. In the protection of the two castles settlements developed German and on both sides of the MoldauJewish buyers and native craftsmen. Around 1230/34 king Wenzel I. left. the largest of these settlements to the Moldaubiegung fasten and gave you the municipal law. Prague became thereby the royal Residenzstadt of the böhmischen rulers. Its son Přemysl Ottokar II.the population Czech on the other Moldauufer underneath the castle resident drove out and created 1257 the first Prager new city, the today's small side (Malá Strana). As the third Prager city became 1320 ago of the castle counts the dependent Hradschin - city(also castle city, Hradčany) directly west the castle put on.
Under emperors Karl IV. and its son Wenzel IV. erblühte the city as capital of the holy Roman realm in the second half 14. Century economically, culturally, politically and on manyfurther areas. Here 1348 the Karl university was created as the first university in Central Europe. The Prager university was thus the first German university. By the building of the Prager new city in the same year the dye with far became over 40.000 inhabitants fourth largestCity north the alps and regarding its surface third biggest city in Europe. Starting from the year 1419 it was heavily shaken however in the Hussitenkriegen and partly destroyed.
End 16. Century made emperor Rudolf II.Prague again to the Residenzstadt. Ofsplendourful baroque palaces and churches witness to this time. By the second Prager Fenstersturz then the dreissigjährige war released and also the seven-year-old war left traces.
Around 1900 outward world-open Prague was seat first in the area of themedieval German ones of Reich created University of, a greenhouse for artists and regenerating man of letters. However three poet circles competed with one another: The closer Prager circle formed max of Brod and its friends Franz Kafka, Felix Weltsch and Otto tree. The association “Wefa” coveredmany authors, which hardly still admits today is, like z. B.Friedrich eagle. Einem anderen Verein, der neuromantische Kreis Jung-Prag gehörten zum Beispiel Rilke, Gustav Meyrink, der beruflich in Prag zu tun hatte, und der junge Franz Werfel on. In this time Prague was as city of the many people state Austria Hungary by one moves exchange between the nationalities coined/shaped.
Only over 1860 lost Prague its German existing since the Middle Ages and/or. German-language population majority. During the Czechoslovakian census ofto 1930 indicated still 42,000 Prager German as native language, it lived particularly in the city centre (quarters old part of town and small side).
During the Second World War also Prague was occupied by German troops. 1939 lived about 120,000 Jews in the böhmischen countries, manyof it in Prague. About 78,000 of the national socialists was killed by these.
As at the 1. May 1945 in Prague the message of the suicide of Hitler admits, the three-day-long trusting inheritance flying a flag arranged from Berlin still without resistance was accomplished. Only in the afternoon4. May came it in the city to a rebellion, which was supported also by the troops of the Russian release army of the general Wlassow, and to barricade fights. To 9. The troops of the Red Army Prague reached and could May ittake after fights. Their life left over 800 Red Army soldiers. On arrangement Stalins were arrested many member of the Prager units of the Wlassow army just like Wlassow themselves. Still during the escape of bombarded German airplanes punctually the city.
In Praguestationed armed forces itsnesses was many Austrians. These was offered to take off combatless too resulted in and without war shank what most also accepted. Troops of the weapon SS tried to blow up still houses. This could be prevented by the employment of the barricade fighters. TodayPrague at each 9 celebrates. May the day of release.
Immediately after end of war in May 1945 the Prager German was nearly without exception driven out. Many of them were interned first, about 5,000 died. 1945 became also inPrague resident Hungary expropriates and until 1947 partially to Hungary obligation-evacuated.
Whole 20. Through century Prague kept the rank of a European metropolis. That could do neither the German nor Soviet occupation or the authoritarian communism of Soviet coinage somethingwear. During the Prager spring 1968 was tried in peaceful way to replace prevailing authoritarian socialism by a socialism with human face. This was struck down by troops Warsaw Pact with force of arms. 1989 were Prague scene of in such a way specified Samtenen revolution, which meant the end of the socialist regime in Czechoslovakia at that time.
the city are divided in 58 quarters and 22 administrative districts. Each quarter has a mayor, an advice and an agency. The highestOffice dresses the mayor. This is called in Prague “Primator” and governs the city with the help of the town councillor. Together they educate the city government.
Each regulation and the budget of the city must by the agency of the capital Prague, also city council mentioned and dischargedbecome. The city administration is called “municipal authorities”. Their fields are partial the autonomy of the municipalities and the public administration. The administration of the individual quarters is called quarter authority. The autonomy of the municipalities is exercised by the appropriate quarter authority. The 22 administrative authorities practice together withmunicipal authorities of the city also the tasks of the public administration out. One calls these authorities also responsible authorities.
the last choice was 2002.
allocation of seats in the Lower House(70 seats)
allocation of seats in the town councillor
partnerships between cities
Prague maintains with the following cities partnerships. In parentheses the year of the establishment.
economics and infrastructure
the capital of the Czech republic belong traditionally to the most important economical centers of the country. Beside onethe tourism, the city has important film industry and the probably most important branch, also a substantial processing industry.
The gross domestic product amounted to 2002 620 billion Crowns (i.e. 25.7% entire GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, in market prices) with a very high result for each headthe population (226% of the state average and - after purchasing power parities - about 120% European Union - of the average).
- 970 € per inhabitant (2003)
- debts entirely
- 35 billion Crowns
1,08 billion € (2003)
- Unemployed person
- 21,678 corresponds to 3.4% (June 2002)
the processing industry of Prague constitutes 7.6 per cent of the total production of the country, the city takes with it in the regional structure the 5. Place from altogether 14 regions (kraje). The industrial areas particularly lie in the northeast andin the southwest of the city. On the city there were 2003 733 industrial companies (starting from 20 busy persons) with altogether 111 thousand persons employed.
after the extent take here two industries oneoutstanding on position: the production of food and of electrical and optical devices, both industries with a volume of approximately 33,000 millions Crowns in the year 2002 (or about 12 per cent portion of the production of the Czech republic); particularly stronglythe production of broadcast and television sets is represented (20 per cent of the total production).
Are followed these two industries by the polygrafische industry with scarcely 24,500 millions Crowns production; the position of this branch is underlined by the fact that Prague in this branch due toa large concentration (with 44 per cent of the total production) prozentuell takes the first place in the Czech republic.
In the city however also further traditional branches of industry are settled:
- mechanical engineering
- chemistry inclusively the pharmaceutical industry
- of building materials inclusively Products of minerals (glass, porcelain,Ceramic(s))
- means of transport production, here then in particular rail-mounted vehicles (like streetcars), furthermore motor cycles (here the tradition mark JAWA), in addition, small and light airplanes (and their maintenance and repair); impressing from the production volume not, however with a portion of 23 per cent of productionthe country
other industries play a role rather subordinated.
Prague is a European traffic junction. Nearly all traffic routes in Böhmen bundle themselves in the city. In the west is a motorway binding, thoseacross Pilsen (Plzeň) toward Nuremberg leads, and in the east across Brünn (Brno) to Bratislava. Northward a motorway exists until to Lobositz. She is further-built at present toward Dresden. Most important stations are thatMain station (Praha Hlavní nádraží, hl.n.), Holešovice, Smíchov and Masarykovo nádraží (Masaryk station). The airport is in Ruzyně in the northwest of the city. In addition Prague possesses a Moldauhafen.
public means of transport
public means of transport in Pragueare bus, streetcar (Tram) and the Prager underground with the lines A, B and C. Furthermore a net of regularly operating, with rapid-transit railways exists comparable, Vorortzügen.
beside thatoldest university in Central Europe, the 1348 created Karl university Prague 1707 in the city the first technical university of the country were created. Today here still six further universities, in particular for art or music, exist as well as a multiplicity of schools as well as furtherpublic and private educational facilities. Also the Czech academy of the sciences, whose origins go back into the year 1784, has their seat in Prague. The numerous research institutes are distributed over the whole city.
major item: Art and culturein Prague
accommodates museums national museum at the Wenzelsplatz the city. Oldest, largest and probably most well-known is the national museum (Národní muzeum) at the Wenzelsplatz with the associated historical museum in the Lobkowitz palace, thatLapidarium (Lapidárium), the Antonín Dvořák museum (Muzeum Antonína Dvořáka) and the Bedřich Smetana museum (Muzeum Bedřicha Smetany). The history of the city shows the museum of the capital Prague (Muzeum hlavního města Prahy). Far awayadmits is also the Mucha museum (Muchovo muzeum) and the Jewish museum. The mansion Bertramka (Vila Bertramka) informs Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart about the life and work in Prague and that the musician family Dušek. To the more failedReliably the beer museum of the brewery Staropramen belongs to museums.
in Prague gives it innumerable large and small stages. Beside the national theatre (Národní Divadlo with play, opera, ballet) and that State State of (Státní opera) is internationally above all the Laterna Magica well-known, an avant-garde theatre in that the national theatre attached “new scene” (Nová scena), an original entwinement of film, light, music, ballet and Pantomime darbietet.Also the black theatre, consisting of Pantomime and light effects on black background, is worth seeing. In the theatre at the railing (Divadlo well zabradli) Václav Havel began as a Bühnenarbeiter. Cult status among Czechs has the Jara there Cimrman theatre.
the sound of the Czech Philharmonic Concert Hall (Česká falling harmony) from Prague is by its musical fire and its sound-beautiful softness easily recognizably and world-wide estimated.
U fleků is one the typical Prager taverns been. Today it is due to its admittingness a typical tavern for tourists (with restaurant), before which the tourists are driven into penalties.U fleků brews only there poured out the dark beer with a master spice of13° in the internal brewery. There are no Ausserhausverkauf.
The Marquis de Sade (designated after Donatien Alphonse François de Sade) and the U Malého Glena (= with the small Glen) are taverns, in those among other things live ones - jazz and Blues is played. A large portion of the musicians comes from the foreign country and lives only temporarly in Prague.
Jo's bar and U Glaubiců are neighbouring taverns with restaurant on the Prager small side with very deep, historical Kellergewölben. The cellarfrom U Glaubiců is old over 700 years.
Karlovy lázně (Karl's baths) are 5 music clubs with 5 different music directions on 6 floors (cellars included). Some the floors have Discocharakter, others have tavern or a club character. There theseMechanism in its form is singular, writes it over itself “largest mechanism of their kind in Central Europe”. Due to the versatility of the individual clubs and the high conditions of the technical equipment different age groups as well as many different nationalities are in Karlovy lázněto find.
At the Wenzelsplatz are two further larger clubs: The duplex is a well-known thank club, which is popular with prominent ones also. Thus Mick Jagger celebrated 2003 here during the Rolling Stones tour “40 Licks” its 60. Birthday. Opposite on the other oneSide of the Wenzelsplatzes is appropriate for that in a basement at the end of of 2004 opened to thanks club Stonx. In the Roxy thanks club music from different directions live and from the crate is played. The Chateau, formerly the Chapeau Rouge is a clubwith Cocktailbar, beer bar and Tanzfläche. Wheel east the FX is also a popular club similar as the Palác Akropolis.
Who wants to meet with the Clubbing however also times on a few Czechs, in any case on the House Boat “U should Bukanyra " go. For a successful evening is offered the “club 54” ended in the Hybernska on (proximity of Wenzelsplatz main station), which is at noon well filled of 5 o'clock to 12 o'clock in the morning.
of the 1958 created RedutaJazz club is probably the most well-known jazz club of the city. Thus it admits that 1994 even the US president at that time Bill Clinton put a saxophone appearance here on the parquet. A very versatile program is ordered on differently jazz directions. With the native jazz fans is the AghaRTA jazz Centrum, designated after an album of the jazz Trompeters Miles Davis, much likes.
- Detlev of arene: Prague. Culture and history of the “golden ones City ". DuMont art travel guide. Cologne 2003. ISBN 3770143035.
- Sabine Herre: Prague. Polyglott-travel book. Munich 2004. ISBN 3493603819.
- Harald Salfellner: Prague - a travel guide. Vitalis publishing house, Prague 2005. ISBN 3-89919-022-X.
- Marek Lašťovka: Pražský uličník. Encyklopedie názvů pražskych veřejných prostranství. Praha 1997 (ISBN 80-85983-24-9, ISBN 80-85983-23-0 and ISBN 80-85983-25-7 (of two volumes) (provisionally both out of print)
Web on the left of
|Commons: Prague - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wiktionary: Prague - word origin, synonyms and translations|
|Wikiquote: Prague - quotations|
- Tschechien on-line ones - information portal over Prague and Tschechien with daily updated information and over 5000 resuming on the left of
- Praguecard & Prague passport haven - Citycard and Sightseeingpass of the golden city Prague
- Prague, in: Meyers encyclopedia, 4.Aufl. 1888-90, Bd. 13, S. 305.
- eda.admin.ch side of Swiss message
- austria.cz side of the Austrian message in Prague
- German school Prague (DSP) dsp praha.cz (německá škola v praze) and German botschaft.cz DSP of the German message in Prague
- the klimadiagramme.de climate ofPrague
- digitally Prague
- praha mesto.cz list of the representatives in the Lower House
- artax.karlin.mff.cuni.cz cinemas, theatres, Radiosender and all public means of transport in Prague
- pragerzeitung.cz the Prager newspaper on-line - a German-language weekly paper.
- stud.uni hannover.de provisional photos of Prague, those after treatment and inquiry on those Wikipedia pages to be high-loaded are.
- Digital walk by Prague
- list of the messages in Prague
city hall clock
pc. Nikolaus at the Altstädter ring
Karl bridge, bridge tower on thatOld part of town side
Karl bridge, small side
Karl bridge and old part of town (Moldauufer)
community center (Obecni Dûm)
community center (Obecni Dûm), entrance
community center (Obecni Dûm), Café, interior opinion
Ginger and Fred, architect: Franc Gehry
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