Prešov

coat of arms map
Wappen von Prešov Prešov in der Slowakei
base data city Prešov
Kraj (landscape federation): Prešovský kraj
Okres (district):

Prešov

surface: 71.23 km ²
inhabitants: 90.979 (31.12.2005)
population density: 1277.26 inhabitants for each km ²
height: 250 m and. NN
postal zip code: 080 XX
preselection: 0 51
geographical situation: 49° 00 ' n. Br,
21° 15 ' o. L.
Kfz characteristic: PO< /code>, test specification
municipality code number: 524140
arrangement city: 7 quarters
address municipal office: Mestský úrad Prešov
Hlavná 73
08068 Prešov
official Website: www.presov.sk
E-Mail address:
Politics
mayor: Milan Benč

Prešov (German: Eperies [since 1939 also Preschau], Ukrainian: Пряшiв, Hungarian: Eperjes, Polish: Preszów, Latin: Fragopolis or Eperiessinum) is the second largest city of the Ostslowakei (third biggest city in the entire Slowakei) and the center of the traditional landscape Šariš. It is to the northern edge of the Košická because of the northeast Ausläufern of the Šarišská vrchovina (Scharo mountain countries), kotlina (Kaschauer of valley basin) and the confluence of Torysa and Sekčov. The number of inhabitants amounts to zirka 95.000.

The city is capital of a landscape federation (Presovsky kraj /V ÚC) and a circle (okres, see in addition also administrative arrangement of the Slowakei). In addition it is the only bishop seat of the Greek-catholic church in the Slowakei.

Table of contents

to objects of interest

the city has a historically meaning old part of town. An important architectural monument is the pc. - Nikolauskirche, a late gothical resounding church. With their building 13 became in the center . Century begun, but only 1515 one could complete her. The first Evangelist church developed 1647 and the Evangelist Kollegium 1666 - 1668, both in Renaissance - style.

sometimes the main place of Prešov in

the November fog due to its many historical buildings and its great importance for the culture and education is called the city also Athens to the Torysa.

history

for primeval times is well-known the valley of the Torysa river as important commercial route between Byzanz , Belgrade , Košice, Prešov and Warsaw. Into the Prešover region this route divided into eastern direction along the Topľa, northward direction Bardejov, to the west into the Zips and into northeast direction toward Sabinov and Plaveč.

early period

Prešov is an old settlement place (paleolithic age, Jungsteinzeit, Bronzezeit, celtic settlement, Germanic settlement, settlements from the people migration time).

the Middle Ages

the Nordostslowakei rank among those areas of the Slowakei, which were settled at the end of the people migration time as first of Slawen. Since end 5. Century is provable in the region around Prešov a slawische settlement with ceramic(s) of the Prager of type, after newer research is even in this region a slawische settlement from that 3. and 4. Century probably. Since the end 8. up to 12. Century gave to see it here several demonstrably continuously settled slawische settlements, some remainders of it can one today still in the Slovenská ulica, this names already in the Middle Ages carried (Platea Sclavorum, Sclauorum). This settlement was also a component of the Neutraer of principality and then (833 - about 907) from Grossmähren.

In the course of the gradual assumption of the today's Slowakei by the Hungary the region was integrated around 1100 into the Kingdom of Hungary and it came Hungary and their military operational readiness level into the old slawische settlement. In the course 12. Century created those Hungary two further settlements beside the slowakischen market settlement already existing - the one southwest the slowakischen settlement, the other one was the pc. Ladislaus settlement (so designated after a church) at the foot of the Villec hurka mountain.

The first German Kolonisten (Saxonia) settled south the slowakischen market settlement. They came right after devastations by the Mongol ideas of 1241/1242 on invitation of the king Béla IV., in order to animate the depopulated regions again. They received probably already at this time municipal rights, which were then confirmed 1299. The German settlement spread slowly westward along the slowakischen settlement from and in 14. Century developed between the two settlements a market place - that today as Hlavná ulica designated long central place of the city. Already in 14. Century developed at this place the pc. Nikolaus church, the central church of the city.

Since that 13. Century became Prešov of 3 different nationalities, which Slowaken, Hungary and German inhabit, which had always again influence on the fate of the city, differently strong in the process of the centuries, and to its wealth contributed.

The first written recordings over Prešov are dated on the year 1247. In a document of the Cistercians of Bardejov these weight about the destruction of their border markings and the robbery of parts of their property by German (Teutonen). Prešov is designated as Epuries and served at that time for the defense of the northern border of the Hungarian kingdom.

Salt was diminished in this area within living memory: 1261 become Solivar (dt. Salzburg, not to confound with the city in Austria), since 1973 quarter of Prešov, when “Souuvar” mentions for the first time. In this old settlement place (paleolithic age, Wandalen) it is to have given however two castles already before. The one still remaining castle remained was totally destroyed 1715.

Before the distribution of municipal rights Prešov of the castle was Šariš/Scharosch, D. h. subordinates the director/conductor of the Šariš Komitats (probably 1241 ago a component of the Komitats “new fact Castrum” was). King Andreas III. /confirmed however Prešov lent 1299 the municipal law (likewise Veľký Šariš and Sabinov). Connected with it were now also the rights to their own city administration, a mayor and an town councillor. The city got also economic independence, since the inhabitants of the city were now free citizens with land and property possession. Thus they could concentrate completely on the handicraft and the trade and use above all the German inhabitants these rights extensively.

In the year 1374 the city from the king to a royal free city were raised and received thus also the right to a Stadtmauer. In the same year became the first trade guild, which justifies shoemaker gilde. Regular market days witnessed from the intensive development of the trade in this time and the Prešover citizen acted particularly with textiles and agricultural products, whereby above all the trade with wine was most productive.

1455 were awarded to Prešov by king Ladislaus Postumus a Stadtwappen. The Prosperität of the city in that time shows up very well in the fast becoming larger number of inhabitants of 2.000 in the year 1425 on 3.300 in the year 1492. 1441 were besieged and ignited the city of Poland. 1480 became the city member of the ostslowakischen standard ware Pentapolitana (Levoča, Košice, Bardejov, Sabinov, Prešov).

16. Century

16. Century was characterized by the strong changes in Europe, which could not pass Prešov without trace. In the special one is here to the reformation movement and the Turkish expansion (battle with Mohács (1526), referred. By the occupation of the today well-known Hungary by the Turks the Slowakei became the retreat area the rich Hungarian citizen and of the aristocracy layer in addition, Protestant refugees, particularly from Böhmen and Mähren. The reformation, which proceeded from Germany and Switzerland, found also with the ethnic Germans in Prešov a large Zuspruch. Due to its first Evangelist church municipality here already developed 1531. 1548 took place in Prešov the first occupied Synode of the Slowakei, on which the Protestanten Augsburger accepted confession. 1549 were set up to Confessio Pentapolitana after the model of the Confessio Augustana of Leonhard Stöckel the confession writing (moderate Protestant “ religion” ), in order to prevent reproaches of the heresy. The dominant class however promoted 16 starting from the 70's. Century the Gegenreformation and/or. the Rekatholisierung, which flowed in many anti- habsburgischen rebellions in the area of the today's Slowakei (1604-1711), in which Prešov stood usually on the side of the insurgent ones.

The population variety became in the middle of the century by a further subpopulation, which the gypsy supplements. They settled in the area of the today's Námestie mieru (peace place), where they justified the again-Egyptian quarter in such a way specified. At this time the number of the inhabitants amounted to zirka 4,000 and the meaning of Prešov as commercial centre überflügelte even allegedly by Košice.

In Solivar/Salzburg 1572 the Leopold pit was put on, 1573 were raised the place to the mining industry city and 1592 were taken over the salt production of the state.

17. Century

in 17. Century were predominant most inhabitants of Prešov Protestanten. The continuous anti- habsburgischen rebellions as well as the operational readiness level of the Turkish Besatzer at the borders of the having citizen realm caused the having citizens temporarily partially more tolerantly with new religions in the habsburgischen royal Hungary (D. h. in the Slowakei to go around in castle country and in north Croatia).

1667 became in Prešov an Evangelist Kollegium, the one important education center for upper Hungary (D. h. at that time the Ostslowakei) represented, open. Those here active scholars were strongly affected of the teachings Johann Amos Comenius, which in spring 1650 stayed in Prešov. To the fast becoming larger economic power of the city also the political strength was added. Thus 1647 were shifted administrative centre of the Šariš/Scharosch Komitats, which often changed its seat, into the city. In 17. The noble ones from the family Rákóczi the function of the Komitatsvorsitzenden (Gespans) held century. 1671 left themselves in the city also the Franziskaner - medals down, 2 years later also the Jesuiten - to medals. The year 1687 became however for Prešov a Albtraum. The support on the part of the city for the anti- habsburgischen rebellion under Emmerich Thököly (1678-1687) had serious consequences. Due to a decision by emperor Leopold I. in the city the so-called Eperieser blood court under the guidance was held from Antonio Caraffa, in its process (of 5. March up to 12. September 1687) of 24 prominent Protestant citizens and noble ones was condemned to death and their fortune was drawn in. The rebellion of Franz Rákóczi II. caused further damage for the city. (1703-1711) and the plague epidemic disease of 1696, by which half of the urban population died.

18. Century

the first quarter 18. Century throws the city then to still far back into the shade its history. Additionally to the loads by the anti- habsburgischen rebellions and anti-Turkish war the population is afflicted 1710 again by the plague and the city by conflagrations. Thus the number of inhabitants sinks on under 2.000. The former Evangelist Kollegium was taken over 1711 by the Jesuiten. It needed some decades to itself the city again from these loads had recovered.

The handicraft and the trade animated themselves slowly again, in addition came also Manufakturen. In this time it came also to important discoveries by resident scholar. The most usually-considered was the production of an inoculation against smallpox by January Adam Rayman (Rajman).

Since the center 18. Century rose the number of populations and reached 6.000. For the year important in the city resident Jew was 1780, when here the first Dutch Jew, settled Markus dutchman. A further conflagration in the year 1788 stops the city again in its development.

In February 1752 the salt mine in Solivar was flooded and tore all mountain workers also into death. Since this time salt was only won by evaporation by seawater (Lake).

19. Century

in early 19. Century became the city the seat of the Scharosch - Komitats raised (until 1922); the administration of the Komitats here however already gave it since 1647. This time was characterized also by the pioneer work of the underestimated scientist January Gertinger, which manufactured as first in Central Europe crystal sugars. After the Greek-catholic church in the city their Diözese had opened 1817, it came to a Zuwanderung of Ruthenen into the city. At the beginning 19. Century already constituted the Slowaken by Zuwanderung from the neighbouring slowakischen villages the predominant majority of the urban population. 1831 took part many inhabitants in the large farmer rebellion. 1849 were occupied the city in the course of the revolution temporarily by slowakischen trooptroop troops. At the Kollegium some important representatives of the slowakischen national movement (Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav, Jonáš Záborský and studied. A. ). After Austrian-Hungarian reconciliation of 1867 the Kingdom of Hungary began with a systematic Magyarisierung of the not-Hungarian population in Hungary. Due to this politics the portion that rose Hungary in the city rapidly.

The economy of Prešov caught to stagnate, this could also not by the building from railroad lines to Košice, Plaveč and Bardejov be stopped. During this time the economy of the city dropped back also again behind from Košice. 658 citizens left 1870 and 1888 the city between. 79,182 humans emigrated within 3 decades (1880 - 1910) from the entire Scharosch/Šariš Komitat, which constituted zirka half of the population. To 6. May 1887 came it to one of the heaviest conflagrations in the history of the city, which a majority of the city fell to the victim.

20. Century

after in the city 1919 the short-lived Slowaki soviet republic (Slowaki Soviet republic) had been proclaimed, became the city 1919 definitely a component of again created Czechoslovakia. Again it came to large changes in the population structure. Czechs (late Slowaken) occupied now the important posts in the administration of the city. 1921 had the city of 17,577 inhabitants. The largest industrial company, the Masaryk Salzwerke, took up 1925 in its new work building in the proximity of the station the work. The mechanism of a slowakischen theatre 1944 gave important impulses for the cultural life to the city. During 2. World war to 20. September 1944 was bombarded the city and one year later to 19. January 1945 by the Soviet army and the 1. Czechoslovakian army corps from German occupation troops releases. The war ended with a disaster for the Jewish population, which before the war 20% the inhabitant placed, because 90% of the Jews were killed during the war in concentration camps.

The postwar Prešov developed starting from 1948 under the conditions of socialism. The strong industrialization of the entire Slowakei using now meant an impressive development of the industry, which oriented itself now strongly at the eastern markets, and a strong mechanization/automation of the Produktionsabläufe.

After the Second World War the city registered by influx of population from the neighbouring, rather poor regions of the Slowakei an extraordinary growth of the number of inhabitants: 1950 had the city of 27,846 inhabitants, already 1970 51,917, 1991 87,765 inhabitants and finally 1999 95.760. Thus Prešov became the third biggest city of the Slowakei.

1922 - 1938 were not the city a übergeordenter administrative place, 1938 - 1945 were it seat the gau Šarišsko Zemplínska župa, 1946 - 1960 and since 1996 seat of the Lanschaftsverbands Prešovský kraj.

To 2. July 1995 became the city with the attendance Pope Johannes Paul II. honoured.

name

some researchers it holds the opinion that the slowakische form of the family names Preš or Praš + Possessivendung - ov and the Hungarian (and concomitantly Germans) form over Prěš is derived -> Eprieš -> Eperjes is derived, whereby the last form Eperjes (ung. an adjective to strawberry) by the fact it developed that one tended the use to a form “with meaning”.

Other researchers are the opinion that the Hungarian form, i.e. Eperjes first there, was and is derived from it then the slowakische (and Germans) name.

city arrangement

the city is divided into the following 7 quarters:

  • To Cemjata
  • Kyslá Voda
  • Nižná Šebastová
  • Prešov (Preschau)
  • Solivar (Salzburg)
  • Šalgovík
  • Vydumanec

see also

Web left


coordinates: 49° 00 ' N, 21° 14 ' O



 

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