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the price , also selling price is based in the economic science the indicator for the scarceness of goods, at the available quantities and on the need. Prices indicate to attain without which quantities of other goods one do must, in order a unit of the inquired property. In the sense of cost price price is understood also contrary to costs, whereby price describes the selling price of a property and costs the expenditure expressed in money for the production of the commodity.
Table of contents
to price formation
the price formation on a polypolistischen free market effected via the reciprocal effect from supply and demand. The price on a kompetitiven market oscillates itself in such a way that it adjusts supply and demand (market equilibrium). If the offer is larger than the demand, then the price sinks. At a deeper price are ready more Nachfrager to buy the product but less offerer ready to offer the property. The demand rises and the offer sinks. One calls the price, are equally large with which demand and supply, Gleichgewichtspreis.
Prices develop each mark, if buyers and salesmen close a contract over the property change of a property (commodity , service , demand etc.) to certain (monetary and others) conditions. Like that the course is the price money borrowed by securities , the interest the price for.
With removing number of the offerers and customer of a property also the price formation becomes more difficult and more unstable; at a university-lateral monopoly the offerer determines and/or. the customer exclusively the price; in a bilateral monopoly the selling price calculation is often arbitrary.
- Cost-orients price formation
- Demand-oriented price formation
- Serve competition-oriented
] signal function
of the price of prices in the economy as wertmassstab for goods. As base factor for the price usually serves money, which indicates the exchange value of goods. Prices are regarded in particular in the political economy as indicators for the scarceness of goods. From the costs of a property (price lower bound) on the one hand and the desiringness of a property on the other hand (demand) its value results.
Example: The costs of a mobile phone can be with € 100, its value against it can the substantially over cost price lie. If the value of a property has for example a negative measure, then it is not marketable. If the measure of the desiringness is for example not to the mark, but bind only to the kind of the property, then the price can even be with the cost price or under it. In practice the advertisement is led across the price and the quality. It is the task of the marketing departments to give to the property a favourable image. In times of the recession Slogans mediate like “Geiz are geil “the feeling to buy particularly favorably and/or inexpensive.
by low prices is to be animated the customer to acquire a property. With the question, how with the help of the price structuring inducements are set, the price strategy concerns itself. High prices are to encourage enterprises to expand production.
steering element function
the Gleichgewichtspreis formed by supply and demand ensures with appropriate acceptance and under the normative aims of the Neoklassik that the factors of production existing at a given time (z. B. Worker) to be used, where they bring the largest use (efficient Allokation). With low prices the enterprise production [
costs (minimum) and desiringness (maximum)
costs: Costs of the individual enterprise may not be confounded with the economical costs. The costs form the price lower bound, if without loss is to be kept house. For the conversion the costs are however not everything. In addition still the desiringness of a property comes, in order to obtain profits, which go beyond the calculatory interest and the entrepreneur wages (components of the cost price).
The desiringness of a property is its appreciation to transfer a certain money supply to the offerer. There are phases, if for example expectations of the Nachfrager are impaired by a negative estimate of the future in the national economy, to shift the purchase of a property or on it do without completely. If goods are world-wide offered, then still the rate of exchange relationship comes into the play. Therefore the currency relation must become a component of calculations.
the goods can be offered for example in euro, US Dollar or Yen. The conversion of a property into the respective national currency can lead to a price advantage, for which the property makes particularly attractive for the Nachfrager. Thus an arbitrage advantage can to be realized be able. However this advantage becomes smaller, if the demand for goods from a certain currency area leads to a strong foreign exchange demand and itself thereby the price of the foreign exchange raised the price of.
The offerer/salesman and/or Nachfrager/buyer in a currency area (for example European union) can realize price advantages by different first cost for each region, if the currency relation were repealed set. A Abpufferung of cost differences by national currencies is void in these cases.
Example: In the European union the relations of the national currencies were time-dependently fixed among themselves, so that the different first cost can bring in for each property the Nachfrager direct price advantage, if the offerer would pass the price advantage on. The Nachfrager spends fewer moneys and can cover thereby additional need. Also the offerer can realize savings, which he can put on other, if the competition permits this (arbitrage advantage).
However fixing the currency differences in the European Union provokes then adjustment subsidies from tax proceeds, whereby the saving can be taxed away with the purchase by tax increases.
special price designations in the trade
- the noncommittal price recommendation (UPE or UVP) is that the trade selling price recommended by the manufacturer , importer or wholesale dealer. If UPEs for many articles in a price list are summarized, one speaks also of list price. This price sets in practice usually the upper price barrier in the trade. With UPEs intended for the retail trade it does not contain normally the legal value added tax, in the wholesale usually.
- The road price is the approximate current average selling price at final consumers in business and/or. with dispatch dispatch. With denomination of a road price in comparisons of products only according to experience the lowest offers are considered.
- The price per unit is with bulk the price for a piece in the smallest available quantity (here also unit price); with the price for a quantity unit of a commodity draws to sold bulk such as z. B. Litre.
- The total price is referred usually to an individual Rechnungspostion and results from the price per unit multiplied by the computed quantity. If it is referred to the entire calculation, it corresponds to the sum of the total prices of the invoice items zzgl. if necessary. further amounts such as value added tax, delivery, assembly etc.
- The net price is a price exclusive of the legal value added tax; if the value added tax which can be paid is contained, then one speaks of the gross price (see also net/gross).
the goal pursues special fields the price strategy with the help of the price structuring of inducements to set.
Web on the left of
- the price - some thoughts by John Ruskin
- price formation with supply and demand
- flexible course prices: To example of the co-ordination function