Prussia (lat.: Borussia, Prussia or Prutenia; polarize. Prusy; soot. Prussija; lit. Prūsija) was originally the area of the westBaltic Race of the Prussen, later one of the countries of the German medal and since that 16. Century a duchy of the Hohenzollern under Polish leaning sovereignty, which were connected since 1618 in personnel union with the Mark Brandenburg. After parts of Prussia 1660 in Peace of Oliva sovereign had become, formed them starting from 1701 an independent kingdom, whose name finally designated all rule areas of the Hohenzollern. The Kingdom of Prussia belonged to that from 1815 to 1866 with exception of the provinces floats, east and west Prussia German federation and from 1867 to 1871 with its whole territory north Germans the federation on. From 1871 to 1945 Prussia was a member state of the German Reich. 1947 ordered the allied control council also de the jure dissolution of Prussia.
the name Prussia referred to beginning 18. Centuryonly on the areas between Eastern Pomerania and cure country, lain outside of the German realm Reich, which corresponded to the later provinces west and East Prussia. Were from 1466 to 1772 these areas between the king of Poland on the one hand and the German medal and/orthe hohenzollernschen dukes and later kings divided by Prussia on the other hand.
In 18. Century became generally accepted gradually the use of the national name Prussia for all territories governed by the Hohenzollern, thus also for that one, within the holy Roman realm the GermansWere appropriate for nation. After 1866 the kingdom, since 1918 the Free State , extended almost completely Prussia over Northern Germany and took about two thirds of the surface of the German Reich. From Prussian area some smaller states were completely enclosed. Prussian mainand Residenzstädte were in the course of the time eastPrussian king mountain (today: Kaliningrad), potsdam and Berlin.
Its greatest importance attained Prussia in 18. and 19. Century, as it under the government Friedrichs II. the large one (1740-1786) first tofifth European great power ascended and later under Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck „the smallGerman agreement solution in such a way specified” operated and Austria than prominent power in Germany replaced.
With Prussia connect themselves to today the so mentioned coined/shaped by Protestant moral Prussian virtues, as for example reliability, thriftiness, modesty, honesty, diligence and tolerance. After the self understanding many they contributed Prussia considerably to the ascent of their country to the European great power. However the stress was this so-called secondaryVirtues themselves within Prussia not undisputedly.
The national colors of Prussia, black and white, deduced themselves from the white coat of the knights of the German medal embroidered with a black cross . Their combination with the hanseatischen colors white-red of the free cities Bremen, Hamburg and Luebeck resulted in the black-and-white-red commercial flag 1867 created north Germans of the federation, who were taken over 1871 as flag of the German Reich. The coat of arms saying of Prussia read since the reformation Suum cuique - everyone the Seine.
Population and surface
297,007 km ²; 41.915.040 inhabitants (May 1939)
to the pre and early history as well as for the history of the medal state see under East Prussia.
Brandenburg Prussia, the later Kingdom of Prussia, essentially developed from twoRegions:
- from the Mark Brandenburg, which belonged to the seven cure principalities of the holy Roman realm of German nation,
- and from that 1466-1654 under Polish leaning sovereignty standing duchy Prussia, which had come out from the state of the German medal knights.
The cure principality Brandenburg hadEmperor Sigismund (1368 - 1437) 1415 the castle count von Nürnberg, Friedrich von Hohenzollern (1371 - 1440), to Lehen given, after the prince house of the Askanier governing before had become extinct. Also the duchy Prussia became since that 16. Century of a line of the house Hohenzollern governs, after the last high master of of the German medal, Albrecht of Brandenburg to brook (1490 - 1568), itself on recommending Martin Luther (1483 - 1546) and with approval of the Polish kingSigismund I. the old person of the reformation had attached and the medal state into a hereditary duchy had converted. Like its rulers also the population became Evangelist. The medal state had been already since 1466 no more sovereign, but was subordinate to the leaning sovereignty of the PolishCrown. Therefore Albrecht for the new duchy carried Sigismund I. for the Polish king out. the old person (1467 - 1548) to 8. April 1525 in Krakau that are.
After expiring the herzoglich Prussian line of the Hohenzollern its duchy fell 1618 at their next relatives, the Mark counts and cure princes of Brandenburg. These governed from then on both countries in personnel union. Up to the contract of Wehlau (1657) their rule area should remain politically split however: Brandenburg was part of the Holy Roman realm of German nation, Prussia further a Polish Lehen. The rulers from Brandenburg Prussia were thus both the German emperor and the Polish crown lean requiring.
In the dreissigjährigen war Brandenburg stood on the side of the Evangelist union. WidthParts of the country were devastated at that time and depopulated. Cure prince Friedrich William (1620 - 1688), later „the large cure prince “mentioned, operated careful swing politics between the great powers after the war, in order to develop its economically and militarily weak country.It accomplished economic reforms, developed a powerful army, entmachtete the conditions in favor of an absolutist central administration and got thousands from France of refugee Huguenot in the country. It acquired 1648 Eastern Pomerania, the remaining Ravensberger country around Minden and half as well as 1680 Magdeburg.
Friedrich William operated besides the structure of its own Kurbrandenburgi navy and pursued colonial projects in west Africa and west India. These plans showed however only toward end of its regency successes. Thus it came 1683 to the establishment of the fortress largely Friedrichsburg in today's Ghana, which was however already sold 1718 to the Netherlands. 1685 - 1721 were the island Arguim before the coast today's Mauritania under the name Arguin Brandenburg-Prussian colony. In the Karibik became a part of the DanishPossession pc. Thomas to the brandenburgischen trading base. In order to possess a suitable base in Germany, Friedrich William closed to 2. May 1683 a contract with the city Emden and made it the seat of its African commercial company.
Under cure prince Friedrich Williambecame Brandenburg the country in the realm, most powerful to Austria. When due to Swedish-Polish arguments Poland was weakened, it could solve 1657 in the contract from Wehlau the duchy Prussia from the Polish sovereignty. In peacetime of Oliva from 1660 the sovereignty becamethe duchy finally recognition. This was a crucial condition for its collection for the kingdom under the son of the large cure prince.
Kingdom of Prussia
establishment of the Kingdom of
rank, Reputation and prestige of a prince were in thatTime of the absolutism important political factors. Cure prince Friedrich III. from Brandenburg (1657-1713) therefore the fact came that the duchy Prussia was subordinate since 1660 of no more other crown, thus sovereign was very convenient. The made possible it it, its collection to the kingdomto aim at and its own to the king. Thus he tried above all, the equal rank with the cure prince of Saxonia, who was king of Poland at the same time, to protect and with the cure prince of Hanover, who was candidate on English throne. Emperor Leopold I. therefore it agreed that it as rulers of its territories, thus for the past duchy Prussia, lain outside of the realm, whom king title may lead. Thus the cure prince crowned itself to 18. January 1701 as Friedrich I. in king mountain personallyto „the king in Prussia “.
The restrictive Titulatur „in Prussia “was necessary, because the designation would have been understood as „ a king about Prussia “as requirement for rule on the entire Prussian area. Since the Ermland and west Prussia were still Polish however at that time, would havethis conflicts with the neighboring country caused, whose ruler stressed the title one still to 1742 „king of Prussia “. Since 1701 however generally German linguistic usage gradually the national designation was patriated „Kingdom of Prussia “for all of the Hohenzollern governed areas in- whether within or the Roman realm holy outside of convenient.
Friedrich William I. - The soldier king
the son Friedrichs I., Friedrich William I. (1713 - 1740), was less splendor-loving than its father, but economically andpractically assesses. „The soldier king “is considered as the actual creator of the Prussian bureaucracy and the standing army, which he developed to one the most powerful in completely Europe. In view of the size of the army in relation to the total population Voltaire scoffed later, Prussia is no country, itself an army, but an army, which hold themselves a country. In addition, the king settled more than 20,000 salt citizens, Protestant faith refugees, in the thinly populated East Prussia and further in other regions. Of Sweden it acquired 1720 Vorpommern up to the Peene.
Friedrich II. - the large
To 31. May 1740 mounted its son Friedrich II.- later also „Friedrich the large one “mentioned - the throne. When Crown Prince course-bends rather philosophy and the beautiful arts, it still left in its firstGovernment year the Prussian army into Schlesien march, on which the Hohenzollern raised disputed requirements. In the three Schlesi wars (1740 - 1763) it succeeded to it to maintain conquest against Austria in the latter, the seven-year-old war (1756- 1763), even against a coalition from Austria, France and Russia. This was the beginning of the Prussian great power position in Europe and Prussian-Austrian dualism in the realm.
In the last 23 years of its rule lasting to 1786 Friedrich II., which as „a first servant of the state understood itself “, promoted the national development andfurther settling of brandenburgisch Prussian areas, for instance the Oderbruchs. As a representative of the enlightened absolutism it created the torture off, introduced the compulsory schooling , created the general Prussian Landrecht and lured with the grant of complete faith liberty further Exulanten in the country. Afterits view should become blessed in Prussia „after everyone his Façon “. Admits became in this connection also its utterance: „All religions seindt directly and well, wan nuhr the people, thus them profesieren, honouring couch of people seindt, and if Turks and heathswould come and wanted to pöplieren the country, then we wanted to build it for Mosqueen and churches. “
Common with Austria and Russia operated Friedrich carving Poland up. During the first division of Poland 1772 fell Polish Prussia, the net district and the prince diocese Ermland at FriedrichII., so that it could call itself now king of Prussia.
defeat against Napoleon, Reformen and Freiheitskriege
under Friedrich William II. (1786 - 1797) Prussia took part first in the coalition wars against the revolutionary France, separated however after that Peace of Basel 1795 for more than one decade from the anti-French alliance out.
Only as 1806 negotiations with France over the allocation of the spheres of influence in Germany failed, flamed the war. In the battle with Jena and AuerstedtPrussia suffered a destroying defeat against the troops Napoleon I.; King Friedrich William III. (1797 - 1840) and its family had temporarily after Memel to flee. The state lost 1807 in peacetime of Tilsit about half of itsArea, in particular the areas from the second and third Polish division, which fell now to the Grand Duchy of Warsaw. Beyond that it had to die an alliance with France.
The defeat of Prussia had made a renewal of the state inevitable. With that Stone Hardenberg reforms under the direction of baron of the stone, crowd refuge and hard mountain the training system was arranged new, waived 1807 the body characteristic of the farmers and introduced 1808 the autonomy of the cities. 1810 were introduced the freedom of trade. The army reform begun became 1813with the introduction of the compulsory military service finally.
After the defeat Prussia the alliance with France quit and took part Napoleons in Russia starting from 1813 in the so-called liberty wars at the anti-French coalition. Prussian troops under marshal Blücher carried inthe battle of Waterloo 1815 crucially to the final victory over Napoleon.
To give to the country a condition Friedrich William III. solved during the liberty wars its people given the promise. however never. Instead he called together with thatZaren of Russia and the emperor of Austria the holy alliance in the life, which aimed at the suppression of all democracy efforts in Europe.
With the Viennese congress 1815 received almost its old national territory to Prussia back, besides the remainder of Vorpommerns, the northernPart the Kingdom of Saxonia, Westphalia and the Rhine province. It kept the before Polish province floats, lost however areas of the 2. and 3. Polish division at Russia. Prussia consisted since then of two large, but spatially separated land blocks inEast and West Germany. It became member of the German federation, the loose federation of the German states under Austrian guidance, to which from 1815 to 1866 existed.
March revolution and industrialization
for Prussia lay due to the division in two parts of its national territory thoseeconomic agreement of Germany after 1815 in the characteristic interest. The kingdom belonged therefore to the driving forces of the German customs union, whose member became it 1834. Due to its in particular those set also outside of the country ever more proponent of the German agreement,Protestanten, their hopes for the fact that Prussia Austria will replace as guidance power of the federation. It was of „of Prussia German transmission “the speech and of it that the country grows ever more to Germany inside and Austria from Germany.
The accession Friedrich of William IV. (1840 - 1861) first and the trailer of the German agreement woke hopes of the liberals. These hopes were soon disappointed, since the king refused long time, also only for the ownTo introduce territory a common federal state parliament and a uniform condition. But during the March revolution from 1848 the king nevertheless still the demands the revolutionary seemed to bend itself. For the first time a united federal state parliament for completely Prussia was called up to Berlin. Found simultaneousElections to the first all-German parliament, the Frankfurt national assembly, instead of.
There the proponents of a smallGerman agreement under of Prussia finally succeeded guidance, since Austria was not ready to do without its not-German regions. Democracy and German unit failed however 1849, as Friedrich William IV. the emperor crown rejected, which had offered it the national assembly. The revolution was finally struck down in South Germany with the help of Prussian troops. Prussia received oktroyierte condition to 1850 one of the king.
In the course of the industrialization becamea number of land, water routes and channels built, which connected across Germany the west with the east. In the upper country of west and East Prussia developed the Oberländi channel, which connected the Baltic Sea and Elbing in the north with Masuren in the south.Into the 1860er years the building of the east course was begun, which led from Berlin across Thorn and king mountain to the east border and formed up to the Second World War one of the main traffic axles of Prussia.
condition conflict around the army reform
William I., that already 1858 the regency for its brother Friedrich William IV. government-unable after several impact accumulations. had taken over, mounted 1861 the Prussian throne. With war Minister Roon it aimed at an army reform, the longer office hours and an armament of the Prussian armyplanned. The liberal majority of the Prussian federal state parliament, to which the budget right was entitled, did not want to grant the funds necessary for it however. It came to a condition conflict, in whose process the king considered the resignation. As last way out it decidedto appoint itself 1862 , Otto von Bismarck as Prime Ministers. This was a vehement proponent of the royal requirement for autocracy and governed for many years against condition and parliament and without legal household.
Bismarck and the agreement wars
from the realization,the fact that the Prussian crown can win only then support in the people, if it sat down to the point of the German agreement movement, led Bismarck Prussia into three wars, the king William the German emperor crown brought in:
GermanDanish war 1864: The kingduke of Schleswig-Holstein in personnel union, which formed a unit since 1460, was from Denmark. Only the partial duchy Holstein belonged however to the German federation. The attempt of the Kopenhagener government to integrate Schleswig under exclusion of Holstein into the Danish total state led 1864under the guidance of Prussia and Austria for the war of the German federation against the northern neighboring country. After its victory the Danish crown had to do without Schleswig and Holstein. Both partial duchies were administered together now by Prussia and Austria.
German war 1866: The cause of this war were conflicts between Austria and Prussia around the administration and the future of Schleswig-Holstein. The deeper cause was however the struggle for the supremacy in Germany. On the side of Austria the Central German states stood, on sidesPrussia beside some north Germans States of also Italy. After Prussian troops under Moltke at the 3. July 1866 in the battle of Königgrätz the crucial victory had achieved, lost Austria its supremacy and separated from the German federation. The peace ofPrague to 23. August 1866 brought in the Kingdom of Hanover, Hessen Kassel , the duchy Nassau, the free city Frankfurt and completely Schleswig-Holstein for Prussia. Thus now nearly all Prussian areas were connected with one another. To the place of the German federationfederation, whose condition in substantial points anticipated those of the German Reich, stepped 1867 the smaller, north Germans dominated of Prussia. The South German states had to be received alliance contracts with Prussia.
French-German war 1870/71: Bismarck sharpened the controversy with Francearound the Spanish throne candidacy of a catholic Hohenzollernprinzen consciously too (see also Emser telegram), around the government Napoleon III. to provoke to a declaration of war. This represented the case of alliance for the South German States of Bavaria , Württemberg and Baden. After thatthey were forced rapid victory to step north Germans the federation. Thus the German Reich in the smallGerman version had been created, which had been already acted as one of the models in the national assembly of 1848/49. In the mirror hall to Versailles William becameI. to 18. January 1871 - to 170. Anniversary of the king coronation/culmination Friedrichs I. - proclaims to the German emperor.
Prussia in the German Reich
Prussia came up from 1871 to just as very much in Germany, as Germany PrussianA character assumed. The king of Prussia was also German emperor and a Prussian Prime Minister nearly always at the same time realm chancellors. The Prime Minister and chancellor did not have to be however necessarily Preusse, as in the case from Chlodwig to Hohenlohe Schillingsfürst.
Between 1871 and1887 led Bismarck the so-called culture fight against the catholic population parts, in particular against the Polish population, who tried to germanisieren Bismarck. The Germanisierungspolitik was continued after Bismarck's resigning from the 1894 in floats created German ostmark association.
On William I. followed in March 1888 the already seriously ill Friedrich III., which deceased after a reign of only 99 days. In the June „of the three-emperor yearly “William mounted II. the throne. Up to the resignation of the emperor in the course of the November revolution of 1918 remainedPrussian and realm politics on the closest connected.
Free State Prussia (Weimar Republic)
due to the defeat in the First World War and the November revolution of 1918/19 thanked William II. as German emperors and king from Prussia. With it endedthe material union of Prussia with the German Reich, as it had existed since the time of Bismarck. The country was proclaimed to the independent Free State within the realm federation and received to 1920 a democratic condition.
The cessions of territory of Germany specified in the contract of Versailles concerned- up to the realm country Elsass Lorraine - excluding Prussian territory, formed after the French-German war: Eupen Malmedy went at Belgium, Nordschleswig at Denmark, the Memelland at Lithuania, the Hultschiner Ländchen to Czechoslovakia. Large parts of the areas, Prussia within the frameworkthe Polish divisions had received, as well as east Upper Silesia went at Poland. Danzig became free city under administration of the Völkerbunds. Like already before the Polish divisions East Prussia did not have a land connection with the remaining German one Reich and could only by ship(Shipping service East Prussia) or by course by the Polish passage to be reached. Also the Saargebiet was predominantly formed from Prussian parts of a territory.
From 1919 to 1932 governments that governed Weimar coalition in Prussia (SPD, center and strip packing),1921 to 1925 around the DVP extend. Differently than in some other countries of the realm the majority of the democratic parties was never endangered with elections in Prussia. The Ostpreusse Otto brown, that governing nearly continuously from 1920 to 1932until today as one of the most capable social-democratic politicians is considered to the Weimar Republic, Carl Severing carried out several trend-setting reforms together with his Minister of the Interior, which were example-giving for the Federal Republic later. In addition for example the constructional vote of no confidence, that belonged the logging-offthe Prime Minister made possible only if a new Prime Minister were selected at the same time. In this way the Prussian federal state government could remain so long in the office, how in the federal state parliament none formed „positives majority “, thus a majority of those opposition parties, also really togetherto work wanted.
As support that Weimar democracy was only eliminated Prussia not by the voters, but by the Prussia impact of realm chancellor Franz von Papen. In this coup d'etat the realm government set to 20. July 1932 by regulation the Prussian federal state government underthe pretext off, control of the public order in Prussia lost it (see also:Altonaer Blutsonntag). By the majority of the state apparatus welcomed, transferred of Papen as a realm commissioner power in the Free State Prussia. In the German Reich was therebythe most important democratically gesinnte federal state government entmachtet. The Prussia impact has available only a half year later the seizure of power of Hitler crucially facilitated, there for it from the outset the instruments of power of the Prussian government - above all the police apparatus - stood.
|Results thatElections of the federal parliament 1919-1933|
|voices missing at 100%were allotted to groupings not represented in the parliament.|
national socialism and the end of Prussia
after the appointment of Hitler as the realm chancellor became Hermann Göring realm commissioner for the Prussian ministry of the Interior. Thus stood for the national socialists from the outset during their seizure of powerthe executive force of the Prussian federal state government for the order, above all the police force.
Few weeks later, to 21. March 1933, took place „the day in such a way specified of potsdam “. Became to 5. March again selected Reichstag in presence of theRealm president Paul von Hindenburg symbol-pregnant in the Potsdamer garrison church opens, to the burial place of the Prussian kings. The propagandistic meeting, in which Hitler and the NSDAP celebrated „the grinding old Prussia with young Germany “, should Prussian-monarchistic and German national circles forthe National Socialist state win and the conservative ones in Reichstag to the agreement to the enabling act induce, which lined up two days later.
In the National Socialist unit state became since 1933 Prussia like also all remaining German countries coordinated. „The law over reconstructionthe realm “of 30. January 1934 and „the realm governor law “of 30. The countries dissolved, robbed January 1935 not formally them however of their self-sufficiency. The federal state governments were checked by realm governors, who were appointed by the realm chancellor. Parallelin addition attained the organization into (a party) gaus increasingly meaning, whose gau leader was appointed again by the “leader and realm chancellor”, that were a party chief of the NSDAP at the same time. In Prussia this anti- föderalistische policy still continued: Since 1934 almost all became its land alsothe appropriate realm Ministries folded up. Only the Prussian Treasury, the archives administration and few other Land authorities remained independent until 1945. Realm governor for Prussia became formally Hitler . Its functions were exercised however of Hermann Göring as Prussian Prime Minister.
Polish, before times Prussian annektierten in the Second World War, areas were integrated predominantly not into adjacent Prussia, butso-called realm gaus assigned.
With the end of the National Socialist rule, the allocation of Germany in zones of occupation and the transfer of all areas east of or and Prussia heard Neisse insist 1945 in fact finally on. Individual areas became from the countryPrussia extracted, in order to form new countries. With the control council law No. 46 of 25. February 1947 decided the allied control council also formally the dissolution of the remaining Prussian state, there it „a stronghold of the German militarism “and thus for first and the Second World War was responsible (see also for this: War debt debate). The reason of the control council resolution misjudged the right-national traditions of the country just like the fact that it in the Weimar Republic up to „the Prussia impact “a bulwark that Democracy had been.
spatial development and arrangement
administrative arrangement of Prussia
the hohenzollernschen areas, for which after 1701 gradually the name was in-patriated „Kingdom of Prussia “, existed at the beginning 18. Century from the regions Brandenburg, Pommern, Prussia,Funds, Kleve, Moers, Krefeld, Tecklenburg, Lingen, Minden, Mark, Ravensberg, Lippstadt, Magdeburg, half, new castle and Valangin.1713 was arranged the regions into the following provinces: Central, Ucker and old Mark, Neumark Pommern Kassuben, Prussia, funds Kleve, Minden Mark Ravensberg, half, Neuenburg (country) and Valangin (country). 1740 became thoseProvinces in war and domain chambers transfers or again arranged. Also their shape changed in the course of the following decades several times, when further areas came to Prussia.
After the Viennese congress 1815 became the State of Prussia also„the regulation because of improved mechanism of the Provinzialbehörden “ of 30. April 1815 divided in ten provinces (in parentheses the capital), which joined the German federation with exception of East Prussia, west Prussia and floats:
- Province Brandenburg (potsdam)
- province East Prussia (King mountain)
- province west Prussia (Danzig)
- province Pommern (Stettin)
- province Schlesien (Breslau)
- province floats (floats)
- province Jülich Kleve mountain (Cologne)
- province Grand Duchy of Niederrhein (Koblenz)
- province Westphalia (Münster)
- province Saxonia (Magdeburg)
since 1822 the provinces formed „“and „Grand Duchy of Niederrhein “the Rhine province with the capital Koblenz for Jülich Kleve mountain. 1829 was combined east and west Prussia to „the province Prussia “(capital king mountain). Thus the number of the provinces was reduced upeight. 1849 did the princes of Hechingen and sigma rings without their rule, whereby both principalities fell at Prussia. They were together seized to the governmental district sigma rings, which was designated later also than „Hohenzollern country “. 1853 acquired Prussia of Oldenburg a regionto the Jade, on which a port was put on. 1869 received this area as well as the surrounding settlement to the names Wilhelmshaven and the 1867 formed province Hanover were attached. After the German war of 1866 Prussia the kingdom annektierteHanover, the cure principality Hessen, the duchy Nassau, the Principalities of Schleswig and Holstein as well as the free city Frankfurt/Main. From these areas three provinces were formed:
- Province Hanover (Hanover)
- province Hessen Nassau (Kassel)
- province Schleswig-Holstein (Kiel, 1879-1917 Schleswig)
Prussia covered thereby eleven provinces. The number increased to twelve, when from the province Prussia two new came out: „East Prussia “and „west Prussia “.
After the First World War Prussia lost some its areas and became Free State. ThoseProvince floats was surrendered almost completely to Poland. The province west Prussia came predominantly at Poland and to the free city Danzig. Only the eastern part of west Prussia remained with Prussia and for the province East Prussia was attached. Likewise with Prussiaremaining remaining areas of floats and west Prussia were combined 1922 to a new (split) province, which received the name „province border Mark float west Prussia “. In the meantime 1919 the province Schlesien in two provinces had been divided „Niederschlesien “and „Upper Silesia “. One year later separatedBerlin from the Provinzialverband Brandenburg out and formed its own province.
Starting from 1922 the Free State Prussia consisted thus of the following 12 provinces (in parentheses the regional administrative bodies, to which the areas of the respective provinces correspond today):
- Berlin (Land of the Federal Republic Berlin, Germany)
- province Brandenburg (Land of the Federal Republic Brandenburg, Germany and part of the Woiwodschaft Lebus, Poland)
- province Hanover (parts of the Lands of the Federal Republic Lower Saxony and Hamburg, Germany)
- province Hessen Nassau (parts of the Lands of the Federal Republic Hessen and Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany)
- Province East Prussia (Oblast Kaliningrad, Russia; Woiwodschaft Ermland Masuren and part of the Woiwodschaft Pommern, Poland)
- province Pommern (part of the Land of the Federal Republic Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, Woiwodschaft Westpommern, Poland)
- border Mark float west Prussia (part of the Woiwodschaft large Poland, Poland)
- Rhine province (parts of the Lands of the Federal Republic North Rhine-Westphalia and Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany)
- province Saxonia (part of the Lands of the Federal Republic Saxonia-Anhalt and Thuringia, Germany)
- province Niederschlesien (Woiwodschaft Niederschlesien and part of the Woiwodschaft Lebus, Poland; Part the Land of the Federal Republic Saxonia, Germany)
- province Upper Silesia (part of the Woiwodschaften Oppeln and Schlesien, Poland)
- province Schleswig-Holstein (parts of the Lands of the Federal Republic Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg, Germany)
- province Westphalia (part of the Land of the Federal Republic North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany)
with it as part of the Rhine province thoseHohenzollern country
1938 the two schlesischen provinces were again combined and the province border Mark float west Prussia dissolved on the neighbour provinces Pommern, Brandenburg and Schlesien was divided. Thus Prussia up to its formal existedDissolution 1947 only from eleven provinces.
Are not considered thereby the divisions of the provinces Hessen Nassau, Saxonia and Schlesien in in each case two provinces during the Second World War.
the formerly Prussian areas after 1945
The areas as well as Swinemünde lain east of or and Lausitzer Neisse and Stettin fell 1945 to Poland and the Soviet Union. Thatnorthern part of East Prussia came under Soviet, the Ermland, Masuren and the remaining Prussian areas up to the or Neisse line under Polish administration. The largest part of the there living German population, about 10 million humans, fled or one sold. In theseAreas after 1945 above all Polish refugees from the formerly Polish east areas were settled.
today's states in before times Prussian area
the areas of the Prussian provinces, as they presented themselves from 1867 to 1914, distribute themselves today as followson the countries of the Federal Republic of Germany and on six further European states.
Province East Prussia
- the northern part with the city king mountain forms the Russian Oblast Kaliningrad since 1945; until 1992 northeast Prussia belonged therefore to the Soviet Union, since to Russia.
- The south part with the city all stone fell 1945 at Poland; today it forms the main part of the Polish Woiwodschaft Ermland Masuren
- the city Memel and environment, the Memelland, formed from 1920 to 1939 and since 1945 a part of Lithuania again; as such it belongs up to the independence of the country 1991 to the Soviet Union.
Province west Prussia
- the main part with the cities Danzig and Gdingen came 1945 to Poland and belongs today to the today Polish Woiwodschaft Pommern.
- The south part, likewisesince 1945 Polish today form the northern part of the Woiwodschaft Kujawien Pommern.
- the main part with the cities potsdam and Frankfurt at the or formed from 1945 to 1952 and since 1990 the German country Brandenburg again. Between1952 and 1990 the area was distributed on the GDR districts Cottbus, Frankfurt/or, new Brandenburg, potsdam and Schwerin.
- The northern part belonged from 1945 to 1952 to the country Brandenburg, from 1952 to 1990 to the GDR district new Brandenburg and forms since 1990 the southeastthe newly formed Land of the Federal Republic Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
- that east the or convenient part with the city Grünberg/Warthe came 1945 under Polish sovereignty and forms today the Woiwodschaft Lebus.
- The city of large Berlin was extracted 1920 from the province Brandenburg and was of1945 to 1990 into an eastern, Soviet as well as divided into three western - American, British and French - sectors. While east Berlin formed its own district as “capital of the GDR” since 1952, west Berlin was state legal since 1949 with the Federal Republic of Germanyconnected. Since 1990 the reunited city forms Land Berlin.
- the main part with the city floats fell to a large extent already 1920, completely only 1945 at Poland and forms today the Woiwodschaft large Poland.
- The northern part with thatCity bromine mountain came 1920 at Poland and forms today the main part of the Woiwodschaft Kujawien Pommern.
- the western part (Vorpommern) with the cities grab forest and Stralsund belonged from 1945 to 1952 to the country Mecklenburg, from 1952 to1990 to the GDR districts new Brandenburg and Rostock and form since 1990 the northeast half of the country Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
- the East part (Eastern Pomerania) with the cities Köslin, Stettin and Swinemünde fell for 1945 at Poland and form today the Woiwodschaft Westpommern
- main part with the cities resounds/to Saale, Magdeburg, Merseburg = after 1945 to 1952 and since 1990 main part of the German country Saxonia-Anhalt, from 1952 to 1990 to the GDR districts resounds, to Leipzig, Magdeburg
- south part with the city Erfurt and Exklaveover the city Suhl = since 1944 to 1952 and again since 1990 part of the German country Thuringia, from 1952 to 1990 to the GDR districts Erfurt, Suhl
- of southeasternmost part with the city gate gau = after 1945 to 1952 toGerman country Saxonia-Anhalt, from 1952 to 1990 to the GDR district Leipzig, since 1990 northwest part of the German country Saxonia
- main part with the cities Breslau, Liegnitz = after 1945 to Poland, today Polish Woiwodschaft Niederschlesien (Niederschlesien)
- westernmost one partwith the city Görlitz = after 1945 to 1952 and since 1990 northeast part of the German country Saxonia (Prussian Oberlausitz), from 1952 to 1990 to the GDR district Dresden
- East part with the city Oppeln = after 1945 to Poland, today Polish Woiwodschaft Oppeln (west Upper Silesia)
- easternmost one part with the city Kattowitz = after 1920 to Poland, today main part of the Polish Woiwodschaft Schlesien (east Upper Silesia)
- city Hultschin and environment = after 1920 part of Czechoslovakia, after 1993 part that Czech Republic of (Hultschiner Ländchen)
- main part with the cities Flensburg, Kiel, Schleswig = after 1945 main part of the country Schleswig-Holstein
- northernmost one part with the city Apenrade = since 1920 Danish office Sønderjylland, in the future western part of the region Syddanmark (Nordschleswig)
- of quarters Altona, Wandsbek = since 1937 part of the German country Hamburg
- main part with the cities Aurich, Hanover, Hildesheim, Lueneburg, Osnabrück, Stade, Goettingen and the Exklave around the city Wilhelmshaven = after 1945 main part of the GermanCountry Lower Saxony
- quarters Harburg, William castle = since 1937 part of the German country Hamburg
- city Weser-flows (today Bremerhaven) and some municipalities in of Bremen the surrounding countryside = since 1939 part of the German country Bremen
- main part with the cities Kassel, Wiesbaden,Frankfurt/Main = after 1945 main part of the country Hessen
- westernmost one part with the city Montabaur = after 1945 northeast part of the country Rhineland-Palatinate
- Exklave around the city Rinteln = after 1945 part of the German country Lower Saxony
- Exklave around the citySchmalkalden = after 1945 to 1952 and again since 1990 part of the German country Thuringia, from 1952 to 1990 to the GDR district Suhl
- province Westphalia with the cities Arnsberg, Bielefeld, Bochum, Dortmund, Minden, Münster = after 1945 East partthe German country North Rhine-Westphalia
- northern part with the cities Aachen, Bonn, Duisburg, Duesseldorf, Essen, Cologne = after 1945 western part of the German country North Rhine-Westphalia
- south part of the Rhine province with the cities Koblenz, Trier = after 1945 northern part of the German country Rhineland-Palatinate
- southernmost one Part with the city Saarbruecken = after 1920 main part of the Saargebietes, after 1935 western part realm gau of the Saar Pfalz, after 1957 main part of the German country Saarland
- Exklave city Wetzlar with surrounding countryside = after 1945 part of the country Hessen
- Exklave Hohenzollernwith the areas around the cities Hechingen and sigma rings = after 1945 part of the German country Württemberg Hohenzollern, since 1953 part of the German country Baden-Wuerttemberg (Hohenzollern country)
- cities Eupen, Malmedy and environment = after 1920 to Belgium, todayThe region Wallonie ( Eupen Malmedy) therefore 15 of the 16 German
countries - all with exception Bayerns - does not only have East part of the province Lüttich in that portion of before times Prussian area (also Bavaria however already at present Napoleons hadPrussian areas taken over), but also nine Polish Woiwodschaften as well as five further states:
Belgium: Part the region Wallonie (Eupen Malmedy)
- cities Eupen, Malmedy and environment in the former Rhine province
Denmark: Office Sønderjylland, in the future western part of the region Sønderdanmark (Nordschleswig)
- northernmost part of the former province Schleswig-Holstein with the city Apenrade
Lithuania: Northwest part of Lithuania (Memelland)
- city Memel and environment in the former province East Prussia
Russia: Oblast Kaliningrad (northeast Prussia)
- northern part of the former province East Prussia with thatCity king mountain
Tschechien: Part the Czech Republic of (Hultschiner Ländchen)
- city Hultschin and environment in the former province Schlesien
Polish Woiwodschaft Ermland Masuren
- south part of the former province East Prussia with the city all stone
- East part of the former province west Prussia with the cityMarienwerder
Polish Woiwodschaft Pommern
- main part of the former province west Prussia with the cities Danzig, Gdingen
Polish Woiwodschaft Lebus
- East part of the former province Brandenburg with the cities Landsberg/Warthe, green mountain
Polish Woiwodschaft large Poland
- main part of the former province floats with the city floats
main partthe Polish Woiwodschaft Kujawien Pommern
- northern part of the former province floats with the city bromine mountain
- south part of the former province west Prussia
Polish Woiwodschaft Westpommern (Eastern Pomerania)
- East part of the former province Pommern with the cities Köslin, Stettin, Swinemünde
Polish Woiwodschaft Oppeln (west Upper Silesia)
- East part of the former province Schlesien with the city Oppeln
Polish Woiwodschaft Niederschlesien
- main part of the former province Schlesien with the cities Breslau, Liegnitz
main part of the Polish Woiwodschaft Schlesien (east Upper Silesia)
- easternmost part of the former province Schlesien with the cityKattowitz
German country Brandenburg
- main part of the former province Brandenburg with the cities potsdam, Frankfurt/or
German Land Berlin
- city Berlin in the former province Brandenburg
parts of the German country Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
- western part of the former province Pommern with the cities grab forest, Stralsund (Vorpommern)
- northernmost part of the former province Brandenburg
main part of the German country Saxonia-Anhalt
- main part of the former province Saxonia with the cities resounds/to Saale, Magdeburg, Merseburg
parts of the German Free State Thuringia
- south part of the former province Saxonia with the city Erfurt and Exklavearound the city Suhl
- Exklave of the former province Hessen Nassau around the city Schmalkalden
of parts of the German Free State Saxonia
- southeasternmost part of the former province Saxonia with the city gate gau
- westernmost part of the former province Schlesien with the city Görlitz (Niederschlesi Oberlausitz)
main part of the German country Schleswig-Holstein
- main part of the former province Schleswig-Holstein with the cities Flensburg, Kiel, Schleswig
of parts of the German country Hamburg
- quarters Altona, Wandsbek in the former province Schleswig-Holstein
- quarters Harburg, William castle in the former province Hanover
Main part of the German country Lower Saxony
- main part of the former province Hanover with the cities Aurich, Hanover, Hildesheim, Lueneburg, Osnabrück, Stade, Goettingen and Exklave around the city Wilhelmshaven
- Exklave of the former province Hessen Nassau around the city Rinteln
part of the German country Bremen
- Quarter Weser-flows in the former province Hanover
main part of the German country Hessen
- Hauptteil of the former province Hessen Nassau with the cities Kassel, Wiesbaden, Frankfurt/Main,
- Exklave of the former Rhine province around the city Wetzlar
parts of the German country Rhineland-Palatinate
- westernmostPart the former province Hessen Nassau with the city Montabaur
- south part of the former Rhine province with the cities Koblenz, Trier
main part of the German country Saarland
- southernmost part of the former Rhine province with the city Saarbruecken
main part of the German country North Rhine-Westphalia
- former province Westphaliawith the cities Arnsberg, Bielefeld, Bochum, Dortmund, Minden, Münster
- northern part of the former Rhine province with the cities Aachen, Bonn, Duisburg, Duesseldorf, Essen, Cologne
part of the German country Baden-Wuerttemberg
- Exklave of the former Rhine province around the city sigma rings (Hohenzollern country)
list of the kings of Prussia
1618 the duchy Prussia with the Mark county Brandenburg and its Nebenländern in personnel union had been combined.
1701 were raised the duchy to the Kingdom of Prussia, its name generally linguistic usage soon on all ofthe Hohenzollern governed territories ignored. The kings originated all from this prince house.
- 1688 - 1713 cure prince Friedrich III. (* 1657), since 1701 as Friedrich I. King in Prussia
- 1713 - 1740 Friedrich William I. the soldier king (* 1688)
- 1740 - 1786 Friedrich II. the large one (* 1712) starting from 1772 king of Prussia
- 1786 - 1797 Friedrich William II. (* 1744)
- 1797 - 1840 Friedrich William III. (* 1770)
- 1840 - 1861 Friedrich William IV. (*1795)
- 1861 - 1888 William I. (* 1797), first since 1858 as a regent; since 1867 president north Germans of the federation and since 1871 German emperor
- 1888 Friedrich III. (* 1831)
- 1888 - 1918 William II. (* 1859, † 1941 in the Netherlands exile).
which remains by Prussia?
Whether it concerns with the past Preussentum German inheritance or German hereditary load, is lively disputed. To respond to that extent following points are, in those those before times dominant factor positionPrussia into Germany this very day to day steps:
- Berlin became the German capital, since it was before already of Prussia capital.
- The Prussian war honor of the iron cross actual in modified form - symbol of the German Federal Armed Forces.
- SeparatingAustria from the German nation in the course is based to the establishment of the German national state 1871 on of Prussia politics. The smallGerman solution is a largePrussian solution (August Bebel).
- After the reunification 1990 the plan, the Lands of the Federal Republic Berlin developed andTo fold up Brandenburg. The suggestion arose to call the new country „Prussia “; the submitted name was however Berlin Brandenburg. In the year 1996 this combination was rejected however by popular vote.
- The country Saxonia-Anhalt is at present the only one, its Landeswappenthe Prussian eagle contains. Besides still the large coat of arms of Baden-Wuerttemberg contains the house coat of arms of the Hohenzollern.
- The Prussian model was considerably for a multiplicity of political institutions on regional level, as for instance Prime Minister, governmental district, land advice, circle, office and landscape federation (before Provinzialverband).
- the donationPrussian culture possession covers one of the largest and most universal collection complexes of the world.
The members of the Vormals of governing Prussian king house carry the name prince of Prussia (not Hohenzollern).
- Sebastian Haffner: Prussia without legend. 1. Edition. Hamburg 1979. ISBN 3-442-11511-6
- Hans Joachim Schoeps: Prussia: History of a state. Pictures and certifications. Frankfurt A. M./Berlin 1992. ISBN 3-550-08585-0
- Siegfried Fischer Fabian: Prussia Gloria - ascent of a state. o.O. 1991.ISBN 3-704-34043-X
- Sebastian Haffner/Wolfgang Venohr: Prussian profiles. Ullstein o. O. 2001. ISBN 3-548-26586-3
- Bernt angel man: Prussia. Country of the unlimited possibilities. Munich 1981. ISBN 3-442-11300-8
- Wolfgang Ribbe/Hansjürgen rose farmer (Hrsg.): Prussia. Chronicle of a GermanState. Berlin 2000, S. 288, numerous fig., ISBN 3-87584-023-2 (instruction book to the six-part television row of the same name
- Leopold of climb: Prussian history. 4 volumes. Goldmann o. O. 1966 ISBNs B-000-0BT51-O, B-000-0BT51-P, B-000-0BT51-Q, B-000-0BT51-R,
- Julius H. Schoeps: Prussia, history oneMyth. Bebra publishing house o. O. 2001. ISBN 3-898-09030-2
- Klaus Herdepe: The Prussian condition question 1848. (= German university University of Bd. 22) acre et unitas: Neuried 2003, 454 S., ISBN 3-936117-22-5
- Charles Higounet: The German east settlement in the Middle Ages. SettlerPublishing house o. O. 2001.ISBN 3-886-80141-1
- Joachim Fernau: We speak about Prussia. Herbig publishing house o. O. 1999. ISBN 3-776-62132-X
- Marion countess DO-hope: Prussia - measure and boundlessness. Goldmann o. O. 1998. ISBN 3-442-75517-4
- Marion countess DO-hope: Name, which does not call no more. Diederichs publishing house o. O. 2004. ISBN 3-896-31441-6
- Eberhard Straub: A small history of Prussia. Berlin 2001. ISBN 3-886-80723-1
Web on the left of
|Wikiquote: Prussia - quotations|
|Wiktionary: Prussia - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- Prussia - chronicle of a German State of (web page for the transmission row of the pool of broadcasting corporations in the “Prussia year” 2001)
- Kingdom of Prussia: Constitutional charter for the Prussian state " (“condition revised” of 31.01.1850) in full text
- constitutional charter for the Prussian State of (“Oktroyierte condition” of 05.12.1848) in full text
- Prussia impact, assumption thatGovernment
- the Free State Prussia
- donation Prussian culture possession
- donation Prussian locks and gardens Berlin Brandenburg
- Kgr. Prussia in the German Empire of
- control council law No. 46 - the formal dissolution of Prussia
- Preussenmuseum.de - Prussia museum of the country North Rhine-Westphalia in Wesel and Minden
- Portal Preußen,
- Preußische Marine, Preußen (Schiff),
- Deutsches Reich, Deutschland,
- Geschichte Polens, Oblast Kaliningrad, Russland,
- Preußische Tugenden, Altlutheraner
Anhalt | Baden | Bayern | Braunschweig | Bremen | Elsass Lorraine | Hamburg | Hessen darmstadt | Lip | Luebeck | Mecklenburg Schwerin | Mecklenburg Strelitz | Oldenburg | Prussia | Reuss older line | Reuss recent line | Saxonia | Saxonia old person castle | Saxonia Coburg and Gotha | Saxonia Weimar iron oh | Saxonia Meiningen | Foam castle lip | Schwarzburg Rudolstadt | Blackcastle-speciallive | Forest-hit a corner | Württemberg
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