with priest (gr. presbyteros, municipality-oldest) are designated persons, who stand within a religious community as intermediaries between the Göttlichen and humans. Usually they make the sakralen and ritual actions, e.g. Baptism, holding from servicesor the execution of victims.
In all religions it gives to humans, who obtain and thus arrange the connection by special knowledge, abilities and authority between the transcendental, göttlichen range and the everyday life world of humans, welfare-ends works or realizationswin. From schamanischen origins in the advanced cultures usually in the surrounding field of the temples priest conditions with exactly regulated rights and obligations developed.
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Etymologie and Phänomenologie
the German word priest comes from gr. presbyteros - „municipality-oldest “. Derived from it are also the appropriate words of many European languages.In the newGreek the priest is called unchanged „presbyteros “.
Religion-phenomenologically and sociologically the priest term is located however in the meaning field of gr. „hiereus “and lat. „sacerdos “.
the Jewish faith began under nomadischen conditions. The pictureless releasing heand federal God JHWH was understood in strict contrast to of gold-shining, but dead divinities Egypt and Mesopotamiens.
After the Bible Moses justified the Priestertum of the God, which consists exclusively of men, and weihte its older brother Aaron to firstHigh priest; from this the excessive quantity after all later Jewish priests come off (the descendants of Moses do not belong to the priests). After the immigration in the country Kanaan and the building of the temple in Jerusalem strengthened in Israel thatPriestertum (hebr. „kohen “), that the temple service, which was incumbent on victim rites and the distinction between pure and impure. This task was assigned to a part of the men of the race Levi ( the Leviten). With the colonization special cities were assigned to them. The supplywas guaranteed by the tenth.
The longing to be a priestless „people of priests “remained however awake and found expression with the large prophets.
Since the destruction of the last building of temples 70 n. Chr.the Priestertum has old Israeli tables hardlystill another function. The distinction between priests, other Leviten, and other Gläubigen exists however away. The priests speak the benediction, it in the synagog before the other Jews for public reading that Tora are called, and apply to themto today some deviating regulations in the Jewish law; for example they may marry under normal conditions no widows, Konvertitinnen, or divorced women. Surnames like „Kohn “or „Cohan “often point on member praise ore around. The sociological priest role lives in the Rabbinernaway, which however usually no priests are in the sense of the descent.
the new will does not seem to see special between humans and God mediating priest class for the municipality Jesu forwards: „It is a God and an intermediary between God and humans: humans Jesus Christ! “ (1. Timotheus 2.5) Therefore the early Christianity used the title of the high priest, who had intermediary function in the connection of the alttestamentlichen temple cult, exclusively in the view up Jesus Christ (for example Hebräer 4.14-5.6). The term of the priest in the ritual sense (kohen, hiereus) is used in the new will for all, which believed in Jesus Christ (for example 1. Petrus 2,9; Revealing 1.6). The offices specified in the new willservice functions of the municipality are Jesu Christi.
By increasing the municipalities and their institutional solidification, by the development of the Liturgie and the theory, not least by the antignostische argument the offices in weight won. In the second century those formedto today common three-membered hierarchical structure out: Bishop, oldest one (presbyteros) and deacon. The German term of the priest developed etymologisch from the Greek term „presbyteros “, becomes however in the catholic and in the orthodox church community in„ritual-averaging “sense (kohen, hiereus) understood. Here a substantial difference between catholic and Evangelist office understanding lies.
orthodox one, catholic and anglikanische theology
in the understanding of the orthodox, catholic and anglikanischen churches the priest is by the consecration (= surgery), which its own Sakrament represents, confronted from the people of the Gläubigen („laymen “) separate and it. In the orthodox and Roman-catholic churches the priesterlichen offices are limited to men, some old-catholic churches and some churches of the anglikanischen coming union knowthe woman surgery. In the follow-up of the Apostel its task is the Verkündigung of the gospel and donating the Sakramente, in particular the line of the you air low eggs. The priest acts thereby „in persona Christi “. The catholic tradition connectswith this view since that 11. Century the Zölibat, which applies in the east churches only to bishops. The bishops of the catholic, orthodox and anglikanischen churches see themselves in the unbroken Sukzession of the Apostel, those by hand presenting and prayerone passes on (Apg. 14,23; 2Tim. 1,6). The majority of the priests manages a Pfarrei as a minister . Priests can be however also with other tasks, e.g. entrusted. in a medal, at church centers (places of pilgrimage, etc.), at the Ordinariat, etc. Sincethat 2. Vatikani council the general Priestertum of all baptizing and Gefirmten are put out more clearly. This carries out itself after catholic view however not in levelling equality, but in organic cooperating of the church members and appointments (S. Hierarchy).
In services carriesthe priest usually special articles of clothing, like e.g.Measuring garb, Albe, Stola, Zingulum, partly also still Birett. In addition, others, which do liturgical clothes at the altar service ( server, lectors, Vorsänger, coming union aid), carry,in memory of the Taufkleid with the basic colour knows, which illustrates the all common Taufpriestertum (S. Liturgical garb). The Soutane was in former times the usual everyday life clothes of the catholic priests; today priest can carry, be supposed to a large extent civilian clotheshowever as priests recognizably its.
Evangelist theology rejects with reference to the Ekklesiologie of its interpretation of the new will a special Priestertum in the church in principle. An Evangelist minister is not a priest. EverythingBaptized ones have same portion of the Priestertum Christi. The word priest is not used, differently than for example in Scandinavia, into that German Evangelist churches and free churches.
The public gospel notice and donating of the Sakramente are however only of properly in addition appointing(„would guess/advise vocati “) to be exercised. The surgery of the ministers and/or. Is considered to ministers as agency and benediction action, not as Sakrament.
In reformed and presbyterianischen churches the word is located „to Presbyter”, which comes like „priests” from presbyteros, for the member of the Gemeindevorstands, of the Presbyteriums, and is not therefore with a minister to confound minister or priest.
the contrast in the view of the church offices and in the question of their legitimacy is today the largest obstacle that church unit. In the understanding of the priesterlichen service there are however also convergences, which overcome the old one-sidednesses.
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