Primat

see also: Primaten (biological order); Primas; Grössenbezeichnung of Champagnerfla


general designates the Primat (lat.: Priority, preference/advantage) a priority position. In the Roman-catholic church Primat means the primacy of the Pope. After the theory of this religious community the Pope has thosehighest right force in the church (Jurisdiktionsprimat). Connected with it also the highest training force (suprema quoque magisterii potestas) is, the ex cathedra is infallible. This primacy of the Pope became in the 1. Vatikani council as the dogma explains.

Table of contents

definition of the catholic church

definition of the Jurisdiktionsprimats in the 1. Vatikani council:

Who says thus, the Roman bishop has only the office of a supervision or lineand not the full and highest force of the right power over the whole church - not only in things of the faith and the customs, but also in what belongs to the order and government of the church spread over the whole earth circle -; or whosays, it has only a larger portion, not however the whole abundance of this highest force, or this its force is over the entire and the individual churches as over the entire and individual Hirten and Gläubigen, that is impossible not properly and directly, likewise.

Definition in the Kodex of the canonical right, canon 331 of 1983:

Bishop church of Rome, in which from the gentleman the Petrus, which first the Apostel, transferred continues and its successors office which can be obtained, head of the Bischofskollegiums, deputy Christi is only andHirte of the total church here on ground connection, therefore he has strength of his office in the church highest, full, direct and universal tidy force, which he can exercise always freely

Biblical background

the Bible place, on itself the Primatsanspruch of the Popes forwardseverything bases is Mt.16,18f: “You are Petrus, and on this rock will I mean church to build, and powers of the underworld will not overwhelm it. I will give you the keys of heaven; which you will bind on ground connection, that becomes also in the skybound its, and which you will solve on ground connection, that will be solved in the sky also. “

The above-mentioned Bible text in the connection:

13 as Jesus into the area of Cäsarea Philippi, asked he came his young: As whom do the people regard the people son?
14 they said:The one for Johannes the Täufer, other one for Elija, again different for Jeremia or otherwise a prophet.
He said 15 there to them: You however, as whom regard their me?
Answered 16 Simon Petrus: You are the Messiah, the son of the alive God!
17 Jesussaid to it: You are blessed, Simon Barjona; because meat and blood did not reveal to you, but my father in the sky.
18 I however legend you: You are Petrus and on this rock will I mean church to build and powers the underworld becomeit do not overwhelm.
19 I you the keys of heaven will give; which you will always bind on ground connection, that will be bound also in the sky, and which you will always solve on ground connection, that will be solved in the sky also.

Whether it itself overa “genuine” Jesuswort acts, is differently judged. It is undisputed that this word reflects the line function of the Apostels Petrus in the Urgemeinde - alone or together with Jakobus , Johannes, and other Aposteln -. It is also, beside Mt.18,17, the only place into thatGospels, where the word occurs “ekklesia” (municipality, church). Here structure and authority questions of the early Christianity are thus reflected.

By some Protestant authors, whom the place as a genuine Jesuswort regards, it is objected that Jesus Christ speaks here not of Petrus, but of itself. Thusstatement Jesus Christ is the rock according to Jesu', on which the municipality is built. This is justified among other things by a reference to 1.Korinther 3.11: “Nobody can put another reason except that, which is put, which is Jesus Christ. ”

A further place, thosefor the reason of the Primats, is Johannes 21, 15ff is consulted, where Jesus says addressed to Petrus among other things: “Pasture my lambs… feasts my sheep ".

historical development

early church

in the early period of the church formed, for the Roman administrative structureaccordingly, five Patriarchate out. The Roman Patriarchat covered thereby the entire area of the westRoman realm.

The early church was entitled to the Patriarchat of Rome in relation to the other Patriarchaten a Ehrenprimat or a Primat of the love - an honour position in the sense of a Primus inter Pares (“firstnor under resembling "), however neither a qualitatively higher rank contained the right to intervene ungefragt in the internal affairs of other Patriarchate.

The Roman church was in the first centuries the church of the capital, was generally respected, there it the graves of the “Apostelfürsten” Paulus and in accordance witharising excessive quantity also Petrus and had a high moral authority accommodated. Their by the remaining churches a Ehrenprimat is given. The Petrusverheissung in accordance with matte house 16.18 is only once quoted however in the whole Christian literature of the first centuries: with Tertullian, that the place however onlyto Petrus, not to Rome refers.

From Klemens of Rome a letter to the Korinther is delivered, with which it tries to smooth disputes of the there municipality. The letter from the first century shows that Klemens felt responsible for other municipalities also, even ifit therein no explicit jurisdiction calls in.

Roman bishop Viktor I. (189-199) completely small Asia exkommunizierte because of the Ostertermins, met thereby however the resistance of the remaining bishops, in particular also the of high repute Irish from of Lyon and suffered to that extent a defeat. Besides the energetic bishop one exkommuniziertecertain Theodotus of Byzanz for theological reasons and relieved the gnostischen priest Florinus of its office; besides it condemned the so-called Adoptianismus. Viktor took so the jurisdiction force also for other municipalities several times and realized on the one hand the first bishop von Rom, its to Primatsanspruch upwas calm, on the other hand historically documented.

The first Roman bishop, who appointed itself to the Petrusverheissung, was Stephan I. (254-257) in the argument with Cyprian of Karthago, but he could succeed with it not against Cyprian and the bishops of Alexandria and Caesarea.

A western council in Sardika 343 permits the Appellation to set off bishops to Rome. The decision becomes of Julius I. (337-352) as resolution of Nicäa spent, is not there however anywhere mentioned.

Damasus I.(366-384) interpret as the first the Petrusverheissung legally over for the Roman church oneTo justify monopolistic position. In fact however its contemporary has Ambrosius, the bishop of Milan, substantially more influence in the church. The successor of Damasus, Siricius, (384-399) calls his Statuta “apostolisch “and takes over in connection with the remaining churches the formal style thatimperial Kanzlei.

The first council of Konstantinopel 381 assigns second rank after that old Rome to the bishop von Neu-Rom (Konstantinopel).

Bonifatius I. (418-422) further Appellationen forbids the apostolische after a decision of Rome and calls Rome apostolicum culmen,Point. Its contemporary Augustinus of Hippo white however nothing of Jurisdiktionsprimat of Rome, for him is, as for the remaining church at that time, the highest instance the ökumenische council.

In the third ökumenischen council of Ephesus 431 Pope Coelestin I. becomes.of a dreiköpfigen Roman delegation as successorsby Petrus to the head of the Apostel designation, meets with however in the council decisions no response.

Leo I. (440-461) the Roman Primatidee prepares fully, justified by matte house 16.18 and the Roman vomits. In the council of Chalcedon 451 however the Patriarchat of Konstantinopel the same becomesPrimat awarded like the old realm capital - Leo recognizes the council only two years later.

Gregor I. (590-604) in the first Vatikani council as highest and universal Hirte one quotes. In the connection it writes however the Patriarchen Eulogios of Alexandria: “I did not instruct, butto what me appeared useful, to refer tries… I do not hold for an honour, from which I know that it robs the honour from my brothers.My honour is the honour of the whole church. My honour is the firm Kraft of my brothers. Then I becometrueful honoured, if the guilty honour is not refused to everyone of them.“In the first vatikanischen council only the italic part is specified.

the Middle Ages

as return favor for the coronation/culmination to the Frankish king give beep pin to the Pope from the Langobarden back-conquered Exarchat Ravenna and further Ländereien, which is justified of Rome with the falsified Konstantini donation (with which a likewise existing legal claim of the Byzantine emperor was rejected). The coronation/culmination of a western emperor in the year 800 gave a further prestige gain and influence on the Frankish national church to the Pope.

Only of the catholic church recognized, during the Photius - Schismas of Pope Nikolaus I. called up fourth council of Konstantinopel determines in the year 869: And there the utterance of our Mr. Jesus Christ to remain unfulfilled cannot: “You are Petrus, and on this rock wantsI mean church build ", then this word proves to be true by its effects: because with the Apostoli chair the catholic religion was always intact retained and the holy teachings were announced. By its faith and its teachings we want to never be separate, and we will hope that weare worthy to live in the community the the Holy See announced.

Ten years later, VIII. becomes at the totalchurch, also from the Pope Johannes.recognized council of 879 in Konstantinopel the jurisdiction of the Pope for the west fully recognition, for the remaining Patriarchate however clearlyrejected.

Leo IX. and Morgenländi Schisma

Nikolaus II. (1058-1073) can be crowned as a first Pope with the Tiara.

Gregor VII. (Hildebrand) wrote the Dictatus Papae, 27 theorems over the Primat of the Pope, which it also - for example in the Investiturstreit - into the practiceconverts. Excerpts:

I. The Roman church was created alone by the gentleman.
II. Only the Roman bishop is rightfully universal called.
III. Its authorized person stands in a council over all bishops, even if he were subject to them by his consecration, and he can approximatelyit a joggle formula express.
IX. The Pope is only humans, who all princes kiss the feet.
X. It is the only one, whose name in all churches is expressed.
XII. It can set emperors off.
XVII. No general Synode can be expressed without its agreement.
XVIII.Its judgement may be changed by nobody, and only it can amend the judgements of all.
XIX. It may be arranged by nobody.
XXI. All causae majores of each church must be spoken it.

Innozenz III. (1198-1216) the bull Venerabilem issues, those to the Pope the rightgives to select kings and also the right decide whether they are qualified or not. At the fourth Laterankonzil he proclaims that the papal Primat was recognized by the entire antique one.

2. Council of Lyon under Gregor X. explained in the year 1274:

ThoseHoly Roman church possesses the highest and full Primat and the rule over the entire catholic church. It is conscious in truth and humility that it this Primat of the gentleman - in the holy Petrus, the prince and head of the Apostel, its successor the Roman one Pope actual with the abundance of the force received. And like it before all different to the defense of the faith truths is obligated, then also all emerging questions must be decided on the faith by their judgement.

Despite pressure of the emperor the resolutions of the council becomein the east church not recognition.

Bonifatius VIII. IV. issues in connection with its conflict with Philipp. the beautiful one 1302 the bull “Unam sanctam”, which does not prevent the king, the Pope still in the same year lock to let around the independence of the lay force toodemonstrate.

… However this authority, although it is given to humans and exercised by humans, is not human but göttlich and by the Göttliche word at Petrus themselves and in it at its successors was given, Petrus, which the gentleman confirmed as firm rock, ashe it said? Which you on ground connection will always bind (Mt. 16,19). Therefore, who always opposes this power used by God, God opposes (see Romans 13.2). In the further, define and proclaim we explain to each human creature that them completely the Roman Pontifex subjectare, which is necessary for its rescue. (Porro subesse Romano Pontifici omni humanae creaturae declaramus, dicimus, definimus, et pronuntiamus omnino eats de necessitate salutis.)

The council of Konstanz explains 1415 in the decree Haec Sanctam that the council stands over the Pope. See Council of Konstanz.

On the fifth Laterankonzil Leo X. explains 1516. “The Roman Pontifex existing at present, that the authority over all Konzilien possesses.” The general validity of this Pope council was however denied already at that time, since it was visited by Italians and Kurienkardinälen practically only.

view of other churches

outside of the Roman-catholic church become Mt. 16,18 only on the Apostel Petrus or, in connection with which parallel place all clergymen or all Christians referred matte house 18.18, to all Apostel. The thesis that the bishop von Rom of only legal successors of Petrusand of therefore it if this line function over the whole church is “inherits”, is recognized only in the Roman-catholic church.

A “Petrusamt” in the service of the unit of the churches also some not-catholic theologians consider Jurisdiktionsprimat and absolute training authority (infallibility) desirable, like it the Pope inthe catholic church exercises, are rejected however decided and as obstacle for the unit of the churches regarded.

Roman view

from view of the catholic theory of the church, like it in dogma tables the constitution “lumen Gentium” II. Vatikani council its expression gefundet,the papal Primat must be understood as theological requirement, in order to grant to the Christianity in the public sphere the priority before the requirements of the states and the social order.

The exact historical development is in contrast to this secondary. There the catholic church of a material operational readiness level Jesu Christi inthe history of the church, which points itself into the Sakramenten, in addition, to definite decisions of the church, argues the catholicism from the entire connection of Hl goes out. Writing and tradition. In the ökumenischen dialogue become the strongly legally seized, thus typically Roman understanding of the Primats on the part ofthe other denominations further rejected. The universal operational readiness level of the Christianity in relation to state and politics by the today's papacy concentrated on its religious order is appreciated more positively however in the meantime also by some not-catholic theologians than in the past.

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