Under production the methodical production is understood both about special goods and about services. The production process a combination process of productive factors is formal.The large organization width of production processes, resulting in from it, becomes clear, if one confronts for instance the production of a service in form of a legal advice to the building of a power station or motor vehicle production. Comprehensive production economics would have therefore except industry and handicraft all producingEnterprises treat, thus all services enterprises, fishery, mining industry and country and forest-economical enterprises. For the latter kinds from production enterprises however own special management economics were developed, so that the industrial company is the enterprise which can be treated with priority in production economics. It bringsby production of raw materials, by treatment, processing and with use of machines a product suitable for the need satisfaction out, in order to use it on the market. Kernel function of the industrial company is thus the production process strictly speaking. In a broader sense coversproduction apart from the actual production process all pre and stored functions such as research and development, procurement, storage and interior traffic.
Table of contents
production and logistics
close connected with production are the problem definitions of logistics. Among logistics all processes of transport, the storage, the material handling and packing rank. Typical logistic tasks are for example the delivery of Fertigungsmaterial by a supplier (physical material procurement), the further transport between two production departments (in-plant logistics) or the distribution of ordered commodity to the customers (physical distribution).
An important point with the organization of theProduction process is the creation flow of material-fair factory structures as well as the inclusion of fundamental competition-determining factors. During the conversion of strategic decisions a key role comes to logistics and production, since from customer or market view logistic achievements win increasingly in meaning, as for example:
- Delivery reliability date of delivery loyalty
- delivery time (time of the placing of order up to the distribution)
- delivery flexibility (flexibility concerning change of dates, quantities or product)
a tuning with production and the strategy selected there is for the fulfilment of these logistic achievements of crucial importance.
In the following is to be dealt still with some production characteristics, which have strong influence on the organization of the production processes.
considers one the number of products manufactured in a lot differentiates one:
- Individual manufacture: In extreme cases unique production oneProduct (ex.: Building of ships, building of large machines)
- quantity production: It a set of the identical or very like, technically however quite different products manufactured with strong differences with the series size (small-batch manufacturing/mass production) (ex.: Furniture)
- sort manufacturing: Modification of the mass production; Production of characteristic-related, technically to a large extent identical productsin limited quantities (ex.s: Wine)
- mass production: In extreme cases production of a product in large quantities over long time (ex.: Match production, cigarette production)
the manufacturing principle describes the logical-spatial arrangement of the machines in a production plant. The most important kinds are:
- Werkstattfertigung: Anordnung der Maschinen nach der Art der durchzuführenden Verfahren, gleiche Fertigungsverfahren sind räumlich nebeneinander angeordnet (-> performing and/or. Operational principle).
- Flow production: Organisation der Fertigung nach dem Flussprinzip, die Arbeitsplätze und Betriebsmittel werden in der Abfolge der an dem Erzeugnis vorzunehmenden Arbeitsgänge angeordnet (-> expiration principle). During the serial production no cycle times are given. On the other hand the assembly-line production is serial production with time obligation, i.e. to a certain clock bind. For assembly-line production the production lines are characteristic.
- Group manufacturing: This is a type of mixing ofFlowing and Werkstattfertigung. Arrangement of the machines after the product or the product, the manufacturing methods needed for the product is spatially together arranged.
- Building site manufacturing: Arbeitskräfte, Material, Werkzeuge, Maschinen und Transportmittel werden an das zu bauende Objekt herangebracht (-> object orientation). One differentiates between internal building site manufacturing, i.e. at the manufacture place (e.g. Building of ships), and outside building site manufacturing, i.e. at the place of use (e.g.Road, foundation engineering).
differentiates between production run regarding the basic principles in the production run:
- Camp manufacturing: customer order-neutral production, the customer supply comes from the camp (e.g. Mass products)
- order completion: production for the individual customer, the job execution takes place without final product storekeeping (e.g. Building of production plants)
- program manufacturing:customer order-neutral prefabrication and final assembly or customizing for the individual customer (e.g. Automobile production pre-assembly customer-neutrally, final assembly for the individual customer)
the different production run principles possess strong influence on the logistic achievements already mentioned. Thus for example a camp manufacturing does not possess flexibility due to its structure concerning the product, against what thoseOrder completion concerning delivery time and production costs of disadvantages in relation to the camp manufacturing has. Due to the desire of the customer to products for the individual customer with low prices a rising meaning comes to the program manufacturing. Under the keyword individualized mass production (measured customization) tried thoseTo combine advantages of the camp and of the order completion.
conception of production planning and - steurungssystemen
production planning and - control according to the Push principle
for the accomplishment of the extensive tasks of operational production planning and - control become in operational practicefor a long time computer-assisted production planning and control systems (PPS systems) assigned, which work according to the Push principle, since orders for production are pressed into the production process. PPS systems fall back regularly to a data base of the production department, into all data over the products, production processesand resources are put down.
On the basis of all material or orders for plan with the respective completion dates a run time limitation in such a way specified of the entire Produktionsablaufs is accomplished. This happens with the help of fixed and/or. determined average times for individual working on steps. All orders become thusinto its work procedures partitioned and for these at the beginning of and end times fixed as well as for the orders is calculated at the beginning of and end times resulting in from it. Following the run time limitation for each resources the resulting capacity load is determined and the capacity need that Capacity offer confronted. In the context of a capacity load reconciliation one tries if necessary to eliminate overloads by extensions of deadline of not-critical orders as well as by taking into account from overtime to. In the following an order sequence with exact start and completion date are then specified for each working group or machine. This deadline scheduleserves then the controlling of the information and flow of material in production.
production planning and - control according to the Pull principle
with production on call (Pull principle) does not place the production control any longer - as with the Push system - for each production stage onedetailed plan default ready, but it becomes only one production plan for the last production stage, i.e. the final assembly set up. The Pull principle is reached by an appropriate reorganization of the entire production process and special technical measures. Successively-switched self-controlling automatic control loops are installed, the oneDecentralization of the stock check and thus the transmission of the short term production control to the implementing coworkers make possible. Each automatic control loop possesses one lowers, in that material of the stored automatic control loop is used and a source, which is filled by the pre-aged automatic control loop. Fundamental idea is it that each place manufactures only so many units of a product, like by the following (using) places being actually needed (production on call). This principle works best for standard products with regular need process, few variants and an flow of material-oriented need central arrangement.The following variants can be differentiated:
- Two-container system, multi-container system
in decentralized organizations of mass production, for example in traffic between car manufacturers and - suppliers progress numbers are used as procedures of the production control according to the Pull principle.