project in the general meaning of a special project decreases/goes back to latin verb proiacere (per = forwards, for, iacere = throw) and its participle proiectus , those the procedure and/or. the result of a negative or positive lifting of one outPerson or thing designated (proiacere: jdm. something accuse, someone. away-hunt, etw. give up; proiectus: too etw. bent, outstanding; low, verächtlich).
Project colloquially a special project is called, which has a draft character.
As projects become now and then alsospecial projects and/or. Mechanisms of authorities or private groups designates, in order to define it against firm, long-term, more comprehensive mechanisms.
As projects (or operations) certain special projects of a secret service become (e.g. Project Blue Book, meanwhile however also of banks, business enterprisesand and in all rule a code name designates international law firms added, over coworkers or outstanding one directly not taken part the character of the project and personnel and/or. to refuse institutional identities.
Table of contents
technical and economical definition
a project is according to DIN 69901 a project, with which within a defined time interval a defined goal is to be achieved, and whichby the fact it is characterised that it is essentially a unique project.
Within the project management the demarcation of a project of an enterprise has the sense to arrange the individual ranges flatable. The whole of the activities, those with the successful completion oneProject are connected, flow into an automatic control loop for the control of projects. Reliable at the beginning of and final data are important for the planning of the project and promises for necessary resources.
Usually a project saves - contrary to regular, always similarly accomplished,majority identical projects - usually a higher risk of the failure and becomes in a special and limited organization form, which project organization so mentioned, one completes, one hang-works within those on the goal.
Typical projects are product development, (RH) organization, EDP, building or reorganization projects,
DIN 69901: „Project, which is essentially by the uniqueness of the conditions in their whole characterized, like z. B. Target, temporal, financial, personnel and other delimitations; Demarcation in relation to other projects; project-specific organization.“
Project management Body OF Knowledge the American Project management of institutes: „A temporary effort toward the production of a unique product or service “
far ones definition
a setting of tasks can be usually regarded and should as project, if the problem which can be solved, the solution method is relatively complex first is unknown, a temporal delimitation and a defined goal is present, and/or range/specializedspreading co-operation is necessary.
The complexity of the problem is appropriate for example in it that
- there is a multiplicity of solution methods, for their success at the start of the project unknown
- the goal is with exact analysis contradictory partial goals contains (conflicting aims)
- the involved and together working organizations or instances different special logics obeys
- the individual measures for Zielerreichung variously interlinks.
All will mostly interaction these factors.
Organizations, the regularly something similarProjects accomplish, should be anxious to develop these further to products. This will be rarely without reservation possible. However a standardisation of the procedure, which lets the learning effect from preceding projects flow again into new projects, is an advantage opposite a constant „new identification of theRades “. This standardisation expresses itself usually during defined processes, during which new projects are concerned, as well as in existing templates for documentations etc., those if necessary. project-specifically to be adapted, however already the points contain, - from experience- not to be forgotten should.
Likewise conformal in the sense of the temporal limitness, however in the sense that thematically/organizational demarcation of „the normal case “, with the meaning that it is „something special “, the designation project is not thus used also, around
- alternative ways of life, karitativeMechanisms or nonprofit organizations etc. to describe. Z. B.: „Living project “, „unemployed person project “, also the Wikipedia - enterprise is called internally frequently „project “. The so-called frequently which can be found within these ranges. Project financing of the public hand for limited, however again and again again toothis name convention probably favoured requesting projects (z. B. for so-called.constant projects of social mechanisms).
- to designate a process of the development not locked yet.
- to designate something new within the range art. Thus many recent groups of music call themselves as „project “(because ofa higher attention effect and with the Nebenbedeutung to let this designation fall if one regards oneself established). Language dictionaries (z. B. ) Projects define Duden rather in this more general sense than planning, enterprise, draft or projects.
Project as training concept in school and university
the project as instruction form was developed of John Dewey at the beginning of the twentieth century. Since at the beginning of the 1980er years spreads in the educating system the project method in the course of reform movement, itself against thatarranged up to then above all practiced frontal instruction.
Projects demand the whole Lernerpersönlichkeit and in the framework the learning effects obtained by projects from the research as more multilayered, deep-going and more resistant to forgetting are described. Particularly in the consequence of the PISA study, thosethe project method an upswing uncovered, experiences substantial methodical and contentwise deficits in the German educational system. This development seizes the field of universities with delay also. In such a way caused changes are promoted by the spreading of the Internets, one communication also outside ofMakes possible for classrooms and work continuity necessary for projects promotes.
|Wiktionary: Project - word origin, synonyms and translations|
on the left of
- the area of conflict between hierarchy and project
- learning by teachings:Method of teaching, which arranges whole instruction to the project.
- Internet and project authority