of these articles treats the mechanism propaganda, for the group of music of the same name sees propaganda (volume)

by propaganda understands one the purposeful and organized spreading of a message or an ideology, usually in the political surrounding field. The propaganda-driving has the goal, social actingto affect and thinking others in the own sense. Concretely in each case spread information can be correct or wrong.

Occasionally „propaganda designated” also the advertisement in the economy („product propaganda” in the GDR).

Turned around also economic terms are used in place of „propaganda”,e.g. „the Social marketing”, approximately within the ranges environmental protection („I was a box”) and public health policy („give to AIDS no chance”). Also „Feel good” - campaigns, which publicise political tendency change without clearly defined action appeal, become underthe term Social marketing summarizes.

Particularly perfide, denunziatorische and would blood-run-rise propaganda frequently as Gräuelpropaganda are designated.

Table of contents

propaganda and information

in many cases is difficult it to separate information and propaganda clearly since there is no pure information in human communication.Without exception each information exchange between humans is distorted and has a certain orientation, is subjectively colored and by the transmitter already filtered. The only objectivity, which exists in human communication, consists of it, the subjective point of view of a person as neutrally as possible to represent and completely. Functioning one for the public „reliable” propaganda communicates the information in subtle way distorted. Propaganda uses this separate-indistinct skillfully, in order to affect the public opinion.

Quantitative information distortion takes place whenever a slight fact broadly steppedbecomes, or turned around an important is played down.

Qualitative information distortion however refers to the point of view, which is obtained during communication. A classical example is the difference between the optimistic and the pessimistic Propagator. That one becomes a halffilled Jug „half empty”, these call as „half fully”. In both cases the information communicated is the same, the point of view communicated however affects the Rezeption by the receiver of the message.

word history

Latin propagare is called originally „spreads, expands,reproduce”. As verb graft (during the plant refinement) the term in the Botanik already early into German one took.

With the Gerundivum of this verb Gregor became XV of Pope. in the year 1622 a church Kongregation named Sancta congregatio de propaganda fidecreated, thus the jesuitische „holy society for the spreading of the faith”, whose purpose was it to promote the Missionierung and spreading of the catholic Christianity. Derived from the designation of this organization the expression propaganda was transferred to most languages.

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Political propaganda

Biblical time

in the representation of the like a Christian coined/shaped secondary literature of the Hebrew Bible (original) most stories of the old will can be interpreted also as propaganda. They unite everything that constitutes effective propaganda: Justification (legitimacy) contradictory actions and actions by the argument that the will of humans to behave to the good one or bad one it is free, and God ways, its rewards and punishments about to recognize not all clearly are, with the goal, requirements for rule toostrengthen and „the people of God” as the other peoples opposite to represent.

The Hebrew Bible, as before-historical narration in principle of the outgoing Middle East Bronzezeit, reports of a time, the 2 to 1.5 millenia before the time calculation (V. D. Z. V. D. Chr.) lies and becomes between 600 to 100 v. D. Z. editorialally fixes. As history bronze and the Jewish holy writing however already contains iron-temporal Jewish winner in Kanaan, as that praised country,z. B. in the Chumasch, sufficient narrations, to reflect myths and legends around the aspect of propaganda on the culture of the self-propagandistically laid out Hebrew Bible tradierte in Christian way. The Jewish Hebrew - aramäische holy writing tells of onePeople of former slaves, who becomes a people only and often offends against the requirements of the name. It is reported by a halsstarrigen people. The people Israel does other inglorious things and a large part leaves occasionally even the monotheistischenFaith and closes under its king a Götzenkult of the Baal (see: Belzebub) on, etc.

To be noted it must that a Jewish historical-critical understanding of the Bible (= Tora, Tanach) is another, and it in the light of the developmentIsrael to the nation, the people sees. Also it is also pointed out that no critical or political-propagandistically unwanted narrations are omitted over the people Israel and the Bible humanity, (also opposite slaves, arms, protection-ordered), environmental protection, protection from the social andsocial Degradierung, justice and sympathy transport, always in the sense of a propaganda for the people Israel seen, which is held, itself ethicalally and next-loving to hold back and against other peoples defines itself. In particular there is probably more than 3 milleniapursuit, only among Biblical peoples, like the Egyptians, Assyrern and Babyloniern, then among the Greeks and Romans, and then 2000 years Christian pursuit up to the Schoa, those the people Israel itself over the entire earthto distribute left, with considerable portion of the culture.

The rabbinische Judentum lays the Bible out mainly liberally and human being-legally, missioniert and does not operate a culture propaganda, which aims to teach Jews the culture and the wealth of the tradition.

antique ones

in the Greek antique one limited itself propaganda relating to domestic affairs on the personal conviction of other-thinking, particularly in popular assemblies (see. Agora, public opinion). With regard to foreign policy authors carried such as Demosthenes, the antique large masters of the Rhetorik from Athens, substantially for the formation of enemy pictures and legitimacy of martial actions and for the increase of the own nation.

The expansion of the Roman realm however was possible only with the support by intensive propaganda work. Conquest campaigns or Putsche had legitimized andare financed. A master of this subject was Julius Caesar. In De bello he justified Gallico as field gentleman and was written a coming statesman, (additional) a justification for its complex campaigns against the gallischen master peoples and smoothed thereby the way forthe fulfilment of its further ambitions. Also the Catilinares Cicero (speeches against Catilina) and its accusation against Verres (Divinatio in Caecilium, Orationes in rem) were propagandistic masterpieces.

Nachbibli turn of an era

the follow-up of the gone down Roman-GreekRule area by the straight developing Christian churches, could take place only by means of political influencing control, Christian wars and Christian propaganda. The time after the destruction of the second more jerusalemer Jewish temple by the Roman crew around 70 and the Kreuzigung of 10000 Jewsalong the roads of Philistia (= Palestine) by the Romans and the following scatter (Diaspora) of the Jews from Palestine the positioning of the Urchristentums had away from the Judentum to the Christianity as a consequence. This happened on the one hand, around thatto escape anti-Jewish efforts of the Roman culture area and on the other hand, in order to be able to missionieren better and more easily with new religious concepts among the citizens of the Roman-Greek culture area. Since the Christianity is a missionierende religion, and remains essential it was on theirChristian propaganda dependent, although in today's time the Repressionen, violations of human rights and obligation baptism about, at meaning in the sense of the company and fulfilment of propaganda any longer do not exist.

the Middle Ages

medieval rulers befehligten chronicler, those their acts and actions positivelyto represent and to its martial actions a legitimate requirement lend should. Religious propaganda were also the many personal records and narrations of Christian holy, in particular beginning with that of the holy one March in. Christian propaganda led since the time of the first centuries afterthe turn of an era in the Christian culture area so mentioned the enslavement, killing, Pogrome and torture, obligation baptism or Zwangsbekehrungen of innumerable humans of other Ethnien, skin colors or faith. If the Christian religious community is world-wide after number of the Gläubigen the largest, then the catholic producedPropaganda after number and cruelty the most serious victims in history.

So Pope had Stephan III. († 772) the Langobarden in a letter to the Franconia kings as „a perfidious and stinking nation” denunziert, „those not even to the nations countedwird und von der gewiss die Aussätzigen ihren Ursprung haben”. Indeed Karl the large one, then autocrats of the Frankish realm , already subjected „the sowing goats” Langobarden in the year 774 and made themselves their king.

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Modern times

the club de la propagande, a secret company of the Jakobiner in the France 18. Century, the spreading of revolutionary ideas wanted to promote. In 19. Century became the term for the first time with the meaning (or as synonym) of Advertisement assigned, which it partly into the first half 20. Century maintained. Carlo Pisacane however demanded the terrorism as propaganda of the act.

In the closer, colloquially frequently common sense propaganda stands in the consequence increasingly in addition, forintentionally wrong or misleading information, a political purpose or the interest of the power acquisition and/or. its - preservation serves.

Anti-Jewish propaganda National Socialist and fascist Europe, in particular Germany, solves one of the crimes grauenhaftesten with distance from humans at humans of all times,the Schoa out. About 6 million Jew and about 1 million other one, than worth living not classified humans (Sinti & Roma, obstructed, gays & lesbians) became destroyed of the Nazis in Gaskammern systematically.


in the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union (with Lenin) propaganda the general conviction work was called of “communists”, in contrast to the agitation, which special goals pursued (see. Agitprop). These propagandists try to change the aspect from humans to a certain topic around that one onelarger insight into those to make in their eyes, correct social connections possible. Lenin defined propaganda as „the revolutionary lighting of the entire present social order or its divisor seeming…, independently of it, whether in a form happens, those the particular or thatspread mass is accessible”.[1]

„modern trend” propaganda

the origin of the modern propaganda methods lies in America and Great Britain at present the First World War. In the USA 1917 , during the term of office of Woodrow Wilson, became those Creel commission in the life called, which had the task under participation of John Dewey , walter Lippmann and the again-created British propaganda Ministry to mobilize the pazifistisch tuned American population against the German Reich. This goal was achieved to a large extent. Lippmann developed latera democracy - theory, which means that the people essentially consists of two classes: On the one hand from the class of the specialists, which is actively with the affairs of the public entrusted and which makes decisions, on the other hand from the large majority, for lack ofown knowledge to the support „of the reasonable” decisions of the specialists to be brought must.

World war propaganda in the scientific sociological context of a general theory of the public opinion was examined for the first time and fundamentally in „the criticism of the public opinion” by Ferdinand sound-sneezes (1922, ² 2003).1922 found the expression „to propaganda” entrance into the Encyclopædia Britannica.

A standard work is „propaganda” American's Edward of the Bernays, which was also member of the Creel commission.

propaganda in the third realm

due to the estimate, the GermanWould be rich in the First World War not due to military inferiority, but by „the betrayal of the homeland front” (see also: Dolchstosslegende) defeated, unfolded the national socialists extreme propagandistic activity and brought them under Joseph Goebbels to a fatal perfection. At that time meantthe term „propaganda” a synonym for the measures of the Nazi regime for the uniform adjustment of the population in political questions. In German therefore the word has „propaganda” - also by „the realm Minister for public enlightenment and propaganda”, Goebbels, that for „the measures mentioned”, a mainly negative meaning was primarily responsibly attained.

subtle one forms

in a still closer, less common however legitimate sense stands the term propaganda for constant reassuring insurance, the possible doubts about an already existing convictionzerstreuen are. Doubts are usually unpleasant, and like that are doubting humans very sensitively to this kind of propaganda and them also purposefully to these humans are addressed.

techniques for the production of propaganda

which propaganda ofthe principles of persuading differentiate between, are other forms of occurring for a thing (lat. Persuasion) and/or deception of humans in place of rationally understanding conviction.

In detail:


  • Insistierende repetition, which is to put close, at the end is but something at the thing to.
  • Persuading by arguments of alleged opponents in the public. By the formula thesis - anti-thesis - synthesis can be drawn the public to an alleged compromise formula, which it would have actually never agreed.
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grey propaganda

the terminology grey propaganda has two meanings:

  • Propaganda, with thatone a source for the messages does not call
  • propaganda, with which one straight what one would like to conceal (however cannot) exaggerates and/or mixed with wrong information, in order to donate confusion.


  • support by Prominenz or by memberbeen suitable appearing occupational groups
  • of calls to follow the majority because to the winners („everyone makes with”, „we makes also”, „the victory is close”) Fatalisierung
  • will belong: Patheti statements, which suggest naturalness, inevitability and correctness of measures („the euro comes”instead of „the euro”) increased height
  • is introduced: Patheti appeals at native country, liberty, peace, democracy, human rights, God, honour, fame etc. and connection of persons or topics with such positively occupies words („God is on our side” from George W. Bush)
  • strong simplificationsof complex topics. A means in addition are terms, which contain two aspects of a topic, and thus the separate discussion the same make more difficult (foreigner criminality)
  • turned around strong complication of simple connections. Remarks by page over a trivially falsifizierbare statement arouse the impression,it is to be considered truely or at least as alternative. The fundamental false acceptance in the mass by text to recognize is heavy thereby for non--experts to impossible. Example: Very often uses, over Pseudowissenschaften as scientific and/or. as alternative tooto let appear scientific theories.
  • Reference to doubtful statistics and survey data as voucher for the own statement
  • synthesis of new fantasy words, in order to produce prejudices. Examples: international Finanzjudentum, Islamo fascism, Hassprediger, pirat copy, Produktepiraterie.
  • Synthesis of new fantasy words, overwith negative meanings loaded terms to avoid. Examples:Immediate exemption instead of cancellation without notice, personnel rationalisation instead of personnel reduction, expenditure surplus instead of deficit, preventive strike instead of Erstschlag.
  • Vague or ambiguous statements (production of doubts and/or. Associations)
  • debt assignments, presentation of scapegoats, attackon the personality of the opponents.
  • Negative representation of the opponents as extreme minority („only some sparkling wines, groups of fragments are against it”).
  • The statement, it is the will „of the simple man on the road” - in addition: Discrediting unpopular statements as opinion „of someone,no notion has” or shortened „table reserved for regulars level” or „unprofessionally”
  • production of prejudices - in addition: Discrediting unpopular judgements as prejudice

special case Gräuelpropaganda

Gräuelpropaganda is a particularly perfide and hetzerische form of propaganda. Here the enemy becomesaccuses of heaviest crimes and cruel blood acts, by material incidents strongly exaggerated and generalized or events are represented are completely freely invented. Often also own crimes are attributed afterwards to the enemy. Gräuelpropaganda was at all times usually, approximately for war preparationor around the holding out will of the own people e.g. to increase by fear.

The Gräuelpropaganda in the First World War, when Frenchmen and Germans accused themselves mutually bloodiest crimes, experienced a first doubtful high point e.g. the emperor chops the hands of BelgianChildren off a frequently used motive in illustrated sheets and on propaganda postcards of wartime. Such and similar reproaches were however usually freely invented or excessively exaggerated represented, how was admitted later.

The Gräuelpropaganda was perfected in The Second World War - both by the national socialists and by the Soviets and above all the British. An inglorious chapter was the National Socialist, anti-Semitic Gräuelpropaganda, which Jews (or alternatively „Jewish Bolschewisten”), in addition, the Slawen (like also „gypsies”etc.) generally to hinterhältigen, verschlagenen, money-greedy, cruel etc.Untermen deklassierte. With this basic clay/tone that was propagandistically cannibalized 1940 of Soviet's committed massacres the Polish officers caught from Katyn by Goebbels. (And officially still until 1990) the events became simultaneousattributed by Katyn from Soviet side the German troops. Only M. Gorbachev granted the debt of the Bolschewisten to it, when he at the same time returned the dying books of Auschwitz to the German, now in federal archives in Koblenz, for further research, observablyare.

The term of the Gräuelpropaganda was used at the same time by the national socialists for the designation of alleged propaganda lies of the war opponents, as English reports were occupied from 1933 over German Jew pursuits with this term.

From special effect the Gräuelpropaganda can be ifit on truth was partly based, as in the case of the purchase one plan and/or. the Morgenthau plan. „Germany must Perish” did a remaining.

media and channels of the propaganda spreading

common methods, in order to scatter propaganda, are messages, governmental declarations, political columns and comments; oftenby influence of the curricula of schools (here often as rewritings of history or pseudoscientific statements). Also the Schleichwerbung in editorial contributions of different kind (press, television, in the feature etc.) is to be called. By the modern mass media (radio, film, Television and Internet) propaganda can be spread fast. Their „synchronising”, thus Orchestrierung in the same direction, works thereby particularly effectively - often with „established press” characteristically described.

A historical technology of the propaganda spreading is the lithography. With the photolithography left themselves Handbills with caricature and mockery verse already for the French revolution fast manufacture. After the October Revolution sketched Russian avant-garde - artist of posters, Rosta windows so mentioned, for the massive spreading of newest messages and political caricatures.

propaganda as picture

not onlyby language, also with pictures (film, television, photographies, works of art) propaganda can be spread. This is more difficult to check up and thus all the more common. Some life-styles, world views or attitudes e.g. become. as naturally as worthwhile represented, other one stresses negatively. Oftenthe picture healing of a world and a self-sacrificing leader (national socialism, Stalinismus, Maoism, North Korea) was spread in the mass media and on fixed images. Opponents were dämonisiert and explained entmenschlicht. Typical example are the pictures, the Lenin andStalin with speeches during the revolution time show, from which Trotzki and other unpopular politicians were out-retouched.

A more harmless example are politicians, who let themselves be made a blueprint with children on the arm, such a production serves itself just like with actors,preferably smiling to photograph leave, to the sympathy - education. Similarly functions advertisement with children or animals, who appeal to the Kindchenschema. The viewer is to develop opposite the explained person or the product positive feelings. E.g. come. also warm or cold colorsto the employment, which produce tendencies, also the music plays for instance in the television commercial an important role. This kind of influence takes place not on a rational level, but over the Unterbewusstsein, feelings and instincts.

Place in the arte.g. the assemblies of John Heartfield, Klaus Staeck or also pictures of George Grosz a form of propaganda, by deciding position to social questions refer.

in addition,

medium operational readiness level propaganda can alone already by medium operational readiness leveltake place. Reports for instance the media not or only very scarcely over a happening, it did not take place in the reality of many (see. Gatekeeper, NIC-read Luhmann). Media obtain meaning and relevance and carry responsibility, why the ethics Journalists , and pupils medium authority is frequently discussed to be mediated is.

Medium companies and Medienmogule are able to take lobbyists and think tanks by means of tendencious reporting on the political happening influence , steer social discourses into desired directions (e.g. the so-called initiative new one social free-market economy).

Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman described the mechanisms of decentralized propaganda in modern capitalistic societies in their propaganda model.

Internet takes a privileged position as medium by the fact that due to its Dezentralität only heavily censor themselves it and actuallynot to synchronise leaves. On the other hand the truth content of publications is often doubtful in the Internet, why it is again particularly susceptible to propaganda of any Couleur.

topics /Parallelbegriffe

Related articles


  • Arnold, Klaus: Propaganda as ideological communication. In: Journalism, 48. Jg. (2003), number 1, S. 63-82.
  • Artus, Helmut M. (Treatment): War and propaganda. An overview of current sociological research and literature.Society in the focusthe social sciences, 2003. (Pdf E Book, Download here)
  • Beck, Sven O.: Propaganda war: War reporting, modern enemy pictures and public opinion. University of the German Federal Armed Forces, 1997. (Seminar work as Pdf E Book, Download here)
  • Bussemer, Thymian: Propaganda. Concepts and theories, Wiesbaden: Publishing house f. Social science, 2005 (ISBN 3-8100-4201-3).
  • Ellul, Jacques: Propaganda, London: Vintage 1973 (ISBN 0-39471-874-7). (Is considered as standard work - 1. Edition 1965)
  • Hard TIG, Stefan: Conflict and communication. Reporting, medium work and propaganda in international conflicts from the Krimkrieg to the Kosovo.Münster 2003.(ISBN 3825845133)
  • Hruza, Karel (Hrsg.): Propaganda, communication and public (11. - 16. Century). Publishing house of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, 2002. - ISBN 3-7001-3101-1 (Web document in addition)
  • Jackall, Robert (Hrsg.): Propaganda, London: Macmillan press 1995 (ISBN 0-333-61757-6).
  • Krempl, Stefan: War and Internet: Way out of propaganda?. Hanover: Publishing house Heinz Heise (dpunkt), 2003. - ISBN 3-93693-109-7 ( - book to the Blog)
  • Taleb, B. A.: The Bewildered stove: Media Coverage OF internationally Conflicts &Publicly Opinion. 2004 (ISBN 0595326862)
  • webers, Gregor/Carpenter, Martin (Hrsg.): Propaganda - self-manifestation - representation in the Roman empire of the 1. Jhs. n. Chr. Stuttgart: Steiner 2003 (Historia single writing 164). - 355 S., 69 fig. EUR 92. - ISBN 3-515-08251-4 (review for this)

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