a protectorate (of lat. protegere, „protect “, therefore also protected area) are part sovereign a national territory, whose administration, foreign agency and national defense are subordinate to another state. Differently than with colonies a larger autonomy exists, without of autonomous areas can be spoken.
The word“Protectorate” can be used also in the sense by “protectorate over a Organistation/a meeting”, here is meant with it the patronage, the holding person is called here tread (protector). In this article with this use of the word one does not deal more in greater detail.
of protectorates to states and organizations
Egypt was from 1914 to independence 1922 British protectorate. The British gold coast was divided up to independence as Ghana into a crowning colony and a protectorate, which covered the core of the old Ashantireiches. In addition 1919 came Völkerbund - protectorate British Togo country. 1984 full independence were awarded to the Sultanate of Brunei. Botswana was likewise British protectorate from 1865 to independence 1966.
today's protectorates and overseas territories
- British Antarctic territory, international nur teilweise anerkannt -> Antarctic contract
- British territory in the Indian ocean
- dock one islands
- pc. Helena
- Turks and Caicosinseln
German protected areas at the beginning 20. Century were German southwest Africa (today: Namibia) and German East Africa (today: Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi); it is quite contentious whether these areas were not rather colonies and were treated by the German Reich less than protectorates. With the break resident of Munich of the agreement of 1938 became Tschechien (except the areas already annektiertenthe so-called Sudetenlandes) converted into protectorate the Böhmen and Mähren.
French of protectorates
- French Polynesien (Polynésie française) since 1946
- Neukaledonien (Nouvelle Calédonie) since 1956
- whale-read and Futuna (Wallis et Futuna) since 1961 (northeast from Fiji)
- to French the southand Antarctic areas TAAF Terres of australes et antarctiques françaises belong the islands Amsterdam, pc. Paul, Crozetinseln and the Kerguelen as well as the internationally not recognized requirement on a part of the Antarctic (Adélieland).
- Pc. Pierre and Miquelon have the status of one „regional administrative body of the French republic “(Collectivité territorial) and thus a similar legal position
- Monaco 1641 - 1815 and 1861 - 1918 French protectorate, since 1918 formally unabhänigig
Italian of protectorates
- Abessinien 1935 - 1941, thereafter independently
- Italian Somaliland 1950 -1960 unfaithful hand area, before it colony
Spanish of protectorates
- to 16. September 1915 becomes Haiti, under solid military pressure of the United States, US protectorate. The USA and Haiti signed a contract,that the USA practically complete control of the administration and finances of the Karibikstaates makes possible.
- Panama channel: In December 1903 Panama with the USA agreed upon a convention over the use of a channel zone in the width of 10 miles (16 kilometers), in each case 5 miles on both sides thatChannel route, their occupation and their unrestricted control too.1977 decided US president Jimmy Carter to return the channel up to the year 2000 at Panama which also happened. Since then the channel is administered of Panama Canal Authority (ACP ).
- American Ozeanien, today American external area
- northern Marianen, since 1945 American external area
of mandated territories of the Völkerbunds
after the First World War became most earlier German colonies and areas of the Osmani realm posed under control of the Völkerbunds. These given different member states mandates for the administration of these areas. See: Völkerbund.
the unfaithful hand advice took over
trust territories of the United Nations after the establishment of the United Nations the administration of the remainingMandated territories of the Völkerbunds. 1994 became Palau as last one of these areas into independence to dismiss. See: Trust territory.
protectorates of NATO
the Kosovo is considered politically as so-called. „NATO - Protectorate “, because it controls after the Kosovo war of NATO militarily and from that UN is administered (with the euro as currency); legally the Kosovo up to final clarifying of the status of the Kosovo ranks citizens among the Republic of Serbia, its possesses the Serbian nationality and selects parliament and president of the Republic of Serbia also.