Province floats

province floats (1905)

the province floats with the capital of the same name floats was 1793 - 1920 a province of the State of Prussia, which however after the First World War only as small part under new name continued. It corresponds approximately to the historicalRegion large Poland, in 10. Century developing place of the Polish nation, had altogether a by the majority Polish and at the same time in subsections a by the majority German population. Nearly all Poland in the province floats were catholic, 90 per cent of the Germans however Protestant. In the cities one lived Jewish minority, usually craftsman, businessmen and dealers. The smaller a municipality was, all the rather was either purely Polish or purely German settled it. The northwest of the province was rather German coined/shaped, the southeast rather Polish. End 19. Century amounted to the German population portion about44 %. The attempt of the Prussian government, the German population portion by a so-called. “Germanisierungspolitik” to increase, had hardly affected itself. Afterwards (slight) the migration turned over to the east escape so mentioned, within their frameworks many Polish and German-speaking inhabitants in industrial regions, in particular the Ruhr districtand Upper Silesia, away-pulled. Until 1910 the German population portion sank on approximately 38%, despite the efforts of the government in Berlin: She had brought a settlement commission into being, bought the country of Poland and offered only Germans to the purchase.

Table of contents

landscape

the landscape is usually flat, drained by two large rivers, the nets (Polish: Noteć) in the north and the Warthe (Warta) in the center.The glaciers of the ice age left Moränenablagerungen; over the country are scattered numerous narrow seas, which are flowed through by tributaries of the two large rivers.

The most important industry was the agriculture. In a Dreifelderwirtschaft numerous varieties of grain, above all rye , sugar beets , potatoes were cultivated, other grain and something tobacco and hop. Important forest surfaces made building material and fire wood available. There were rather small livestocks, among them geese, in addition, rather many sheep.

When the area came under Prussian rule, still a feudales system prevailed, which was already eliminated however of Prussia 1807 in the framework of farmer release and the abolishment of the hereditary subserviency by the reforms of the baron by the stone, while Poland under Russian rule remained coined/shaped further feudal. Predominantly lived and regenerated before 1807 and/or 1810 body-ownthe goods of the free land owners and - tenants. A possession consisted usually of a property yard and close convenient village for the workers, possibly also still another further settlement and a forestry house in the forest. The basic owners, usually German noble ones, possessed the local corn mill, often also furtherMills or also a Schnapsbrennerei. At many places the country was scattered by windmills, which reminded of the first settlers from the Netherlands. The Dutchmen had begun to cultivate unfruchtbares march country for the agriculture. This process was continued by German and Polish settlers.

Work on []

Changing owners

original an area of the Polish kingdom, the area corresponded approximately to the region large Poland. It was annektiert in the divisions of Poland of the Kingdom of Prussia: in the first division 1772 only the part both sides the nets (net district), in the second division 1793the remainder. The portion of Prussia of the old Polish national territory was both the surface (8%) and after the total population (approximately 1,5 millions around 1815) the by far smallest. During the Kosciuszko rebellion of 1794 lost Prussia before-practice-suppl.-end control of the area, which was originally called “south Prussia”.

Prussia,later the German Reich, remained up to the end of the First World War in the possession of the area, apart from the time of the Napoleoni wars 1807 to 1815. 1807 were established the duchy Warsaw in consequence of the Prussian defeat in peacetime by Tilsit. Poland were thosemost important allied Napoleon in Central Europe, participated in the Polish rebellion of 1806 and made troops available for its campaigns.

With the Viennese congress of 1815 fell floats back at Prussia and became the “Grand Duchy of floats “, an autonomous province under Prussian rule with thatQuite the “free development of the Polish nation, culture and language”, outside of the German federation convenient. At this time the city floats was the administrative centre and seat of the governor Fürst Anton Radziwill. Radziwill was recalled after the November rebellion in congress Poland in December 1830. That mainlywith tasks of representation connected office was not again occupied. Since 1848 the area “province floats” was called.

With the German realm Reich the province became whole like Prussia a part of the second German one of Reich (1871 - 1918), and the city floats became the imperial Residenzstadtappointed. The province floats was arranged until 1920 into the two governmental districts floats and bromine mountain, which continued to themselves subdivide in urban areas and districts.

After the First World War the predominant part was surrendered to the province in accordance with the regulations of the contract from Versailles to Poland. Smallerwith Germany remaining western part was combined likewise predominantly 1922 with the western part that at Poland and/or to the free city Danzig province west Prussia arrived to the new province “border Mark float west Prussia “. Province capital became snowing the UHL (Piła). 1938 became this province under thatneighbouring provinces Schlesien, Pommern and Brandenburg divided.

The Polish part of the former province floats was back-arranged Germany and designated from 1939 to 1945 as “realm gau floats” (starting from 1940” realm gau Wartheland “), up to the net district, that again as between 1772 and1807, into the province west Prussia (starting from 1940 “realm gau Danzig Westpreussen “) were integrated. To the Second World War the whole area came again to Poland and forms today approximately the Woiwodschaft large Poland.

ethnical conflict

due to the strong ethnical “mixing” and the arisingNationalism was the area in the second half 19. as well as the first half 20. Century often scene of ethnical conflicts. These became partially by the discord between catholics and Protestanten in the context of the so-called. Culture fight additionally promoted. Up to the end 19. Centurythe German population portion rose due to nationally promoted “colonizing” around approximately 5%. In the second half the Polish population portion grew gradually because of a higher birth rate tendentious rather of the population polnischsprachigen in rural areas residents. Many inhabitants moved away into industrially coined/shaped regions(so-called. East escape). The argument culminated in the culture fight, when many German catholics in the province floats solidarized with Poland for opposition against the Protestant Prussian government. With the so-called. Germanisierung of the area tried the Prussian government, the Polish language gradually from school and administrationto displace. A Prussian settlement commission tried to buy up and afterwards only to German farmers further sell - with small success, since it was over-bid in auction procedures frequently by unions of Polish farmers - country. Between 1919 and 1929 the Polish government expropriated in accordance with article 297b of theVersailler of contract many local resident Germans, to which the Polish nationality was not awarded. Starting from 1925 a so-called led. Agrarian reform law to the fact that many German-speaking farmers - under it also such, to which the Prussian state had sold surface area - its country to obligation-sell had.

statistics

surface: 28.970km 2

  • governmental district floats 17,503 km 2
  • governmental district bromine mountain 11,448 km 2

population

  • 1816: 820.176
  • 1868: 1.537.300 (bromine mountain 550,900 - floats 986,400)
  • 1871: 1.583.843
    • religion: 1871
      • catholics 1.009.885
      • Protestanten 511.429
      • Jews 61,982
      • others 547
  • 1875: 1.606.084
  • 1880: 1.703.397
  • 1900: 1.887.275
  • 1905: 1.986.267
  • 1910: 2.099.831 (bromine mountain763.900 - Floats 1.335.900)

administrative arrangement 1920 ago

circle Polish designation population 1905 Poland German ¹ Jews ² original circle
governmental district floats (southern part)
urban area floats Poznań 55% 45%
District Adelnau Odolanów 90% 10% Ostrowo
district Birnbaum Międzychód 51% 49%
district Bomst ³ Babimost 49% 51%
District woman Mrs. ³ Wschowa 27% 73%
district Gostyn Gostyn 87% 13% Kröben
district Grätz Grodzisk 82% 18% baked
district Jarotschin Jarocin 83% 17% Ple
district Kempen Kępno 84% 16% sign mountain
district Koschmin Koźmin 83% 17% Krotoschin
district costs Kościan 89% 11%
District Krotoschin Krotoszyn 70% 30%
district Lissa Leszno 36% 64% woman Mrs.
district Meseritz ³ Międzyrzecz 20% 80%
district Neutomischel Nowy Tomyśl 51% 49% baked
district Obornik Oborniki 61% 39%
district Ostrowo Ostrów 80% 20%
district Ple Pleszew 85% 15%
district float east Poznań, Wsch. 72% 28% Floats
district float west Poznań, Zach. 87% 13% floats
district Rawitsch Rawicz 55% 45% Kröben
district Samter Szamotuły 73% 27%
district sign mountain Ostrzeszów 90% 10%
district Schmiegel Śmigiel 82% 18% costs
district Schrimm Śrem 82% 18%
district Schroda Środa 88% 12%
district Schwerin to the Warthe ³ Skwierzyna 5% 95% Birnbaum - 1877
district Wre Września 84% 16%
governmental district bromine mountain (northern part)
urban area bromine mountain Bydgoszcz 16% 84%
district bromine mountain Bydgoszcz 38% 62%
district Czarnikau 4 Czarnków 27% 73%
district Filehne 4 Wieleń 28% 72% Czarnikau
district Gnesen Gniezno 67% 33%
District Hohensalza Inowrocław 64% 36%
district Kolmar in floats 4 Chodzież 18% 82%
district Mogilno Mogilno 76% 24%
District Schubin Szubin 56% 44%
district Strelno Strzelno 82% 18%
district we seat Wyrzysk 47% 53%
district Witkowo Witkowo 83% 17%
district Wongrowitz Wągrowiec 77% 23%
district Znin Żnin 77% 23%

¹ with bilingual population
² member of the Jewish faith, independently of their native language
³ the net circle were formed starting from 1922 to the new
province border Mark of 4 from parts these circles belonged to float west Prussia, which was likewise integrated the new province border Mark float west Prussia

Upper presidents of the province floats

term of office name life data
1815 - 1824 Joseph of Zerboni di Sposetti 1766 - 1831
1825 - 1830 Johann Friedrich Theodor of Baumann 1768 - 1830
1830 - 1840 Eduard Heinrich quick-wave 1786 - 1865
1840 - 1842 Adolf Heinrich countof Arnim Boitzenburg 1803 - 1868
1843 - 1850 Carl Moritz of Beurmann 1802 - 1870
1850 - 1851 Gustav Carl Gisbert Heinrich William Gebhard of Bonin (1. Term of office) 1797 - 1878
1851 - 1860 Eugen of Puttkamer 1800 - 1874
1860 - 1862 Gustav CarlGisbert Heinrich William Gebhard of Bonin (2. Term of office) 1797 - 1878
1862 - 1869 Carl William Heinrich George von Horn 1807 - 1889
1869 - 1873 Otto count von Königsmarck 1815 - 1889
1873 - 1886 William Barstow of Guenther 1815 - 1892
1886 -1890 Robert count von Zedlitz Trützschler (1898-1903 Oberpräs. of Hessen Nassau) 1837 - 1914
1890 - 1899 Hugo The. Yielding baron von Wilamowitz Moellendorff 1840-1905
1899 - 1903 Karl Julius Rudolf of bitter 1846 - 1914
1903 - 1911 William August Hans's von Waldow Reitzenstein 1856 - 1937
1911- 1914 Philipp Schwartzkopf ?
1914 - 1918 Joh. Karl Friedr. Moritz Ferd. v. Eisenhart Rothe 1862-1942

Web on the left of

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)