Psychiatric university clinic Heidelberg

the psychiatric university clinic Heidelberg became to 15. October 1878 as grossherzoglich university mad University of of Baden Heidelberg opens. It won already soon at reputation and is considered since then as one of the most renowned institutions of the German university psychiatry.


Table of contents

1878-1918: Fürstner - Kraepelin - Bonhoeffer - Nissl

of first directors/conductors of the hospital was with its appointment only the 29jährige Carl Fürstner (1848-1906). As a neuro pathologist it however hardly gave it in the thirteen year to its activity impulses.

Followed it with Emil Kraepelin, which led the hospital from 1891 to 1903, the founder of the modern empirically oriented Psychopathologie, which justified the reputation of the hospital with its pioneer achievements. Its exact process observations of psychological disturbances, accomplished here, enable it for working the disease picture of the Dementia out praecox and its demarcation of that Manisch depressive Irresein, a distinction, which proved as fundamental and for which today's partitioning of the endogenous Psychosen into the group of the Psychosen of the schizophrenen form circle and those the affektiven Psychosen is the basis. After the model William Wundts furnished Kraepelin in the hospital in addition a laboratory for the psychological experimental research, for which he justified his own magazine, which it published starting from 1894 under the title psychological work. - Famous coworkers of it were Alois Alzheimer (starting from 1903, Habilitation 1904 in Munich), Gustav Aschaffenburg (1891-1901, Habilitation 1895), Robert Gaupp (1900-1904, Habilitation 1901), Franz Nissl (since 1895, Habilitation 1896, 1904 indirect successor of Kraepelin), Ernst Rüdin (1901; again starting from 1907 in Munich, Habilitation 1909), Paul Schröder (around 1900), Ernst Trömner, Wilhelm Weygandt (1899 ago), Karl Wilmanns (starting from 1902; Habilitation 1906 with Nissl) and in the psychological laboratory - which was visited by prospective customers from the whole world - of 1901-1902 also Willy Hellpach. Because of Erfolglosigkeit of its efforts toward the development of the hospital Kraepelin 1903 accepted a call to Munich , where he continued 1904 after a voyage round the world its successful work with some coworker from Heidelberg.

His classical-clinically oriented successor Karl Bonhoeffer remained only two month, whereupon the Ministry with Franz Nissl appointed a neuropathological researcher again the hospital leader.

Nissls activity until 1918 was characterized by the lucky circumstance that he - beside Hans's walter Gruhle (since 1905, Habilitation 1913) and August Homburger, the youth-psychiatrically oriented and director/conductor of many years of the health center open for psychotherapeutische beginnings - in Martin pasteboard home, Arthur Kronfeld (Diss. 1909), Willy May-he-largely among other things engaged and energizing coworkers found. Above all however Nissl gave Karl Jaspers (Diss starting from 1909. 1908) Opportunity to the cooperation: In its years at the hospital Jaspers promoted the inclusion of the self descriptions of patients to the psychiatric work and research, with which he supplemented the outward-describing Psychopathologie advanced by Kraepelin by consideration also those internal mental conditions, which really experience the patients. Jaspers stated bases and Leistungsfähigkiet of its beginning psychological-phenomenologically specified 1913 in its famous general Psychopathologie , due to which he could habilitieren himself with the help of Nissls in the philosophical faculty for psychology. However he endeavored in further the little, from him in the psychiatry lastingly embodied themselves really psychological thinking beyond the phenomenological-descriptive beginning there up to the collection also still the internal dynamics of psychological happening to promote, as this tried approximately since 1910 his colleague of many years Arthur Kronfeld first in argument with the psychodynamischen thinking of victory mouth Freud: its 1912 published first overall display and first also attention exciting science-theoretical criticism of the psychological theories Freuds and related opinions came before Jaspers of epochaler achievement fast into the background.

1918-1945: Karl Wilmanns - Carl cutter

the time of the you acct advice of Karl Wilmanns of 1918-1933, by which the hospital continued to win at reputation, was characterized by intensive research to the Psychosen of the schizophrenen form circle, which included self attempts of coworkers with psychoaktiven substances. Beside others knights of Baeyer, Hans's citizen prince, were briefly Beringer and Hans Ruffin in the hospital actively , above all however Hans's prince horn in this time walter, who created the basic stick for the collection of the Bildwerke of spirit patients, designated today after it, from 1919-1921. 1933 were forced immediately Wilmanns because of alleged or actual despektierlicher expressions over Adolf Hitler and its hysterischen character by national socialists to give its chair up to which the nichthabilitierte party comrade Carl cutter became to then appoint.

With this up to then by original scientific work particularly in the area of the schizophrenia proven psychiatrist, whose trains of thought approximated those from Arthur Kronfeld, whose publication row resumed small writings to the soul research it 1928 even for short time, stepped a convinced national socialist to the point of the line of the hospital. Here it implemented a continuous work-therapeutic transformation, since it saw a “biological welfare way “in the therapy by work, with which it meant to be able to lead back patients in the sense of the performance requirements of the LV ideology again into the “community “. On the other side it exerted itself also personally for the consistent conversion of the “law for preventing hereditaryill new generation “: since 1939 it belonged to the upper consultants of the National Socialist euthanasia program, which at least 200,000 fell psychologically patient - also from the Heidelberger hospital - to the victim. Briefly before the invasion of the Americans it fled and took themselves after its seizure in the remand 1946 the life. Against its coworkers accusation was never raised. Of the victims a memorial before the hospital reminds since 1998.

since 1945: Briefly cutter - more v.Baeyer - Janzarik - Mundt

with briefly cutter, director of the hospital from 1945 to 1955, came a scientist from Munich to Heidelberg, who acquired international acknowledgment by working the Erstrangsymptome of the schizophrenia out. With walter knight of Baeyer (1955-1972) received the research at the Heidelberger hospital a broader anthropologische adjustment, whereby an emphasis of its work the investigation and investigation of a large number in the time of the national socialism more pursued, especially. Jewish patients was. Toward end of its training activity the general student movement spread also to the hospital, which in-worked still into the start time of its successor Werner Janzarik (1973-1988), which moved and its scientific meaning to defend looked for classical psychopathologische thinking in the tradition of Karl Jaspers again into the foreground. Since 1989 the hospital is led by its former coworker Christoph Mundt, with which the research found also to the contemporary psychological research again more connection. Into its time falls a modernization of the hospital, which was extended 1993 by the reorganized building of the former neurological hospital. 1995 were opened additionally a daily hospital. And since 2001 see the collection prince horn in a museum of the own and other kind for the first time also to the public open.

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