Psychology

psychology (out griech. ψυχολογία, psychología wörtl. over. „Soul customer “, English. (more correct) translation „study OF the mind “) is the empirical science to the description, explanation and forecast (prognosis) of experiencing and holding back humans, their developmentin the life-span and their internal and outside causes and conditions. The psychology is a range-spreading science. It cannot be assigned alone to the Geisteswissenschaften , social sciences or the natural sciences.

Table of contents

locating of the psychology

against its picture andthe understanding in the public, the psychology is a strictly empirical science. One „spirit-scientific “psychology, thinking one, interpreting, only theoretically arguing or only theoretical-describing function, of an only in the sense, does not give it. The psychology is „only “to that extent „Geisteswissenschaft “(at least referredin the English. Meaning „of the Humanities “), it itself with humans, and/or. more exactly: selected aspects of the people unity, evenly experiencing and holding back, concerns.

The soul or the spirit in the philosophical or theological sense, is not article thatPsychology. Psychology may not also under no circumstances, in particular regarding the representation of its history, with which area of the philosophy of the spirit are confounded!

It is a further popular mistake that itself the psychology mainly with disturbed behavior andpredominantly „psychological problems “employs. This actually represents only a very small subrange of the subject. The psychology obtain also no know-how, how one checks up humans „“or how one analyzes each action and expression of humans „“and „psychologically “can interpret. Itis also no theory of „the knowledge of human nature ".

Psychology differs from related Forschungsgebieten other fan, like such philosophy, sociology, Pädagogik, anthropology, Ethnologie, political science, the economic science, general linguistics, the medicine or Biology by the fact that the psychology describes empirically mental processes, concrete behavior mechanisms and interactions of mental processes and behavior of individual humans (alone or as an individual in groups) and explains.

As empirical science of experiencing and holding back it is incumbent on thatPsychology thus, theories and from it derived models, hypotheses, acceptance for the answer of a concrete question etc. to examine with suitable scientific methods empirically. One is to a large extent therefore limited to scientific, quantitative methods in connection with experimental or quasi-experimentalProceed. Therefore mathematics, in particular the descriptive statistics, places the stochastics (v.a. the inductive statistics and the statistic test procedures), as well as increasingly also beginnings of the system theory (especially. mathematical systems analysis) one of the most important tools of the psychologist .

Little admitsit is that in the context of the psychological basic research, primarily in the general one and the bio psychology, in addition, e.g. in the clinical psychology, like in other natural sciences and the medicine, also in the psychology of bioassays to be accomplished. Already into the 1920erYears v.a. in the context of the learning research accomplished, they became a fundamental component of the aggression, stress and fear research, later also the depression research and the perception research. In particular with neuropsychological questions they were then again strengthened used (v.a. in the form of lesion experiments). Today becomeit primarily in research to the Psychoneuroendokrinologie and - immunologie, to the environmental psychology, to the nourishing psychology and e.g. also in the study of hurting behavior, v.a. but used in the craze research. Also psychological animal experiments are subject world-wide ethical standards.

Are methodical today beside thatscientific beginnings partly also such of the empirical social sciences (an emphasis setting varies also depending upon adjustment of a psychological specialist area). Prevailing also here quantitative methods are absolute, like probably naturally also qualitative methods to the repertoire belong (e.g. also Grounded Theory or content analysis); the separation between qualitative and quantitative social research is also not always clear then, why one in the psychology also rather between primarily scientific and primarily sociological methodical beginnings (then very often to the quantitative in possibly a kindand way also qualitative aspects contain) differentiates, although on sides of the purely quantitative methods a separation is not always clearly possible for sociological beginnings between nature and also there.

allocation to the different faculties

the binding of a psychologicalSpecialist area to a faculty (usually scientific, sociological or philosophical) in principle nothing by the way states over its adjustment (rather scientific or rather sociological). These tying up are usually historically and/or administratively justified. To that extent one can e.g.also no similar conclusions over the doctor degrees of a psychologist attained a doctorate pull; differently expressed: one knows a Dr.phil as a psychologist in the extreme. with a thesis in mathematical psychology attain and exactly the same in the extreme a Dr.rer.nat. with a qualitative-sociological work (e.g. upBasis of the Grounded Theory).

relationship of the psychology to the psychoanalysis

with equating of psychology and psychoanalysis, frequently which can be found in the public , and/or. the understanding of psychoanalysis as partial discipline of the psychology it concerns a popular mistake!Psychoanalyti ideas play in the development psychology, the social psychology and the educational psychology as well as the clinical psychology a certain role, however in historical context. The separation from psychology and psychoanalysis does not exclude naturally that many psychologists after the psychology studystill another complete psychoanalytische/deep-psychological training at appropriate Privatinstitut.

The psychoanalysis victory mouth Freuds as well as the theories of other representatives of a depth psychology such as Carl Gustav young or Alfred eagle play thus as mentioned in the today's psychology only a Nebenrolle,at most faculties the psychoanalysis is practically excluded (frequently only as an hour in the “history of the psychology” mediate). Already at times Freuds ran the development independently. Freud rezipierte at least publications William Wundts, the founder of the psychology,however obviously by them one did not affect. It had sketched accomplished observations its patients and mental, interpreting and interpretive processing of its personal impressions, its as a practicing physician from of personal, not with (usual) „methods “„theories “. These became then with same orsimilar interpreting, interpretive procedures of own impressions of Freuds pupils partially. in other (new) deep-psychological schools changes and develops further. The psychoanalysis (and/or. Depth psychology) with its schools is perhaps to earliest what one could describe or call one „spirit-scientific “psychology””(whereby one must mark that philosophy in general. likewise a critical-reserved attitude opposite the psychoanalysis takes, contrary to other Geisteswissenschaften, like e.g. the literature and culture science), in addition, the Pädagogik (especially. also Sozialpädagogik) and the sociology). ThoseOne finds psychoanalysis today primarily within the Psychosomati medicine.

„Flirt " to the psychology with the psychoanalysis took place only many later, in particular in the context of a possibility of having more strongly practical applications in the repertoire after this of thatPopulation inquired (one came thereupon also to the mechanism of first educating advisory boards). Above all deep-psychological beginnings were promoted then also briefly to the research paradigm. Some could - if at all the possibility for the scientific examination (necessity for the Falsifizierbarkeit of the theoretical acceptance) existed - inParts occupies and later into resuming models, e.g. cognitive psychology, integrates and further differentiated, or evenly also simply better or at least more economically (S.Ockhams razor) to be explained. At the same time also very much was empirically disproved (so also e.g. the neurosis teachings). Altogether the psychoanalysis for the psychology, as research paradigm was a little fruitful played it therefore fast no more role. On the application side deep-psychological beginnings were then replaced fast with scientifically secured and procedures developed from the empirical-psychological research. First throughof Carl the Rogers from empirical consulting, later also therapy evaluations client-centered beginning , in that central basic variables of the professional relations organization, as well as processes and effects of interventions developed out (especially. in the consultation with adaptation problems) and the Psychotherapie was scientifically secured.Later additionally the behaviour analysis and behavior therapy were supplemented, in which also theoretical bases were secured. The combination of client-centered and behavior-analytic beginnings, supplemental by modern cognitive strategies, forms today in the context of the diagnostics and intervention and almost in each application subject(thus also beyond a clinical beginning, e.g. also by behaviour analyses in the organization or cognitive Behaviorale training in the industrial psychology etc.) a fundamental practical method and jurisdiction of a psychologist.

scientific paradigms

gave and gives within the psychologymany beginnings (paradigms). The most important are the Behavioristi paradigm, the information-processing paradigm and evenly (historically) also the psychoanalytische/psychodynamische paradigm. Are likewise important the phenomenological/Humanisti paradigm, the characteristic paradigm, the dynamic-interactionistic paradigm and the Soziobiologi paradigm/ the evolutionary psychology (EP).

The evolutionary psychology represents a relatively young beginning. Evolution-psychological beginnings are today in almost all psychological disciplines and research fields, particularly in the development and social psychology. Here it is in the aggression and Altruismusforschung, the attractions research, inIt forms research to partnership, relations organization and love very influential and also in the organization/personnel psychology a theoretical basis, just like e.g. in the fear research.

These paradigms are thus no partial disciplines of the psychology (as for instance the general psychology), but everyone are a theoretical concept for the different partial disciplines and research programs of the psychology. These beginnings, which differ in basic assumptions and also in the methodology, are mentioned usually not explicitly, form however a very important basis for (correct) the understandingthe psychology, their theories and v.a. the psychological research results. Today usually different paradigms are equal within a psychological subject (a discipline) (so e.g. in the current personality-psychological research the information-processing paradigm, the characteristic paradigm and the dynamic-interactionistic paradigm). ThisOne should consider complexity of the psychology above all also regarding the individual disciplines: there are evenly within a discipline always different beginnings, under which an article range must be regarded, and/or. evenly a high methodologische flexibility, under the oneQuestion to be as optimally as possible scientific-methodically answered can.

Often also of psychological schools one speaks, which however not is correct. This term applies reliably to the deep-psychological schools and also to the therapy schools (e.g. partly for the Gesprächspsychotherapie (although sosurely so not in the sense of the “founder” Carl Rogers), for the Gestalt therapy up to that new Age - or other pseudoscientific forms). Schools are characterised by an ideological foundation , whose basic celebrations consist in the long run of dogmas. This stands howeverin absolute contradiction to an empirical science. To that extent the designation of “psychological schools” is not possible; also with applications of the clinical psychology, in particular the behavior therapy, the term of a school is in the above mentioned. Sense not correctly.

disciplines

onedifferentiates with respect to the psychology in general. between the basic disciplines and the applied psychology.

one

can differentiate basic disciplines within these disciplines still between such, which are also Fundus other basic fan, and such, the basal realizations with respect to specific contextssupply. To the first belong naturally the psychological method teachings, as well as the general psychology and the bio psychology (those are again among themselves strongly interlaced), to the latter social psychology, the development psychology and the personality and Differenzielle psychology. The newer organization (e.g. for) the general one and the biological psychology summarizes the Bachelor OF Science courses of studies under “cognitive ones and biological bases of the behavior and experiencing”, the personality, Differenzielle, social and development psychology under “bases intra and inter+personnel processes”.

  • The psychological method teachings are concerned with the entire rangethe equipment (“tool”) of psychological realization gain. It makes the existing Verfahrensfundus available for other disciplines of the psychology and is equally its own Forschungsgebiet with the goal of improving and of supplementing the method existence, approximately by self-developments (like e.g. the Metaanalyse)or also by adaptation of procedures from the catalogs of other sciences. Their contentwise spectrum of science theory and ethics over experimental methodology , evaluation research reaches up to subsidiary sciences with high value, v.a. Mathematics (especially. Stochastics) as well as computer science or special casesthe psychological method teachings like the mathematical psychology. Also the psychological diagnostics belonged in far parts (especially. Test theories, - construction and. - analysis) not to the practical course contents, but to the method subjects.
  • The biological psychology (also bio psychology), with different Unterdisziplinen like e.g. Physiological psychology, Psychophysiologie, Psychobiologie, neuro psychology or interdisciplinary subsections such as Psychoneuroimmunologie or Psychoneuroendokrinologie, dedicate themselves however to the physical functional areas, which affect behavior and experiencing (genetics, neural processes, v.a. Anatomy and physiology of the brain, sense physiology and Endokrinologie). It concerns itself together with the method teachings also with measuring procedure (physiological Verhaltenskorrelate, like e.g. Heart rate, blood pressure, electricaldermal activity, blood circulation status e.g. the face, electroencephalogram (EEG, brain stream), picture-giving procedures (CT, March, PET, SPECT,…), Muscle activity, as well asLaboratory parameter (especially. Concentration of different hormones etc. in urine, blood or saliva uvm.). Together with the general psychology and the method teachings also a formulating and a testing of mathematical models of biopsychological/neuropsychological theories and the examination wins of hypotheses over neural mechanismsby simulation of neuron models (artificial neural nets) at substantial meaning.
  • The development psychology examines the psychological transformation of humans of receipt-sneezes up to death (intraindividuelle changes, Ontogenese). Article ranges e.g. are. Factors of the development (plant, environment), Entwicklungsstufen, development thatPerception, the Psychomotorik, the cognitive authority, the memory, the language, the personality, etc.
  • The social psychology investigates the effects of social interactions on thoughts, feelings and behavior of the individual in the broadest sense („attempt ton and-purchased explain how on for and thought, feelingand behavior OF individuals acres influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence OF others “, all haven 1968). Article ranges e.g. are. social aspects of the perception (like person evaluation, prejudices, acceptance and conclusions over the behavior of other humans, among other things), social aspects of the emotion(e.g. also aggression), interpersonale attraction, pro-social behavior, attitudes, communication or also group process (minority influence, decision-making processes in groups, group thinking, obedience (see. in addition e.g. the Milgram experiment or the Stanford Prison experiment), group achievement, inter+'s group relations uvm.).

applied psychology

applied psychology does not mean against landläufiger opinion that now “practical tool” is only learned for areas of application. Rather the term means applied psychology that on basis of the basic disciplines now questions from areas of application are scientifically answered;it concerns thus also here primarily research. This leads naturally also to the fact that from this research then it develops new “technologies” (in the science-theoretical sense), and (increasingly in the frontier to the practical psychology) to be implemented and evaluated (e.g. Therapies, training measures,Measures for organizational development, choice of personnel procedure, quality assurance systems, measures for operation safety with control devices, procedures for the work analysis, cognitive-ergonomic Design of displays, analyses of buyer decisions and - preferences, software system to the decision and use analysis, decision-psychological-statistic model for the regulation of salaries of high-level personnel, procedures for the measurement of the enterprise image,System for the analysis and prognosis of the paragraph of products among other things). From view of the psychology it is completely unreasonable to regard Angwandte psychology detached from the basic disciplines to. Rather very much founded, scientific-research-oriented training in the bases is an indispensable condition forthe applied psychology. The practical psychology uses then concretely psychological technologies for problem solution, this happens (naturally) also through according to trained non--psychologists (e.g. Choice of personnel and psychological test diagnostics according to DIN 33430, execution of operational training measures by training course personnel, Psychoedukation by family doctors,Use of therapy manuals by medical Psychotherapeuten among other things).

  • Clinical psychology

the classical area of application (in Germany) is the clinical psychology, which the psychological Psychotherapie serves as basis. Primarily the clinical psychology is however basic research, in that it from the research ofto “supplies with disturbed” experiencing and holding back conclusions on “normal” psychological functional areas. Likewise it looks also in the framework of applied research for the causes and effect connections of disturbed functional areas (e.g. for disturbed data processing) and symptomatology investigates and in the connection also bases for emergence,Maintenance of psychological disturbances/psychiatric illnesses (like e.g. the depression). To it also the inclusion of external factors (biopsychosocial model) belongs. From the research results possibilities result of developing methods for change then again the research article thatClinical psychology are. To that extent the clinical psychology can beside the Psychotherapie also in the form of trainings (Psychoedukatives training, etc.), consultation and training of member etc. psychological assistance carry out. It overlaps here with diagnostics and intervention and/or. becomes by thesesupplemented. The general psychological diagnostics belongs (especially. Personality and achievement diagnostics) and naturally in the special one the clinical-psychological diagnostics (ICD, DSM) including finding and investigation likewise for the task range of the clinical psychology like evidence-based therapy planning, the therapy evaluation andthe quality management. In the professional experience, and/or. - reality must however be assumed for all these activities a permission is to that extent indispensable as Psychotherapeut (is questionable whether the clinical psychology also in the future in relation to other application subjects a dominating point of view inpractice will have). A special field of the clinical psychology is the clinical neuro psychology, which concerns itself klinsich psychologically with damage-referred conditions and changes of the central nervous system and the disturbed functional areas resulting in from it. A further subsection of the clinical psychology is those Health psychology, which concerns itself with social questions about effective prevention, health-favorable behavior (also regarding the psychological health) and the social factors of illness as well as stress.

the A&O or ABO psychologycovers the analysis of the work (in the broadest sense), the ergonomics, general psychological diagnostics and in special suitability diagnostics, choice of personnel, performance review, personal and organizational development, communication, Mediation, group processes, guidance, training, advertising, sales and market psychology and market study. ThoseOrganization psychology is most strongly with the psychological diagnostics, the social and the personality and Differenziellen psychology connected, the industrial psychology very strongly with the general one, especially. also the experimental psychology. The straight latter subsection experienced and experiences outside of of Germany a high-altitude flightand (contrary to Germany) internationally an enormous (the one which can be in the future hardly covered) job market potential places v.a. in industrie and service enterprise; especially. the ranges human Factors, Applied Cognitive and experimental Psychology place after prognoses in the USA in the next decadeone of the most strongly increasing markets at all. Need gives it at present v.a. within the ranges of the product development, there especially. with aspects (cognitive) of the ergonomics, in the work and operation safety, the error management, within the range of the crisis and risk managementand also generally in the analysis of decision-making processes, v.a. in the course of multidiscipline systematic error tracing, if from mathematics (especially. [Decision theory] and there also game theory)) developed economical systems are not applicable. There is further need within the ranges of the quality assurance and evaluation. The organization psychology is after its rapid boom in the 1980er and 1990er years already internationally on high level strengthened (in Germany however only on very low level, because here a strictly economical beginning v.a. also into thatRanges organization and personnel prevails, while this is limited abroad to a large extent to core ranges of the pure management; many of the activities implemented internationally by ABO psychologists besides in Germany traditionally also by technicians or engineers with REFA training are filled out). Thematically similarlyto the organization psychology is the applied social psychology.

  • Educational psychology

original important occupation field of psychologists was the educating consultation, whose advancements appeared in the educational psychology, from which also the school psychology developed. Whereby itself today the psychological educating consultation hardlyfrom the educational psychology, but rather from the diagnostics and intervention derives. The school psychologists see themselves also not more than educational psychologists, but their occupation rather at the same time than subrange both to the diagnostics and intervention and the clinical psychology (diagnostics, consultation,Training and therapy of pupils, parents and teachers, as well as teacher supervision), and the organization psychology (evaluation, achievement diagnostics, organizational development, training, school development, Mediation). Both disciplines, v.a. but the school psychology, provide today for psychologists in Germany (differently than e.g. inthe USA) an extremely small (and shrinking far) meaning and edge existence.

Further ranges of application of the psychology form among other things traffic, medium, on the right of, culture, Geronto, sport, environment, political psychology, etc.

With all ranges is those Diagnostics of central importance (no intervention without diagnosis!).

In principle also different designations are possible. E.G. such, which designate a research article and as subregion or prove main point of work or this over all disciplines concerning it away and in summary describe (e.g.Perception psychology, emotion psychology, among other things), or also such, which stresses underlying beginnings or special aspects of paradigms (e.g. Behavior psychology, evolutionary psychology, among other things). These rather range-specific designations (with appropriate thematischer bundling of different contents) are also frequently if it around onecomprehensive switching of specific contents and less around research and methodical connections goes, thus in particular if psychological knowledge in the framework from secondary or auxiliary subjects (e.g. not psychologsichen on specialist areas, in specialized higher education courses etc.) one mediates. Here also partially designations become above mentioned.Basic disciplines differently contentwise filled out, like e.g. General psychology as the general (first) overview giving introduction to the psychology (as in the proverbial 101 courses in the USA) or educational psychology as psychology for paedagogues.

terms thatPsychology

see also

to literature

Selection of text books

  • Amelang, M. & Bartussek, D. (2001). Differential psychology andPersonality research. Kohl hammer.ISBN 3170166417
  • Aronson, E. et al. (2003). Social psychology. Pearson study. ISBN 3827370841
  • Birbaumer, N. & Schmidt, R. F. (2005). Biological psychology. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3540254609
  • Bortz, J. (2004). Statistics for human and sociologists. Springer. ISBN 354021271X
  • Davison, G.C. & Neale, J. M. (2002). Clinical psychology. Weinheim: PVU.ISBN 3621274588
  • Dörner, Dietrich and. Selg, harsh ore (Hrsg.). Psychology - an introduction to their bases and application fields, 2. Edition, publishing house W. Kohl hammer, Stuttgart, Berlin, Cologne, 1996. ISBN 3-17-012266-5.
  • Felser,G. (2001). Advertising and consumer psychology, (2.Auflage). Heidelberg: Spectrum academic publishing house.ISBN 3791019449
  • Joachim Grabowski and. Elke van that sea (Hrsg.): Hilgards introduction to the psychology, of Rita L. Atkinson, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations C. Atkinson, Edward E. Smith and. A. Spectrum text book. 2001. ISBN 3-8274-0489-4
  • Lienert, G. & Raatz, And. (1998). Structure of test and test analysis. Weinheim: PVU. ISBN 3621274243
  • Wolfgang butcher (2001). Psychology - the development of their basic assumptions since introduction of the experiment. 6. Edition, Krammer: Vienna.
  • Myers, David G. Psychology. Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer,2005. 1029 S.ISBN of 3-540-21358-9
  • pupils, H. (2003). Text book organization psychology. Berne: Huber. ISBN 3456840195
  • Wickens, C. & Gordon, S. (1997). At Introduction ton of human Factors engineering. To Prentice resound. ISBN 0321012291
  • Oerter, R. & Montada, L. (2002). Development psychology. Weinheim: PVU. ISBN 3621274790
  • Pervin, L. et al. (2005). Personality theories. UTB. ISBN 3825280357
  • Zimbardo, Philip G.. Psychology, Pearson 2004. ISBN 3-827-37056-6
  • other literature
    • Dörner, Dietrich: The logic of failing. Strategic thinking in complex situations. Rowohlt. 1989. ISBN 3-499-19314-0
    • Gigerenzer, Gerd: The multiplication table of skepticism. Over correct handling numbers and risks. Berlin paperbacks publishing house (BTV). 2004. ISBN 3-8333-0041-8
  • psychology regards critically to regard (likewise critically!)
    • Jervis, Giovanni: Basic questions of the psychology. 2001. ISBN 3-8031-2415-8
    • Dawes, Robyn M.: House OF cards.Psychology and psychotherapy built on myth. 1994. ISBN 0-684-83091-4
    • swords, Rolf: Encyclopedia of the Psycho mistakes. Why humans do not therapieren themselves, to educate and affect leaves. 2004. ISBN 3492240208
    • Devereux, Georges: Fear and method in the behavior sciences. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp, 1998. ISBN 3518280619
    • Holzkamp, Klaus: Foundation of the psychology. 1985. ISBN 3593335727
    • Vinnai, Gerhard: Driving the criticism out from the science - psychology in the university enterprise. 1993. ISBN 3-593-34877-2 or free of charge on-line.

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technical periodicals

Wikiquote: Psychology - quotations
Wiktionary: Psychology - word origin, synonyms and translations
 

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