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as Psychomotorik (psyche: griech.: ψυχή = soul; Motorik:) designates one the interaction of psychological-mental-emotional experiencing and movement experiencing and/or. the Motorik of humans.

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the different schools of the Psychomotorik stressing the interaction of psychological experiencing of humans and/or. its psychological-mental-emotional development and the development of the Motorik and perception. The influences of the social and material environment on the structure are along-considered by psyche and Motorik.

The different schools and directions of the Psychomotorik differ primarily according to some of their basic assumptions over the emergence of impaired courses of motion and remarkable behavior. Their theoretical founding is partly different. The founders of the beginnings avail themselves for the Unterfütterung of their practical procedure of most diverse in each case psychological, educational, sociological and medical theory buildings. Thus for example of concepts of the psychoanalytischen and cognitive psychology suitable in each case elements are taken out and consulted for the reason.

The concepts of the Psychomotorik are also, with different emphasis setting, under the terms Bewegungspädagogik, movement therapy, Motopädagogik, Mototherapie, to psychomotor therapy etc. The Psychomotorik is both an educational as well as a therapeutic concept.

in the middle of the 1950er began

first developments of the Psychomotorik the development of the Psychomotorik in Germany years at Westfäli Institut for child and youth psychiatry and Heilpädagogik in Gütersloh by the diploma haven teacher Dr. Ernst J. Kiphard. He took over the term Psychomotorik of the German Rhythmikerin Charlotte pepper, which published 1938 a first essay with the title “psychomotor therapy” in the Italian exile living. Kiphard occupied with its psychomotor exercise treatment (in co-operation with E. Hecker and H. Hünnekens) practically, which up to then only pure theory was. The sport teacher had determined a positive effect of his sport offer on the emotional development of these in work for many years with behavior-remarkable, in particular relationship-disturbed and aggressive children and young people. He began to develop its movement offer systematically regarding this therapeutic and supporting effect on the clientele. The original concept of the psychomotor exercise treatment takes over theories and conception over the function and effect ways of the movement from the Leibeserziehung to Liselott Diem, the gymnastic movement, the sense and movement training after Jean Itard, Edouard Séguin and Maria Montessori and during the rhythmic education after Mimi Scheiblauer and Charlotte pepper as well as proportionately after Carl Orff.

Kiphard leads back motor and sensomotorische remarkablenesses with children with learning and behavior problems, on a minimum cerebrale Dysfunktion. The deficits within the range perception and movement, developing here, lead its opinion after to suctions. Secondary disturbances like motor unrest, hyperactivity, emotional instability, restrained and ängstlichem behavior, lack of motivation, as well as to disturbances in perseverance and concentration. Also the ability is generally impaired to an appropriate controlling of the own behavior thereby. Here he sees the indication for an employment of the psychomotor exercise treatment: By the motor manipulation and the argument with the own abilities and fears it is to come to a harmonization and a stabilization of the personality of the child.

Dr. Kiphard got 1957/58 a research contract, whose results were published 1960. As chair owner for Heilpädagogik and rehablitation at the university Frankfurt developed Kiphard further the concept of the Psychomotorik.

further developments

the psychomotor exercise treatment after Kiphard came particularly starting from center of the 1980er to years than too much medical-psychiatric and deficit-oriented concept into criticism. The consideration of the “childlike point of view” was demanded. New schools of the Psychomotorik developed as “child-centered beginning” after Renate room and “authority-oriented beginning” after Friedhelm Schilling.

“Beginning” (child-centered Mototherapie after Volkamer and rooms) child-centered exhibits parallels to not directives the play therapy after Virginia Axline , and gets its theoretical founding from the personality theory after Carl Rogers. It would like to offer a movement and a social driving area to the child over independently ways to the accomplishment of its emotional difficulties and its problems in the Bewegungsdausdruck to find. The self concept of the child is to be strengthened by looked for and hardly steered movement experiences. Central is here the fact that the child itself its own effectiveness and courses of action becomes conscious.

The authority-oriented beginning, which can be regarded as extension of the exercise treatment, is based on the acceptance that children with movement disturbances develop psychological difficulties, which are to serve this authority lacking in the movement behavior and ability for the compensation. The aggressiveness of a child then e.g. becomes. as compensation for a motor problem understood. Here the Psychomotorik is to serve for it the child area for the additional structure from movement authority to to give. From this-following failure ways can be given up by the child. Theoretical bases of the beginning are to be found among other things with the shape circle teachings Viktor of Weizsäckers and the materialistic theory of action Alexeij Leontjews as well as with Jean Piaget. Also the authority-oriented beginning is criticized frequently for its still deficit-oriented aspect.

Beginning of the 1990er years formulated Jürgen sea-forest the “understanding beginning” the Psychomotorik which substantially on the psychoanalytische understanding of humans supports itself. Further it refers with the basic assumptions of its beginning to the body-phenomenological aspect Maurice Merleau Ponty ´s. Sea-forest developed so-called “body and relations topics” of the child, on the basis those within the psychomotor therapy of problems and their origin with the child to be recognized are. Thereupon the paedagogue/therapist can make those for the child in the psychomotor Setting of movement and relations offers an additional processing and accomplishment of the problems to lead on a long-term basis. The body and relations topics are based among other things on the “theory of the Psychoszialen development” from Eric Erikson. Sea-forest beginning essentially relies on the aspect of relations.

Center of the 90's published Rolf Balgo and Reinhardt Voss their “systemic Psychomotorik”, based on the system theory, the radical constructionalism, the cybernetics 2. Order and the Autopoesis - concept. They requested to understand the psychomotor development of humans as adequate adjustment of the child on its respective material and above all social environment. Is therefore the child with mental and motor “remarkablenesses” “does not treat”, but the interhuman relations within those the child is.

classification of the Psychomotorik into the context of the Sonderpädagogik

the Sonderpädagogik understands itself as a subrange of the general Pädagogik. The clientele, with which them concern themselves, places however specific requirements, which require a special educational company.

Handicapped children and young people can problems within the ranges sensor technology, emotion, Motorik, communication and that cognition exhibit. Straight these fields can be affected with the help of educational measures positively.

The Psychomotorik can make an important contribution in this context both for movement education and to a positive development of the total personality of obstructions. With the intention, of obtaining social and specific competence it stands for the children I in conformity with the aim of the Sonderpädagogik.

Psychomotor remarkablenesses and the possibility of the development promotion were proven meanwhile with children of the different kinds of handicap (blind and Sehbehindertenpädagogik - see. Jug, F. - K.: Didactics for instruction with sehbehinderten pupils. Munich/Basel 2001. - , Erziehungssschwierigenpädagogik/Verhaltensbeeinträchtigtenpädagogik, Gehörlosenpädagogik, Geistigbehindertenpädagogik, Körperbehindertenpädagogik, Pädagogik der Lernförderung, Schwerhörigenpädagogik, Sprachbehindertenpädagogik).

used developments outside of Germany (selection)

Jean Ayres

Jean Ayres, an American Ergotherapeutin, which comes of the circle that to perzeptuell motor schools in the USA, essentially coined/shaped the scientific bases of the Psychomotorik. It developed the concept of the sensory integration (SI) into the 1960er years and extended with its research essentially the level of knowledge of the human Motorik and perception and in particular their effects one on the other. Among medical experts facts over anatomy and function of the movement apparatus and the perception already admitted extended them essentially by the realization of the effects one on the other and of among themselves existing dependence.

The theory means, all ranges of the central nervous system, which all information those the body over movement and perception (equilibrium; Depth sensitivity; tactile perception; visual perception; auditive perception etc.) keeps, integrating to cooperate must, around humans an understandable picture of itself and its environment to illustrate which it finished makes authorized to act. This is the process of the sensory integration. It is basis for all learning and behavior processes with humans and runs off unconsciously. The beginning assumes with its acceptance of a linear processing, if something is disturbed on the level of the sensory input also all following operational sequence must be concerned in their processing. With Ayres exercises serve the improvement of the sensory integration, the treatment goal for the adapted movement are the normalization and optimization of neural processes. Ayres developed the sensory integration therapy their bases particularly within the range of the Ergotherapie existence has, however also a scientific basis offers for the work of the Psychomotorik.

Berne pool of broadcasting corporations Aucouturier and André Bruno Lapierre

Aucouturier and Lapierre are representatives of so-called “psychomotor practice Aucouturier”, a deep-psychological, independent beginning of the Psychomotorik in France. In Germany in particular Marion Esser, which uses itself for a stronger spreading and conversion of the French school of the Psychomotorik, represents this beginning.

Aucouturier/Lapierre justify their concept on the theories of the psychoanalysis and put the focus their therapeutic efforts on the motor expression ability and the Sinnhaftigkeit of childlike acting. Acting the child here understood as Repräsentition of the other one and/or. its which the child in the other one experienced.

employment of the psychomotor therapy; Employment of Bewegungspädagogik

Psychomotorik becomes in the educational and therapeutic connection in particular - and historically coined/shaped - e.g. assigned in the child and youth psychiatry. Which “school” the Psychomotorik their employment finds here then essentially depends on the implementing specialist. Most PsychomotorikerInnen naturally connects the given beginnings and mixes psychiatric-medical diagnostics and proceeding with educational and deep-psychological around holistic at the child or the young people to near-happen and to it for assistance on a broad level to offer be able. A psychomotor therapy is paid in some Lands of the Federal Republic by the health insurance companies and accomplished in psychomotor practices. Furthermore associations offer Psychomotorik. Psychomotor elements are usually also within the work of PhysiotherapeutInnen, ErgotherapeutInnen and also from LogopädInnen. In the welfare-educational context the Psychomotorik finds traditional to employment in the work with children and young people, who have handicaps (mentally, mentally, physically) or are threatened by handicaps.

In the meantime it gives also in many kindergartens as well as within the school sport - organize or by a carrier of outside of accomplishing psychomotor offers.

Psychomotorik in the social context

in the social context becomes the topic movement within the childlike development ever more Meaning attributed. On the one hand there are in the meantime numerous development-psychological research results, which point the meaning out of the movement and perception for a stable earlychildlike development within the ranges Emotionalität, language development, social behavior and cognition. On the other hand social developments cause like increasing urbanization with a rising “Verinselung” from childhood, child poverty, medium consumption of children, nutrition etc. a restriction of the motion possibilities for children.

see also

to literature

  • Köckenberger, Helmut (Hrsg. 2004): Psychomotorik: Beginnings and fields of work. Publishing house modern learning: Dortmund ISBN of 3-8080-0501-7
  • rooms, Renate (2002): Manual of the Psychomotorik. Theory and practice of the psychomotor promotion. Publishing house Herder: Freiburg in mash gau. ISBN 3451-26621-0
  • Fischer, Klaus (2003): Introduction to the Psychomotorik. Reinhardt: Munich. ISBN 382522239 X
  • Balgo, Rolf (1998): Movement and perception as system. Systemic Konstruktivisti positions in the Psychomotorik. Motorik lines up volume 21: Schorndorf. ISBN 3-778070215
  • Lapierre, André; Aucouturier, Berne pool of broadcasting corporations (1998): The symbolism of the movement. Psychomotorik and childlike development. Reinhardt: Munich. ISBN 3-497-01444-3
  • Kiphard, Ernst J. (1995): Mototherapie part I. Publishing house modern learning: Dortmund. ISBN 3-808002263
  • Kiphard, Ernst J. (1994): Mototherapie part II. Publishing house modern learning: Dortmund. ISBN 3-808002271
  • Kiphard, Ernst J. (2001): Motopädagogik. Psychomotor development promotion. Publishing house modern learning: Dortmund. ISBN 3-8080-0486

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